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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Allen Mercedes

Anthropology

Professor Liddy

December 12 2019

Term Paper

Globalization and transculturation are seen in society as something positive but the negative aspects are often overlooked. For every good action there is always a short end of the stick. Globalization is one of the things that drastically impact situations that have happened around the world, with this being said the Caribbean countries stress the importance of the vulnerability of small States in the global system, specifically The Dominican Republic. These countries have paid particular attention to their exposure to the economic volatility that results from their high dependence on the export of goods, the enormous costs of changes in the environment and the impact they have, mainly on  Small Island developing countries. During the development process, the curse of smallness in terms of building competitiveness and the disastrous effects of natural disasters really hinder their opportunity of development. Globalization affects differently in places with little development.

Transculturation is also seen as something positive in the Caribbean but at the same time negative in the sense that the country's culture is being lost as it learns new things. The transculturation is seen a lot in the Caribbean countries such as Puerto Rico, the Dominican Republic and others. In the Dominican Republic you can see the  different mixture of cultures. Some are seen as: the Spanish, American, African culture and many more. Transculturation affects many aspects: the language, dance, music, food and clothing. There are countries that do not believe in transculturation and do not let their culture change. One of the Caribbean countries that did not let transculturation affect is Haiti, they were recognized as the first black country and still to this day their culture remains the same as oppose to The Dominican Republic who shares the same island as Haiti

Transculturation is, by nature, a renewing dynamism, it is constantly changing, some elements are replaced, while others take hold. In this 21st century, other elements are added to the process, much faster causing the spread of transculturation such as the use and abuse of the internet and social networks, which have modified human relationships, accelerated cultural exchanges and changed the dynamics of the diffusion and commercialization of art and culture. For this reason we consider it a negative process against which we must fight, confronting it. Due to the changes that have taken place in humanity, many of the things that make our culture unique nowadays have become some thing different in result of it being modified by the cultures of each country The Dominican Republic

The globalization of culture is a New Era in which we are told that we must strengthen our local cultural values, protect, conserve, revitalize our assets, tangible and intangible heritage values, favor climates of artistic creation in every corner of the country, so those that do not have access to an artistic education due to lack of opportunities that the social and political system placed on them. There are many schools of thought that believe that globalization transcends economic issues and embraces culture, example. As the relationship of forces between the more developed nations (such as the European or the United States) and the underdeveloped ones (such as Latin American or African ones) is extremely unequal, globalization without limits or controls favors cultural imperialism and economic domination, and attentive against the particular identity of each people. Among the arguments used by the personalities and organizations most critical of the aforementioned globalization are also the fact that this phenomenon favors privatization, increases competition, and overexploitation environment.

The Dominican Republic in context of the 21st century is facing a series of economic, political, cultural and social changes. From the political point of view, the Caribbean in the first decades of the 21st century experienced a political turn to the left, as many governments leaned towards social democratic ideologies or 21st century socialism. This has led to further fragmentation and polarization in the Latin American and Caribbean region, processes that have weakened their effective integration. From the economic point of view, Latin America and the Caribbean continue to be highly dependent on exports of raw materials and natural resources, but have sought to diversify their economic relations with other regions of the world.

From the cultural point of view, traditionally excluded groups have pressed for greater political weight and have sought institutional recognition of the multicultural status in their countries. In some countries, these groups have risen to important positions of political leadership. From the social point of view, there was some progress in reducing poverty and inequality during the years of economic growth prior to the economic crisis, but these advances were halted by it. In addition, Latin America remains the most unequal region in the world. All the previous processes came to be deepened by the international economic crisis of 2008/2009.

On the other hand, in the case of the economic crisis, Mexico, Central America and the Caribbean were the most affected because they maintain closer ties with the United States. The weight of The United States as a trading partner is considerable and these countries tend to expel more migrants to that country. The South American countries had to face different obstacles. Although these are countries are independent from the United States and have greater diversity of economic and commercial ties, these were affected by the decrease in volume and and the prices of its main export products as well as the slowdown in global economic activity.

This means that in general all countries the main economic impacts were the drop in export prices, the fall in gross domestic product, fall in the terms of trade, drop in remittances, difficulty in accessing credit , less investment and less development aid directed to the region, more economic protectionism in the countries that receive our exports and greater asymmetries between the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean. When I was in The Dominican Republic in 2009 I remember driving on the highway returning from the airport and not being able to believe all the poverty along the roads. Tin house made of thin, rusted metal. Homeless people flooding the streets, delinquency was very high, and the poverty was terrible.

Among its main social effects were a greater difficulty in reducing poverty, difficulties in achieving the millennium development goals in the agreed time, deepening inequality and increasing unemployment. Likewise, the process of social recovery will take longer than the economic recovery, the latter will not make it possible to recover the indexes that were held before the crisis.

This crisis was not of food availability, but of scarcity. Despite the fact that Dominican Republic  is a large producer and exporter of food, a significant proportion of the population was affected by the increase in the price of the main agricultural products (wheat, corn, rice, soybean) . International food prices increased by an average of 138% between 2000 and 2008. During 2006 and 2007 prices increased by 23.8% The greatest escalations took place between 2007 and June 2008, a period in which an increase of 40%. In mid-2008 prices started to fall, even though they remained at levels higher than in 2006 and seemed unlikely that prices will return to the levels of previous periods.

and the prices of its main export products and the slowdown in global economic activity.

Which means that in general in all countries the main economic impacts were the drop in export prices, the fall in gross domestic product, fall in the terms of trade, drop in remittances, difficulty in accessing credit , less investment and less development aid directed to the region, more economic protectionism in the countries that receive our exports and greater asymmetries between the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

Among its main social effects were a greater difficulty in reducing poverty, difficulties in achieving the millennium development goals in the agreed time, deepening inequality and increasing unemployment. Likewise, the process of social recovery will take longer than the economic recovery, the latter will not make it possible to recover the indexes that were held before the crisis.

 The energy crisis arises, mainly, due to the increase in the price of fuels and the lower availability of these resources. The increase in the price of energy had a significant impact on the rise in food prices because it has increased the costs of production and marketing. It has also stimulated the search for alternative energies. This intensification in the search and production of new sources of energy more friendly to the environment, as well as the "boom" of biofuels are not exempt from criticism, due to issues such as the misuse of soils and the use of food (especially corn) for the production of these new fuels.

Climate change is a problem that began to become aware some years ago. Already in 1992 the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change was held. This problem is serious and transcends sudden changes in temperature, rising sea levels and increased natural disasters. It is not only an environmental problem, but also a humanitarian and public health problem with multiple dimensions. Due to the increase in sea levels, changes in rain patterns and in the locations of deserts, lands for cultivation and forests; famines and diseases could occur, problems that increased the migrations of people from these environmentally devastated countries to the United States or Europe with all the socio-economic and socio-cultural implications of the case. Climate change has also been one of the main factors of the energy and food crises. globalization also assumes sociopolitical parts with the purpose of the state that imposes the prioritization of market dynamics, with the global impulse to political homogenization through the promotion of western democracy associated with it and with the development of civil society and of its growing transnationalization; communication with the transnationalization of communication through the various technological media that opens the computer revolution and the global diffusion of values ​​and messages and cultural with the homogenizing promotion of the values ​​of Western consumerism at the expense of expressions of identity and local values. In turn, the structural transformations of the international economic system within the framework of the globalization process, affect in a very particular way the economies and societies of the Caribbean Basin. Although this assertion must be qualified as there is a marked heterogeneity in the size, development and economic potential of the various Caribbean societies (particularly if we assume the regional definition of the Association of Caribbean States of the Greater Caribbean that includes Colombia, Mexico and Venezuela), we can establish some general trends in terms of the impact and the strategies consequently implemented in the region. In the context of the economies of the Greater Caribbean that, beyond size and economic potential, have been characterized basically by the exploitation of natural resources, agricultural production and the manufacture of semi-manufactured products with little added value within the framework of a limited diversification and the empire of the so-called "Dutch disease", the new challenges imposed by financial globalization, the technological revolution and the global productive restructuring generated a particular series of transformations associated with the process of structural adjustment.

Globalization has effects that can only be seen in places that are developing. The concept of globalization became popular at the beginning of this decade and refers to the growing economic interdependence between countries, characterized by greater volumes and varieties of transactions across borders in terms of goods and services, as well as capital flows and more diffusion generalized technology (IMF, World Economy Report, May 1997). In the Caribbean, much depends on agriculture. The country is globalized, agricultural production is affecting a little. The governments of developing countries are under increasing pressure to invest more in all educational levels to have a more prepared workforce capable of producing with sophisticated techniques, the only way to compete in an increasingly globalized world market. Globalization is a phenomenon that has its good and bad aspects. In the Caribbean the idea of ​​globalization and transculturation has grown. In a basic way, globalization and transculturation can be good for countries in the Caribbean. But in the long term it has several negatives. Globalization has more benefits for richer or more powerful countries such as the United States. The fear that the periphery will explode too easily. When it is good, globalization generates business for large companies (like Timberlands in the Dominican Republic). But it also entails ethical problems. Large companies can potentially take advantage of the locals of less wealthy and politically influential countries in the Caribbean. Although it is good for large companies to reach places that desperately need jobs and economic stimuli, certain ethical problems could arise as cases of unfair labor practices and poor working conditions, as in many free trade zones or sweatshops. There is also the problem that a culture like in the Caribbean is influenced by another culture. And that the country loses its identity because it is copying the other. Above all globalization and transculturation has its good and bad aspects, everything depends on the power that each country has or the power that each country has.

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