We would like to take the chance to acknowledge all the support we got and to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided us with the possibility to complete this report.
Starting with god almighty that gave us the strength and opened doors of success for us, then for our family members who never turned us down and always encouraged and motivated us, they are our inspiration.
Furthermore, we would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the project supervisor who provided us with all the necessary aid to make this project happen and was a great mentor throughout the term.
Last but not least, Reyami company owners and their employees for their cooperation having invested their full effort in guiding us in achieving our goal and for giving us the chance to make this project a success
Thank you all.
A safety management system is a systematic approach to managing safety, including organizational structures, accountabilities, policies and procedures, as SMS is scalable we tailored it to the size and complexity of our furniture manufacturing plant. Our project aims at developing a safety management system within a furniture manufacturing plant to further enhance their safety-related performance. The project displays the theoretical and practical aspects of a SMS in general depending on related universal safety standards while providing a summarized description of safety and its importance while focusing on SMS. The purpose of this work is to present a methodology for implementation Safety Management System leading to the improvement of manufacturing plant through the hazard elimination or risk control, workplace health improvement while ultimately increasing the productivity
Table of contents
Table of figures 5
CHAPTER1: INTRODUCTION 6
1.1 Background 6
1.2 Motivation: 8
1.3 Objectives: 8
1.4 Scope, limitations and constraints: 8
CHAPTER2: LITTRETURE REVIEW 9
CHAPTER3: COMPANY OVERVIEW 12
3.1 Mission 13
3.2 Vision 13
CHAPTER4: METHODOLGY 14
CHAPTER5: FUTURE WORKPLAN 28
Table of figures
Figure 1: Alreyami group logo 12
Safety is one of the most important concerns in any organization, whether it is deemed and considered profitable or non-profitable due to its vitality. All Organisations management carry the full responsibility for planning and implementing all necessary protective measures to properly and effectively safeguard all their employees and the properties they own from any sort of hazards they might face in the workplace. Safety is considered a necessity by the local and international laws, industrial regulations and practices (Joan 2017).
Safety is defined by the Center for Chemical Process Safety (1993) as ‘‘the protection of people and property from episodic and catastrophic incidents that may result from unplanned or unexpected deviations in process conditions''. Kim et al. (2002) defined Process Safety Management as ‘‘a scientific safety management system that requires submission of manufacturing process reports such as safety operation plan, installation plan, etc. in the case of new installation, transfer and/or modification of hazardous facilities for the prevention of serious accidents''.
A safety management system's goal is to minimize the causes of accidents to the ultimate minimum and in order to achieve such a straightforward goal an adequate evaluation of risk factors and causes is made in order to choose the necessary safety defenses to be implemented.
System Safety is the socio-technical concept and the system theory in support of SMS During the 1970–1990s, system safety techniques increasingly became a subject of safety management studies and contributed to initial efforts to establish SMSs (Collins and Dickson, 1989; Grose, 1971; Hammer, 1971; Holt, 1971; Lee et al., 1985; Pope, 1971; Weathers, 1982). System safety tools and techniques can be used to analyze, identify and display potential hazards and many unsafe behavioral activities.
A safety management system is a series of defined, organization-wide processes that provide for effective risk-based decision-making related to your daily business. SMS focuses on maximizing opportunities to continuously improve the overall safety of the aviation system.
Key processes of an SMS:
1. Hazard Identification – a method for identifying hazards related to your organization;
2. Occurrence Reporting – a process for the acquisition of safety data;
3. Risk Management – a standard approach for assessing risks and for applying risk controls;
4.Performance Measurement – management tools for analyzing whether the organization's safety goals are being achieved; and
5.Quality/Safety Assurance – processes based on quality management principles that support continuous improvement of the organization's safety performance.
SMS can benefit the organization by providing more informed decision-making; improves safety by reducing risk of accidents; provides for better resource allocation that will result in increased efficiencies and reduced costs; strengthens corporate culture; and demonstrates corporate due-diligence. There are key qualities for effective SMS in organization such as: a top-down commitment from management and a personal commitment from all employees to achieve safety performance goals; a clear roadmap of what the SMS is and what it is supposed to accomplish; an established practice of open communication throughout the organization that is comprehensive and transparent, and where necessary, non-punitive; and an organizational culture that continuously strives to improve. SMS always seeks to builds on existing processes; integrates with other management systems by tailoring a flexible regulatory framework to your organization; and integrates with other management systems by tailoring a flexible regulatory framework to your organization (Charles 2017).
A safety management system (SMS) is a tool that assists operators to systematically achieve and maintain standards for managing safety and health. It brings together the policies and procedures required to effectively mitigate the risks associated with the industries operations. An SMS allows the industries to demonstrate the effective management of health and safety on site to employees, contractors and others working, the regulator, an external organization when seeking certification and management when assessing the e systems against recognized industry standard and in order to maximize its effectiveness, the SMS needs to be an easily accessible and understood documented system (DMP 2017).
One of the main industries affected by the lack of proper safety management system is the furniture manufacturing industry. In this industry, workers are subjected to high noise and dust levels for prolonged periods of time while straining their muscles, bones, blood pressure and respiratory systems. This makes them subjected to high blood pressure, accidents, musculoskeletal diseases and much more which urges researchers to help by providing solutions to improve the general state of the industry by implementing an effective safety management system to eventually improve workers well-being and satisfaction.
1. To identify current gaps in safety performance within Al-Riyami Furniture Company by identifying hazards and assessing and reducing risk through developing a safety management system (SMS) in the company.
2. To predict the improvement in safety performance within the company as a result of the change in organizational safety practices after implementing SMS. This prediction will be done based on a questionnaire to be distributed to company executives and engineers.
1.4 Scope, limitations and constraints:
Safety management systems can be limited to some guarantees or some standards of insurance to the quality and toxic functions of an organization. It is used in order to ensure that the organization will do only what it is required to do and function accordingly. however, It is extremely important to know that SMS is relative as Eliminating all risk might be possible theoretically while practically might be hard to achieve considering that it would be extremely difficult to implement and very expensive. A safe situation is one where risks of injury or property damage are low and manageable and thus our project focuses on finding feasible inexpensive solutions and wishes to eventually increase both productivity and satisfaction.
CHAPTER2: LITTRETURE REVIEW
The establishment and implementation of a safety management system (SMS) is a key work health and safety requirement for furniture manufacturing companies. The SMS should be documented, easily understood, accessible to workers and form part of any overall management system that is in place at the manufactory. The SMS will be the manufactory's primary means of ensuring that the health and safety of workers and other persons is not put at risk from the work carried out as part of the operations. It should include an appropriate level of detail on how risks to health and safety will be managed having regard to the nature and complexity of the operations and the risks associated with those operations and thus a lot of studies were done on SMS in manufacturing industries (AIA 2018).
A study by Nicole and Daniel (2017) about the implementation of SMS faced three main challenges which were project management and leadership, competency profile, and project constraint and system limitation. The most frequently cited constraint was that the focus of SMS was too narrow (Champoux & Brun, 2003; Kogi, 2002; Yu & Hunt, 2002). The Results indicated that visible senior commitment, in terms of manpower and cost allocation, and competency of safety manager are key drivers for the SMS implementation. In the study, the reduced accident rates and accident costs, improved organization framework, and increased safety audit ratings were identified as core benefits of implementing the SMS. Meanwhile, factors such as insufficient resources, tight working schedule, and high labor turnover rate were the key challenges to the effective SMS implementation.
A study by Jegatheswaran et al. (2010) where they questioned 30 wooden furniture manufacturing factories stated that although there were four determinants of the prevailing safety climate in the work environment, it was the management responsibility and safety precautions that had the strongest influence on safety climate. Further, the primary health and safety concerns among workers in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry were the air-borne dust, noise, chemical exposure, materials handling and occupational accident and thus proving how essential it is for the management to show commitment towards health and safety and how important it is to incorporate safety precautions into the operational system, to ensure a safe working environment in the wooden furniture manufacturing industry.
Another study was done in a Brazilian furniture company in which a participatory intervention was done in order to improve both ergonomic and production outcomes, the study stated that Work enlargement and enrichment, and the improvements in workstation design and process flow increased worker satisfaction and reduced postural risk, fatigue, body pain and production waste. Workload was reduced by 42% and productivity increased by 46% it also stated that Workers' participation in the stages of problems identification, design and evaluation of solutions played a major role in these outcomes. This study indicated that it is possible to balance ergonomics and production demands. (Lia et al., 2015).
Studies on the rate of occupational accidents among workers in the wooden furniture industry is sparse, although the industry is deemed to be highly accident prone. In a study by Jegatheswaran et al. (2011), the rate of occupational accidents among workers in the wooden furniture industry in Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia and Vietnam was studied in 240 furniture manufacturing factories, using a structured questionnaire. The study suggested that contract workers are less prone to occupational accidents compared to their permanent counterparts, and hence, are more productive as contract workers have a more positive attitude towards the work, and hence, pick up the essentials of safe working practices quickly.
The safety climate within the wooden furniture industry is often perceived to be poor, Ratnasingam and McNulty (2009) have shown that the prevailing safety climate in the woodworking factory is dependent on the management as well as the systems put in place to improve the safety and health at the workplace. Therefore, it is not the nature of workforce rather the training and the work systems available that determines the safety and health levels of the workforce.
Another study by Dallam et al in 2006 gathered data by utilizing a methodology adapted from ``The Costs of Accidents at Work'' publication produced by the Health and Safety Executive, the study stated that total loss per year was £81,362 which equates to an approximate cost of £80 per worker employed, where 70% of the total costs were work-related ill-health, 29% of the costs were related to injury accidents and1% of costs were related to non-injury accidents. Their research identified that the majority of uninsured costs were attributed to work-related ill-health.
Thus, it can be concluded form the literature that furniture manufacturing industry has high risks in terms of employee's safety and that all furniture manufacturing plants should develop and implement SMS. Implementing such a system in any plant would minimise accidents, damage, injury and other health hazards, eventually saving on the high cost of accidents that hamper production and have tremendous negative effects on employee morale and the business overall environment. Implementing the system also would help in improving employee's satisfaction and their morale and lead to increases in productivity.
CHAPTER3: COMPANY OVERVIEW
Reyami group was founded in 1994, and has come a long way from a single office setup in Dubai, UAE. Today, the Group has its headquarters in Dubai, UAE and has spread its presence across the globe from Europe to China, doing business in a variety of sectors from urban development to leisure.
The commitment to quality has been consistent from the time Al Reyami was a 5-member team and the same commitment continues to guide the marketing and strategic management even today as an extended family of over 8000.
Al Reyami group believes that there are no short cuts to success and to being a leader in your chosen field. Al Reyami Group has adopted the path of hard work and discipline to ensure sustained growth. Backed by their focus on quality, this approach has generated remarkable dividends for the company. This has also reflected the healthy rate of growth recorded by each organisation within the Group. In a decade, Al Reyami has grown from a single office organisation to 30 companies spread over Dubai, Abu Dhabi, Sharjah, Ras Al Khaimah, India and China doing business in a variety of sectors from urban development to leisure.
• To be a global group trusted for quality and assurance
• Assurance is the foundation of every business. The sparkling achievements of the Group are the result of our vision focused on uncompromising quality and excellence.
• To be a responsive institution committed to building lasting customer relationships
• To build trust through excellence in every field of organizational growth
• To contribute to strengthening economic development
• To ensure every possible means of prosperity for each member of Al Reyami Group
Al Reyami furniture company located in Dubai is the company we worked with in this project, the company has a total of 300 workers supervised by a group of professional engineers working together to produce high quality furniture generating remarkable dividends for the company. The plant manufactures a variety of products including doors, tables, chairs, beds, cabinets, office desks, etc.
Based on the literature review and the conclusion that has been done, shows that safety management system is really important in every workplace. Thus, it can also tell us Al- Reyami company could have risks in terms of employee's safety and that all furniture manufacturing plants should develop and implement SMS.
The first stage is about interviewing five senior people in the plant about the existence of SMS and safety practices, achievements and problems experienced, by talking about these suggested ideas: 1-Safety risks associated with the use of hand tools and manual handling. 2-Questions about qousekeeping will be asked.
Implement the checklist given in Figure XXX to determine the existing state of safety in the plant.
Figure XXX: Workplace inspection checklist (reference):
Workplace Inspection Checklist
Entrances and Exits Yes No Not applicable comments
Are entrances and exits to and from work areas free from obstructions?
Are exit doors clearly marked?
Are exits and exit routes equipped with emergency lighting?
Walkways, Floors and Stairs Yes No Not applicable comments
Are stairs and walkways kept clear of boxes, equipment, cables and other obstacles?
Is the tread on stairs in good condition and adequate to minimize slipping?
Are stairs in a good state of repair?
Do stairs have anti-slip materials where warranted?
Are floors clear of slip and trip hazards, e.g., extension cords, torn carpet, uneven surfaces, cracks, holes, etc.?
Are walkways and stairs wide enough?
Are walkways adequately lit and clearly marked?
Storage Facilities Yes No Not applicable Comments
Are materials stored in bins whenever possible?
Is sufficient storage provided?
Are heavy items stored between mid-thigh and shoulder height?
Is there a safe means of accessing high shelves?
Is storage equipment in good condition and not overloaded?
Are shelf units properly attached to walls and are cabinets/cupboards stable?
Lighting, Ventilation and Temperature Yes No Not applicable Comments
Is general indoor air quality acceptable for the majority of occupants, i.e., temperature, humidity, air flow, etc.?
Is there adequate ventilation throughout the work area?
Are ventilation ducts kept clean and unobstructed?
Is emergency lighting adequate and regularly tested?
Equipment Yes No Not applicable Comments
Is equipment clean and working properly?
Are procedures for safely operating equipment accessible to staff?
Are there clear indications when equipment is switched on?
Are noises levels controlled and are hearing protection being used?
Do power tools conform to standards?
Are tools and machinery used so as to avoid electrical hazards?
Is proper training given in the safe use of tools and machinery?
Personal Protective Equipment Yes No Not applicable Comments
Is the requirement of use of protective equipment enforced?
Is personal protective equipment readily available for all personnel including visitors to the area?
Is PPE used only when it is not reasonably practicable to eliminate or control the hazardous substance or process by other means?
Are the areas requiring PPE usage properly identified by warning signs?
Elevating Devices Yes No Not aplicable Comments
Are they used?
Are elevating devices used only within their capacity?
Are capacities posted on equipment?
Are they regularly inspected, tested and maintained?
Forklifts Yes No Not applicable Comments
Are they used for lifting
Are forklift inspection forms current and maintained in a file?
Are load limits clearly posted in the area?
Are forklift operating rules clearly posted in the area?
Are employees avoiding heavy loads (splitting into smaller loads or asking for help)?
When lifting, do employees bend their knees to take pressure off their backs?
Are all operators trained and authorized?
Yes No Not applicable Comments
Are repetitive motion tasks properly paced and kept to a minimum?
Are the safety data sheets accessible to all employees?
Is ventilation equipment used? Is it working effectively?
Is the fume and dust collection hood used? Is it working effectively?
Emergency Procedures Yes No Not applicable Comments
Can emergency signals and alarms be clearly heard? And the lights are operational?
Are emergency exits clearly marked, easy to open and functional?
Has there been an evacuation drill in the last 12 months? Are evacuation drills reviewed and documented?
Are fire extinguishers easily identified and located?
Have fire extinguishers been inspected and tagged within the last six months?
Desks/Workstations Yes No Not applicable Comments
Are desks adjustable?
Is there enough space on each desk for the work required?
Is the height of desks appropriate for the main tasks performed?
Are items in constant use within easy reach?
Are waste bins emptied regularly?
Is there sufficient space around workstations to provide safe access?
Have staff been provided with information on how to optimize their workstation, where applicable? Provide comment:
Training Yes No Not applicable Comments
Are new employees provided safety training during employee orientation?
Are all personnel familiar with the emergency evacuation plan?
Is all training documentation current and accessible?
Paint Yes No Not Applicble Comment
Proper storage of flammable liquids?
Electrostatic spraying equipment complies with regulations?
Do workers understand potential hazards such as rashes, swelling. from short term skin contact?
Sensitization (skin or respiratory) to any future exposure from long term or massive exposure?
Wear recommended protective clothing that fully covers skin?
Wear gloves that resist specific paint ingredients?
Don't smoke in paint use or storage areas?
Wash up thoroughly before eating or smoking?
Do workers know first-aid procedures for hazardous exposure?
Move inhalation victim to fresh air immediately; give oxygen or artificial respiration, if needed?
Furthermore, few more measurements such as the noise sources, dust level will be taken into account.
Survey about worker's safety practices will be done.
The second stage will revise the results of the checklist and the interveiws that has been done in Al-Reyami company.
Based on the data that will be collected in SENIOR 2, a development method for the SMS will be suggested for the company from safety aspects measurements:
Suggestions for the hand tools and manual handlings will be given.
Suggestions for floors and housekeeping will be provided.
Elemination of noise sources.
wood dust will be minimized and controlled in ways that will be mintioned in SENIOR2.
Appropriate solutions for hazardous substances and dangerous goods.
Try achieve a brighter and a cleaner invironment.
Provide reasonabley personal protictive equipment.
Based on the information collected in stage 1, The safety management system is expected to have the elements bellow that will lead to continous improvements:
CHAPTER5: FUTURE WORKPLAN
The work that we have done this semester will help us in establishing our future work plan next semester. We will start by deeply studying the data which was collected and measured by interviewing five senior engineers in Al-Reyami Company, checklist and the taken measurements. The next step is the analysis and results, here we will analyze the data and we will conduct the development and discuss some of the possible causes that create safety risks and suggestions to reduce them. Finally, the result of our study will be discussed with Al-Reyami Company in order to help them recognize the safety hazards or risks and know it's causes and Also to help them in their future development plans and maybe to implement our study to other areas.
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