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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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The product I want to export to a foreign market is Clonakilty Black-pudding. There are many different cultural values that are important for this process to be effective. These values are not fixed but dynamic. Culture includes almost everything that influences thought processes and behaviours. Cultural change results from the increased need to find something different that will open more opportunities. When exporting such a product I will need to be able to understand the existing cultural values as well as any emerging cultural values which evolve slowly over time in the country I chose to export to which will be the United States. The marketing mix will differ due to cultural changes and in order to decide how much black-pudding the markets there will consume, I must consider other-orientated values, environment-orientated values and self-orientated values.

Other-orientated values are important as they reflect a society's view of the appropriate relationships between individuals and groups in society. When deciding to export my product to the U.S.A this value is important as it's a key factor differentiating cultures and heavily influences the self-concept of individuals. As the U.S.A is an individualist country this means that they're more innovative in their decisions to purchase a particular product. This would be important to consider when exporting as taking a more personal approach to advertising that focuses on individual characteristics such as “be the real you” could be something that could either make or break the product once exported and this could be tied in with their Irish heritage. Little regard is taken in this economy for celebrity endorsed advertising. However, just because celebrity endorsed advertising isn't successful in an individualist culture, luxury items thrive as they're a way for the people to stand out. The American culture is dominantly youth oriented and cultural values are known to evolve particularly among the younger generation. This means that tailoring this product more toward a younger audience would mean that children would demand their parents to buy these special sausages for them rather than just request them and parents in this society are more likely to respond to a demand by their child. Family is narrowly defined in the U.S.A so marketing this product to the family as a single unit would be less effective than in Israel. A competitive approach to advertising would be favoured in the U.S.A as their culture encourages comparative advertising by companies. As this market is one that values diversity this means that they are more likely to accept a wider variety of foods such as this traditional Irish Black-Pudding as well as other products and services.

Self-Oriented Values are also important to consider. When suggesting an advertising campaign, the sensual gratification differences between different cultures must be noted. Some cultures such as Muslims are very sensitive when it comes to things such as nudity where as Americans would have little regard to it. Although my product does not contain any sensually graphic images on its packaging, the openness of Americans compared to Muslims would allow me to place photographs of pigs on the front which would be a lot more appealing here than in a Muslim country. Americans focus a lot on symbols to the extent that if they saw a baby dressed in pink clothing they would assume it's a girl and this is relevant because if they saw a pig or a farm on the packaging on their sausages they are more likely to assume that it is an organic and natural product and less processed than anything else available to them. Money is a focus in many societies but I believe it in not the case in the U.S.A. Americans are driven by instrumental materialism which enables one to achieve something. They like to focus on the importance of obtaining something rather than obtaining it to solely demonstrate triumph. When conducting market research this is important as it shows me that money alone will not satisfy my American employees. They will require bonuses such as a company car that would give them cheaper transport as a result of working hard. Although this may rise the initial costs of exporting my product to America, as I will have more than a wage to may for each employer I will save money in the long run as employees will be satisfied in the workplace and work harder to produce the best quality sausages in order to gain rewards for their efforts.

It's my opinion that environment-oriented values are of less importance to my product than the two values I have discussed above when exporting the black-pudding to the U.S.A. Self-Oriented and Other-Oriented values divide up into many sub-categories and each of this will have an impact in the success of my product as I have outlined in this journal.

A recent family purchase in which I was involved was our summer holidays to Italy. I come from a family of five and it was very clear who formed each part of the decision process in selecting this destination. As travelling is one of my passions I was the initiator. Going on holidays is never on the top of our priority list, so when an opportunity arose, I could not resist but to bring it up. I suggested the idea to my father who had a huge influence in getting everyone to agree to go to Lake Garda, Italy. My younger brother and I were the information gatherers for the trip, planning what there was to do and where to go. We made the final decision together as it was something in which we were all going to use and take part in and my parents purchased the holiday as they have had the most expertise in going about this throughout our childhood.

A marketing strategy consists of decisions based on explicit consumer behaviour theory, assumptions and research that create a competitive advantage. After the marketer has picked its target market which in this case is the family, it then formulates its marketing strategy. The consumer decision process does interfere with the marketing mix and its outcomes. The primary outcome of a marketing strategy is the products position hopefully above that of its competitor. In order for the marketers holiday package to have competitive advantage it must consider value from the consumer's perspective. In recent times, the development of technology, flexible manufacturing  and customised media are enabling firms to target smaller segments such as the family. Designing an effective marketing strategy requires having a complete understanding of the potential customers. The Household Lifecycle is important here to marketers as it outlines the differences in the needs, wants and constraints unique in each stage of the cycle. The marketer must be able to analyse family decision-making within each of the firm's defined targets. (David Mothersbaugh)

The ability to fully understand the importance of meeting a customer's needs is essential for the survival of any firm. The hotel we were looking at had to have something to offer that satisfied all the family needs. By assessing all aspects of the firm such as general managerial skills, advertising abilities and new product development, this can be achieved. It must be understood that the economy, the physical environment and technological regulations all impact a customer's needs and expectations.

By combining the four elements of the marketing mix, the marketer meets the customer's needs and provides customer value. The product in my case is a hotel in Italy. The next thing important for a marketer to consider is promotion. With whom the marketer decides to communicate with determines the type of hotel they will select. My family would fit into the category of Full Nest 1 so it's important that the advertising campaign of the marketer encompasses young children (Tamiya King 2018). Using children and activities such as water parks in these campaigns were definitely something that stood out for my family as my younger siblings were more than willing to go to a location that was full of action and adventure.

As there was five of us going on this holiday, that ultimately meant that it was going to be expensive. As well as looking for a good quality hotel, we also wanted to find a reasonably priced one to reflect this. It is important for the marketer to consider this in their marketing strategy as setting a price requires a thorough understanding of the symbolic role it plays for the target market. If things such as a half or full board package were included in the price of the hotel, this would provide customer value as the non-included but associated costs, such as breakfast would be reduced.

Placing the product where the target market can easily purchase it, is detrimental to its success. If the process is too long and complicate to purchase, then consumers will not buy it. The marketer must come up with the most suitable distribution channel that will most effectively reach its target market. For example, by having advertisements of a particular hotel on the television would be the most suitable between five and seven o clock when families are usually watching television together after work or school.

Some of the marketing tactics a marketer could use as I've outlined above to influence my family's purchase decision for our trip to Italy is offering a good quality hotel which is reasonably priced and has something appealing for all of us.

Q1. A group to which I belong is my group of friends. As I have a strong social ties with this particular group the influences are a lot more intimate than the ones I experience with my co-workers. With this group I experience both direct and indirect communication. Informational influence is strong in our group of friends due to our high degree of similarity.

i) I have decided to change my gym attire from Nike to Gymshark. This is because my friend group has become big into fitness within the past few years whereas I am only beginning to get into it. They believe that this brand is the only thing to wear in the gym. They believe that it is much more comfortable and longer lasting than anything else. I had never heard of this brand until I saw my friends using it and asked them about it. They were able to provide me with all the positives and negatives of Gymshark compared to its competitor Nike.

ii) My group exerted identification influence on me in the same purchase I made above. I did not purchase this for a reward or sanction but because I share the same values as my friends. Once they had identified this product as the most suitable gym wear I followed suit. I trust my friends and I value their input on things, so if they believe that Gymshark is the way to go, I am going to try it out for myself.

iii) My friends had a normative influence on me when I opted out of buying a pair of dungarees when they came back into fashion a few years ago. I knew that by wearing these with my group I would be teased and maybe even labelled as the odd one out. That is not something that appeals to me. As I am very close with them I do value them more when it comes to giving their opinions on fashion as my fashion sense is not always the best.

Q2. We are all opinion leaders in my group but it depends on the product in question as to who it is. If we take the purchase of a car, Sarah would be the opinion leader in this situation because she is a credible source of information. Her father sells cars so this means that she is very knowledgeable and enduringly involved with this type of product as she grew up around cars. She is able to provide us with an informal source of information about the cars and as we trust her we value her opinion. If I was on the market for a Mini Cooper for example, Sarah would be able to inform me of all of positives and negatives of this car compared to those of a Citroën as she would have access to expert advice from her father. Sarah would be more familiar with Citroën's than Mini's as this is her father's dealership so this would cause Sarah to try harder to persuade us that the Citroen is the better buy. By sharing her own personal advice with us as a close friend we are more likely to listen to her than to a sales man as we know Sarah and her personality and she would want us to get the best deal so we would be happy with the purchase and not force a car on us that we are not sure about for the sake of a sale.

A shop in which I have recently been in and one which has successfully managed to attract and hold my attention is Boots. Boots market is customers with credible value proposition. Boots primary ability in holding its consumer is its variety. It is both a leading health expert and beauty retailer. This is ideal for busy families who can obtain a variety of products in one shop reducing wasting time traveling to different stores and making it overall, a less stressful experience for the consumer. The main elements of Boots that enable them to hold the likes of me as a consumer is the effective use of their decompression zone and the overall layout of the store, the uniformity of the staff, loyalty cards and music.

Layout

When you first enter a shop, especially if you are in a hurry or running from the rain it has been proven that you do not absorb the first few things in which you come into contact with. Boots have designed this zone in a way that subconsciously transports its consumers from a distracted mind set to a much c calmer state of mind. It has been designed in such a way that it gives the consumer a “vista view” of the store which grounds them in their overall shopping experience. Before they push big promotions on you, they give you the right amount of personal space so that you are not overwhelmed. They have large white square tiles, and white walls. This is a technique used to create a bigger space and as white is a positive colour it creates good images in the consumers sub consciousness. It also avoids colour clashes with their products. Layout is something that drives a purchase response. By creating the exact same layout in all the stores nationwide, consumers feel safe and they know where things are. I believe this is important when holding consumer attention as if you are in a rush you are more likely to run to a store you feel comfortable with and know where items are and hence you are more likely to pick up more things than you had intended to in the first place. By aligning their store design decisions with operational ease, Boots promote their long-term sustainability and survival. Boots have the ability to control the environment in order to make it a good experience for its consumers. 80% of subconscious shopping decisions are influenced by the shops layout.

Uniformity

When staff wear a uniform, this brings about an element of uniformity. First impressions are important so appearances are essential. When the staff of Boots wear their uniform's, they look reliable and trustworthy. This is important especially when dealing with pharmaceuticals as you will only buy these from someone you trust. By wearing uniforms with the company logo, this reinforces the brand image in the minds of the consumer. The colour of the uniform is white and this reinforces the positive image that they try to create throughout the store.

Loyalty Cards

A loyalty card is of equal importance to the consumer and the retailer. Boots use these to reward their consumers for shopping with them by building up points that they can use towards their next shop. I feel this is a very good marketing strategy, as this persuades the consumer to shop in Boots over its competitor. For the retailer, this is a goldmine of information that provides them with the information they need to adequately stock their shelves with the things that their consumers want the most and not waste money and time on unused products. This in turn has a positive effect on the consumer as if every time they go into Boots and they have if not all, the majority of the items they want, they will have a good shopping experience and will want to revisit that particular shop.

Music

It has been proven that the slower the music in a shop, the slower consumers walk and purchases can increase by up to 38%. Any unpleasant sounds in a shop such as the air conditioning vent can stop a consumer from spending. By choosing modern music that calms and relaxes the consumer, Boots again creates a positive image in their minds and this can hold their attention.

Through Boot's effective use of their store layout, use of loyalty cards, the uniformity of their staff and their modern choice of music they are able to successfully attract and hold consumer attention by creating a positive image in their minds that motivates them to choose Boots over any other pharmaceutical company.

Journal 5 – Word Count: 545

Suppose you wanted to change attitudes amongst college students towards binge drinking. Show what strategies you would use to change the following aspects of their attitudes:

In this question I am going to discuss how the affective, cognitive and behavioural components of attitudes could be used to change binge drinking among young people.

(i) Affective Component

An attitude is a predictor of our individual behaviour. The affective side of an attitude encompasses our emotions and feelings towards a specific item. The purchasing of alcohol is a low involvement purchase and hence it is based around our 5 senses. To change the affective aspect of young people's attitudes towards binge drinking would involve coming up with a strategy that targets each of the 5 senses. For low involvement purchases such as alcohol, how we feel towards the product is the most important. A strategy that would have a negative emotional effect on the youth of today might be one effective way to change the affective aspect of their attitudes. The effect an advertisement has on young people that has sufficient and repeated exposure would play a significant role in helping to reduce their attitudes towards binge drinking by arousing a negative affect among people. By placing this type of advert on all popular social media platforms, it would help reduce the current positive image that surrounds binge drinking among young people. Media campaigns are known to increase the effectiveness of enforcement efforts.

(ii) Cognitive Component

 The cognitive component of people's attitudes is very difficult to change and usually works well for high involvement products. The belief of an individual must be changed in order to change this aspect of an attitude. As people's thoughts towards alcohol is not all that negative, this might be hard to implement without first focusing on the affective component as a favourable attitude demands either a motive or a need prior to being changed into an action. The overall ideal of the benefits of binge drinking needs to be altered and an alternative set of beliefs must be taken to its outcome. Marketers should try and shift the ideal of binge drinking to drinking smaller amounts in moderation and hence cause a very unhealthy habit to become less damaging to our health.

(iii) Behavioural Component

This component encompasses any behavioural intentions with respect to an overall objective. As alcohol is a low involvement purchase, changing this component would ideally be done through providing free samples or coupons for a healthier alternative to alcohol. By reducing the availability of alcohol in places such as on campus, this could see a significant reduction in reducing alcohol problems in the long run as it won't be easily accessible to students. If the alternative is also made cheaper than the price of alcohol, and things such as pints for €3 on a Wednesday were abolished, this would also encourage the students who are not well off to opt for the cheaper and healthier option. The current attitude among young adults is that they are motivated to drink at dangerous levels not through ignorance but through the well-calculated belief that the pleasures and social benefits of voluntary risk-taking will outweigh the negative consequences (Maertinic M & Measham F. 2008).

As all three components of attitudes are interlinked, this will not change unless the attitudes towards alcohol will be changed in all three components. The actual behaviours of young people in relation to binge drinking has been measured by direct questioning and the results found are shocking. In Australia, the National Drug Strategy Survey (2007) conducted found that young people between 18 and 24 have the riskiest drink patterns in the short run.

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