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2. Conceptual framework

Summaries eMarketing, Stokes,5th edition

Chapter 2 Digital marketing strategy:

When a company wants to use marketing, the marketing strategy starts with understanding what the company would like to achieve, or which kind of problem the company wants to solve. After that the company looks at the context in which the company and their competitors operate. The company also comes up with ideas in which the company and the brand can gain advantage an add value to the outcome.

Digital marketing is a new phenomenon in the marketing world. The internet has changed the world a lot in ways we sell our products and services. The internet is not a new channel in terms of marketing, instead the internet creates a new way in which potential customers connect with brands and other potential customers. The complete possibility of marketing is practiced on the internet. The promotion, purchases, positioning, distribution and service of products and services is done on the internet. Internet enables potential customers with more possibilities in products, more influences on businesses and more power on the market.

When company's want to understand the environment, an analysis has to be done. Company and brand environment are analysed by political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental factors (PESTLE analysis). These factors are considered, so the best analysis can be done in determining the strategy.

There are a lot of branding levels to consider when businesses want to understand the branding:


Your competitors are not just the businesses who are trying to take over your customers their money, but they are also competitors when they try to get attention by your customers. When looking for companies who are your competitors you should also consider some other products to potential replace your product.

When you are able to do research it will help the company to draw a picture on which method or feature are a need for the customers. In this way it is easier to get more attention by customers. One very good example is the customers journey when buying a product or service.

Digital marketing strategy depends on the changes of values of digital marketing undergo, while looking at opportunities and challenges offered by the internet. Your digital marketing strategy always should be repeatable and developing.

Businesses determine the structure of their marketing by what is the brand offering, what is the brand unique selling point and marketing of the brand.

Businesses do that by using the four p's:

- Product (or services)

The internet makes it possible for companies to sell a wide variety of products, such as clothing and laptops. The way in which the customer experiences researching and purchasing the product can be seen as a part of a product that a brand offers.

- Price

There are a few websites on the internet who compare prices for certain products or services and recommend the lowest price to the potential customers.

- Placement (or distribution)

Companies can make their products and services visible on the internet, with media such as a website, Instagram page etc. This is a way how companies can reach the whole market because everyone has access to the internet.

- Promotion

Online promotion is an addition to the offline marketing, but has a few differences. Online promotion is trackable, measurable and targeted in a better way. Promotion is not only advertising and connecting with customers. On the internet it is necessary to engage, collaborate and participate in conversations.

- The new P: people

This factor is researching the human factor that the internet has. Personalization, peer-to-peer sharing, communities and consumer centric organization that allow people to enter the brand story.

The business and brand strategy consist of the value of the brand that is measurable in terms of equity. How aware are people of the brand? Does it hold positive associations and perceived value? How loyal are people to the brand?

A marketing strategy has as goal to name a company or brand challenge or objective that has been given. When you make well informed decisions about how the brand, product or service has to be promoted you have an effective strategy as a marketing team.

The factors which affects businesses are:

- The environment

- The business

- The customers

- The competitors

To get an idea about your business and market and SWOT analysis has to be done. When you conduct this analysis you always need to have a goal in mind. You have to analyse the external problems of the business and how you can learn from those problems to handle internal weaknesses. The SWOT analysis is part of situational analysis and identifies the key issues that determines the marketing strategy.

A company has to follow certain steps to create and implement a strategy that will meets its marketing objectives:

- Context

To create a successful marketing strategy, the first step is to research the context of the organization and various stakeholders

- Value exchange

When the market is researched, the second step is to research the value proposition or promise. You need to find out what the company's unique selling point is, what makes the product or the brand special.

- Objectives

Objectives are really important for the marketing, because without them your strategy has no goal or direction. Objectives need to be SMART (specific, measurable, attainable, realistic and time bound

Tactics are specific tools or approaches that can be used to reach a certain objective.

Key performance indicators are the specific metrics or pieces of data that will be seen to determine if tactics are performing well and can meet the objectives. Targets are the specific values that are set for key performance indicators to reach within a specific time period.

Every tactic has his own strength, such as gaining new customers may best be driven by search activity, while email is one of the best tools to use for selling more products to loyal customers.

It is very important to optimize the company's online digital marketing strategy, because everyone is developing and getting better and better. If you do not optimize together with your competitors, you will lose customers to your competitors.

Chapter 4 Content marketing strategy:

Content marketing is a certain team, which focuses on matching information and entertainment to the needs of the customer at every stage of the buying cycle or the journey of the customer.

Kristina Halvorson suggests that the model below is for approaching the different areas of the company's content marketing strategy



Content components:

- Substance: who are you trying to reach, and why?

- Structure: where is your content? How is it organized? How do people find your content?

People components:

- Workflow: How does your content happen?

- Governance: Politics, guidelines and standards.

A company's brand essence is sentence which sums up unique attributes of a brand and the basis of its emotional connection with customers. The brand essence is very useful to ensure that created content and marketing activity represents the brand appropriately.

Personas are profiles that a writer creates to represent the characteristics of a certain target audience for the person that he or she is writing for. Personas can assist a company to apply segmentation and understanding the target market and It is a framework which guides a company in creating content.

Areas of focus that support the creation of content that match to the customer's interest is called Content pillars

When you are a content marketer your job is to select the right medium where you can achieve and measure the overall objectives, production capabilities and the needs of the audience.

Brand as publisher refers to the repositioning the function of the marketer or brand manager. You rather need to focus on direct sales or conversion, a publisher has to focus on the value interest for the readers, building relationships based on supplying information or entertainment that fits the needs of the customers.

A lot of companies need to have a person in a central role who can see the big picture. Whether you are outsourcing to a publishing house or training team in house, The decision must be made and planned for so that workflow can be mapped in order to facilitate strategic needs.

When companies are always engaging with customers, which makes social media a good medium. If you engage a lot companies are able to build and maintain relationships with readers and customers.

The structure of content teams should be based on the company's requirements and objectives.

Two approaches of content models are:

- Stock and flow: stock content refers to bigger and beautiful assets that need more investments and age. Which means that they will be interested for six months as well as today.

- Destination and distributed thinking: it can be useful to consider which content can be sent to the world by several platforms and networks, or which pulls the reader towards a page on the website or an article on the blog.

When you understand your channels it is much easier to reach your customers. Mobile marketing, email marketing, social media and video marketing are a few disciplines that will form a part of your content creation.

Brand style guides: this document guides anyone creating for a brand at any time. It can be a challenging document to put together, and the content marketer is usually not the person who makes this document. But it is necessary to support brand communications. One of the great challenges in content marketing is providing content that is truly interesting and engaging to the right people - the right mix of subject matter and brand. Consider that the goal is not to create as much as possible, rather it is focus on relevance and content that matches strategic outcomes.

Content calendars are there to assist the content marketer in planning the content they will be sharing across which platforms and when this will happen.

Workflow map are documents that path a piece of content takes when it is created.

The persona map helps content creators to focus on people who are creating content and what the motivation of customers is.

Content marketing has a few advantages and challenges. Content marketing can position your brand as an expert through sharing of useful content in a specific area. Content marketing enables to reach customers who has a fragmented attention span across many devices and content touchpoints.

Chapter 18 Data analytics:

Data analytics is monitoring user behaviour and marketing campaign performance over a period of time. Marketing campaign performance is the most important thing, because there is not much value in looking at a single point of data, when you want to look at trends and changes over a period of time.

Big data are enormous data sets. The one that are so big and heavy that they require specialised software and massive computers to process. Companies like Google, Facebook and YouTube generate and collect so much data every day that they have entire warehouses of hard drives to store all the hard drives.

To understand how things, work and how to think about data some valuable lessons for analysts, which are:

- Measure trends, not absolute figures

When you have more data the research e.

- Focus on patterns

look at the trends weekly, monthly or over a season

- Investigate anomalies

When your expected pattern changes, try to find out why, and use the information to inform your actions on what to do next.

Data mining is the process of finding patterns that are hidden in large numbers and databases. It is less important to have a human analyst to process the information, automated computer program will pull apart the data and compares it to known patterns to deliver insights. So you can discover surprising and unexpected results and you will probably break assumptions which were made at the beginning.

Another thing to keep in mind is that data can be found and assembled from a variety of sources. Try to gather as wide a variety of information as you can.

Some places to look are:

- Online data

Look at other platforms your audience engages with you online such as social media, email forums and more.

- Databases

Look at any databases that can save any relevant customer information like your contact database, CRM information or loyalty programs. s

- Software data

Data might also be assembled by certain kinds of software. If you produce software, you need to think about adding a data gathered features, so you can use this information for the future.

- App store data

App store analytics enables businesses to monitor and analyse the way how people download apps.

- Offline data

Data anywhere else besides the internet

 When a business designs specific, unique and clearly defined objectives, the businesses will probably be a success.

The objective of the company is associated with the strategic outcomes of the business. The object answers the question, what do we want to achieve with this marketing campaign?

The goal of a company in web analytics relates to an action that a user takes on a website or type of user behaviour that a customer has. Goals are based on objectives; goals answer the question. What do we need users to do in order to achieve our objective?

Key performance indicators are metrics that are used to decide whether objectives are being met. Key performance indicator relate closely to goals and answers the question: what data do we need to look at to see if goals are being completed?

Targets are the actual target values that key performance indicators need to reach in order for the process to have success.  a website has an goal, the process of achieving that goal can be broken down into several steps. These are called events or micro conversions. Analysing each step in the process is called funnel analysis or path analysis and is critical to understanding where problems in the conversion process may lie.

When you have decided your objectives, goals and KPI, you need to track the data that will help you analyse how you are performing, and will indicate how you can optimise your website or campaign.

There are two main approaches and one optional approach for collecting web analytics data, these are:

- Cookie based tracking:

cookie based tracking has a few steps. The analyst adds a page tag to every page of the website. A user accesses the page using their browser. When the browser loads the page, it runs the page tag code. this tag sends an array of information to a third party server, a server that stores and collates date. The analyst accesses this data by logging in to the third party server.

- Server based tracking:

Server based tracking involves looking at log files, documents that are automatically created by servers and that record all clicks that take place on the server. Server based tracking is very useful for tracking mobile visitors and.

- Universal analytics

Universal analytics enables you to track visitors instead of just sessions on your webpage.  When you have determined a unique identifier, universal analytics defines tracking the customer their full journey with your products

A metric is a defined unit of measurement. Web analytics metrics are divided into:

- Counts: raw figures that are used to analyse.

- Ratios: understandings of the data that is counted on the website.

Metrics can be applied to three different groups:

- Aggregate: All the traffic on the website during a certain period of time

- Segmented: A subset of all the traffic on the website filtered by a certain filter.

- Individual: what an individual does on the website.

The most basic web metrics are:

- Hit: every time someone looks at a webpage on the website.

- Page: content of the page.

- Page views: how many times someone looked at a certain page.

- Visit or session: an engagement with an individual person with a website which has one or more page views within a certain period of time

- Unique visitors: the number of individual people visiting the website one or more times within a certain period of time

- New visitors

- Returning visitor

The metrics which tells you how your visitors reach your website and how they move through your website are:

- Entry page: the first page of website the visitor visits.

- Landing page: the page that is meant to be the beginning of the user experience resulting from a defined marketing effort.

- Exit page: the last page that the visitor visits.

- Visit duration: the time the visitor spends on the website.

- Referrer: the URL that is given to a certain page.

- Click through: how many times a link was clicked by a visitor on the website.

- Click through rate: how many times a link was clicked divided by the number of times it was seen on the website by the visitors.

- Page views per visit

The metrics which tells you how visitors react to your content:

- Page exit ratio: how many times a visitor exits a page on the website divided by the total number of page views of that page

- Single page visits: a visitor visits only one page, even if that page was viewed a number of times.

- Bounces: visits which have only a single page view.

- Bounce rate: single page view visits by visitors divided by entry pages

Metrics which give insight into whether you are achieving your analytics goals:

- Event: is a recorded action that has certain time period assigned to it by the browser or the server.

- Conversion: a visitor completing a targeted action on the website.

User experience and technologies are:

- Device category: if the visit on the website came from a desktop, mobile or tablet device.

- Mobile device info: the certain brand and kind of the mobile device.

- Mobile input selector: the main input method for the device.

- Operating system: the OS that the device runs on.

The three pronged approaches by Avinash Kaushik to web analytics are:

- Analysing behaviour data infers the intent of a website visitors. Why are people visiting this website?

- Analysing outcomes metrics shows many visitors performed actions on a website. Are visitors completing the goals we want them to?

- A wide range of data tells us about the user experience. What are the patterns of user behaviour? How can we influence them so that we achieve our objectives? (Avinash Kaushik)

Some methods to measure the intent of your visitors include:

- Click density analysis: a heat map to see where people are clicking on the site

- Segmentation: selecting a smaller group of visitors to analyse, based on the same characteristics. so you can see if particular types of visitors behave different.

- Behaviour and content metrics: analysing data regarding behaviour of people can give a lot insight into how engaging and valuable your website is.

people who visit your website, you want them to perform an action that increases revenue. You look which part can be improved. Look at user experience to determine how outcomes can be influenced.

 Segmentation is how we can characterise groups of users and analyse metrics for each group.

you need a web analytics tool for gathering data, some are free and some are paid. Tracking, analysing and optimising is very important for the success of all marketing efforts. Testing variables are important to success, results always need to be statistically analysed and marketers make decisions based on numbers.

Chapter 19 conversion optimisation

The best place to test your email marketing is with subject lines. A split test helps you to determine which version of a subject line improves open rate. you can test your call to action copy to see how you can improve click through rate with an email.

There are a lot conversion points you can test using advertising. You can test to see how different adverts can improve click through rate, or you can test to see how different adverts affect the conversion rate of the traffic coming to your website.

When you broadcast and deliver messages via social media, you should test your messages which performs the best. you will be testing to see how you increase engagement, whether that is replying to messages, liking Facebook posts, retweeting posts shared on twitter, or clicking through on links shared.

A landing page is the first page a visitor sees on a website. There are many things that you can test on landing page such as:

- Heading: different headings can make your visitors react in a different way.

- Copy: style, tone, layout, font size and length of copy can be tested,

- Call to action: different calls to action could increase reactions.

- Colour: test the different colour of buttons.

- Images: different images can have different reactions.

- Offer: you can also test different types of offers on a landing page or word the same offer differently. So you can see the different reactions


With Ecommerce you can test on a website:

- Images: images of different sizes, or entirely different image content, could make a big difference.

- Call to action: add to cart or buy now may affect shopper behaviour.

- Shipping information: test to see if shipping costs before checkout affects the volume of customers starting the checkout process.

- Credibility information: do secure shopping badges affect conversion rate.

The checkout process is really important to test. Often an online purchase takes place over several screens or steps.

In order to do successful designing tests, you need to know what you can test, how you can test, and what sort of time periods you are looking at for testing.

When we speak about conversion rate optimisation, we mean to run split tests.  A split test is on where we show different versions of the web page to groups of users and determine which one performs better. Two other tests are:

- A/B tests: different version of tests are being tested.

- Multivariate tests: a number of elements on a page are tested to determine which combination gives the best result.

The factors to determine which test and how long it is going to take are:

- Number of participants

- Change in conversion rate

- Number of variations

The basic approach to conversion optimisation is:

- Gather data:

- Analyse data

- Fix anything that is broken

- Design test

- Run tests

- Report and repeat

Online, conversion optimisation counts on the ability to record what version of a test a web visitor can see, and whether the visitor changed.


Stokes. (n.d.). Emarketing 5th edition.

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