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GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL

 UNIVERSITY

 Chandkheda, Ahmedabad

  Affiliated

D. A. Degree Engineering

&

Technology

     A

Project Report On

“Mechanical Characterization Of Hybrid Fiber”

   Under subject of

     PROJECT II

   B. E, Semester – VIII

    (Mechanical Branch)

Submitted by:

 Group:

Name

    Enrollment  No

Darji Mohanish .M

151183119006

Mahida Jaydeepsinh .M

151183119015

Rana Parth .K

151183119045

Patel Jigar .R

151183119522

    (Faculty Guide)   (Head of the Department)   Mr. Kaushik Parmar    Mr. Jigar Soni

   

    Academic year   (2018-2019)

INDEX

SR No. CONTENT PAGE No.

01 CERTIFICATES

02 ABSTRACT

03 INTRODUCTION

04 LITERATURE REVIEW

05 EXPERIMENTAL WORK

06 PPR

07 BMC

08 PDE

09 PLAGERISM REPORT

10 FINAL CERTIFICATE

11 REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

Our team consisting of four members; Darji Mohanish .M (151183119006) , Mahida Jaydeepsinh .M  (151183119015) ,  Rana Parth .K  (151183119045) , Patel Jigar .R (151183119522) . We are being guided and supported by Mr. KAUSHIK PARMAR. We find a mechanical characterization of fiber plate in transvers direction and also we compare our data with other research paper.

ABSTRACT

In this experiment to compare various speciments in transverse and longitudinal direction.

In this experimental work we are study about mechanical characterization of transverse oriented hybrid composite in which speciments are cut as per ASTM standards & experiment completed on UTM ( Universal Testing Machine ).

Specimen was cut from the fabricated laminate according to the ASTM standards for different experiments for TENSILE test & FLEXURAL test.

This high performance hybrid composite material has extensive engineering applications such as transport industry , aeronautics , naval , automotive industries.

We make a hybrid fiber plates according to different direction like transverse and longitudinal.

We take a 30-70% & 40-60% ratio of fiber and resin. By using this ratio make two plates.

LITERATURE REVIEW

 RESEARCHER :-

  Renuka Patel

 Author, ME(design) G.S.Moze College of engineering of Mechanical Engineering, Pune University.

 Dr F.B.Sayyed

 Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Department Engineering, GSMCOE, Savitribai Phule Pune University.

 ABSTRACT :-

  World is now focusing on natural resources as a substitute for conventional one. Natural fibers composites are preferred because of the said advantages i.e. to increase the strength, to optimize the weight and the cost of the product fibers from the natural sources. There are certain advantages of natural over synthetic reinforcement materials such as low cost, low density, non-toxicity, comparable strength, and minimum waste disposal problems. In this project, banana and glass fiber reinforced polyester composites are prepared and the mechanical properties of these composites are tested. The composite samples with different fiber volume fractions were prepared by using the hand lay-up process and pressure is applied uniformly. The prepared samples were subjected to the mechanical testing such as tensile, flexural loading.

 PROPERTIES:-

    PROPERTIES  BANANA FIBER  GLASS FIBER

Tensile strength (MPa)  60–75   3450 – 4590

Density (g/cm3)  1.35   2.52

Elongation at break (%)  1.73   1.38

 RESULTS :-

  TENSILE TEST

Specimen

   No. Weight

Fraction

  ( F/R ) Tensile

Strength

 ( MPa ) Elastic

Modulus

(MPa ) Max.

Load

  ( N )

   01  30/70   99.5  3320  6470

   02  40/60   127  3520 10200

 FLEXURAL TEST

   

Specimen

   No. Weight

Fraction

  ( F/R ) Flexural

Strength

(MPa ) Flexural

Modulus

(MPa ) Break.

Load

( N )

   01  30/70  70  2025   212

   02  40/60   135  6360   357

 CONCLUSION :-

 The composite can be regarded as a useful light weight engineering material and also the manufacturing cost of the composite can be reduced considerably by adding banana fiber hybridized with glass fiber to the matrix.

 The Maximum Tensile Strength is 241 MPa of the (15/35)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibres and minimum is 99.5 MPa for (20/10)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibers.

 The Maximum Flexural Strength is 151 MPa of the (15/35)%weight fraction of banana/glass fibres and minimum is 80MPa for (10/20)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibers.

 From the experimental work the Tensile Strength is increase with increase the weight fraction of the fibers loading and also increases the Flexural Strength with increase the weight fraction of the fibers loading.  

EXPERIMENTAL WORK

 It is well known that over the past few decades, polymers have replaced many conventional materials in various applications, which is obviously due to the advantages of polymers over conventionalmaterials (Georgopoulos, Tarantili, Avgerinos, Andreopoulos, & Koukios, 2005). Polymers can be modified by the use of fillers and reinforcing fibers to suit the high strength/high modulus requirements. Fiber-reinforced polymers offer additional options over other conventional materials when specific properties are required and find applications in diverse fields, ranging from appliances to spacecraft (Nabi Saheb & Jog, 1999).Natural fiber is a reinforcement which has recently attracted the attention of researchers because of its advantages over the other established materials. In this context, banana fiber reinforced composites have recently gained importance. Banana fibers are mainly used for lightweight composites and green composites in agricultural industries. These composites can also be used for door panels, room partitions, wall cladding, food packaging, home appliances, automotive parts, building and construction, and electrical housing. Banana fibers are a waste product of banana cultivation, are easily available, and may be reinforced in thermosets and thermoplastics. In this paper some experimental investigations on banana fiber & glass fiber reinforced composites could offer some interesting results. This paper reports the fabrication of hybrid composites with different weight fraction of reinforcement and with different weight percentage of different fibres and then on these specimen different tests were conducted according to ASTM standard .With these tests mechanical properties of HFREC were evaluated.

 SPECIMEN PREPARATION METHOD :-

The moulds have been prepared with dimensions of 300 x 300 x 4 mm3. The banana fiber layer of different weight has been mixed with matrix mixture with their respective values by simple mechanical stirring and mixture is slowly poured in different moulds, keeping the characterization standards and view on testing condition. The releasing agent has been use on mould sheet which is easy for composites removal from the mould after curing the composites. A sliding scale has been used to remove the trapped air from the uncured composite and mould has been pressed hard till the constant thickness is achieved. It is kept pressed at constant pressure for nearly 20 hours.

 FLOW CHART :-

 MATERIAL COLLECTION :-

BANANA FIBER GLASS FIBER   RESIN

 

    HARDNER

 BANANA FIBER collected from VALSAD.

 GLASS FIBER collected from ANAND.

 RESIN collected from ANAND.

 RESIN collected from ANAND.

 PREPERATION METHOD :-

 Hand Lap Method

1. Prepare banana fiber layers.

2. Prepare glass fiber layers.

3. Prepare fibers layers by layers.

4. Prepare a fiber plate using resin.

   

5. Applying force on plate by using press machine.

   

6. Finally Fiber Plate

   

 TESTING OF THE COMPOSITE :-

 Testing of fiber plates are performed in UTM (UNIVERSAL TESTING MACHINE).

 There are two tests perform in this experiment: Tensile Test & Flexural Test.

1)  TENSILE TEST :-

 The fabricated hybrid composite is cut using grinding cutter to get the dimension of the specimen for tensile testing as per ASTM: D3039 standards. The test is carried out on tensometer.

 The test was carried out using a tensometer at a room temperature. The load versus displacement graph wasrecorded when the test is started. It is continued until it undergoes fracture. Specimen was placed in the grip of the machine.

 The actual gauge length was 150 mm. The graph is plotted for 0degree orientation.

    

 FLEXURAL TEST :-

 In this test, it is three point bending test.The specimen to be is subjected to breakage or until its fracture. Load is applied along the midway of the span.

 This test determines the behaviour of the specimen when it is subjected to simple beam loading. Flexural test determines the maximum stress induced in the outer most fibre. This test is carried out according to ASTM D790 standards.

 When a beam of homogeneous, elastic material is tested in flexure as a beam simply supported at two points and loaded in midpoint, the maximum stress at the outer surface occurs at mid span.

    

 TESTING PARAMETERS :-

     TESTING PARAMETERS

 PLATE 7

     TENSILE STRENGTH

     15mm*238mm*4mm

   TRANSVERSE DIRECTION      LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION

TENSILE STRENGTH

    (MPa) ELONGATION

    (%) TENSILE STRENGTH

    (MPa) ELONGATION

    (%)

 4.414 0.6030   137.9  3.447

     FLEXURAL STRENGTH

      12mm*120mm*4mm

   TRANSVERSE DIRECTION     LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION

FLEXURAL STRENGTH

   (MPa)  STRAIN

   (%) FLEXURAL STRENGTH

   (MPa)  STRAIN

   (%)

  18.0  1.69   154  5.03  

      TESTING PARAMETERS

 PLATE 8

     TENSILE STRENGTH

     15mm*238mm*4mm

   TRANSVERSE DIRECTION     LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION

TENSILE STRENGTH

    (MPa) ELONGATION

    (%) TENSILE STRENGTH

    (MPa) ELONGATION

    (%)

6.510  0.8351   123.8   3.406  

     FLEXURAL STRENGTH

      12mm*120mm*4mm

   TRANSVERSE DIRECTION     LONGITUDINAL DIRECTION

FLEXURAL STRENGTH

   (MPa)  STRAIN

   (%) FLEXURAL STRENGTH

   (MPa)  STRAIN

   (%)

  18.7  2.17  72.2  3.99

 PLATE 7 TENSILE STRENGTH IN TRANVERSE

 PLATE 7 TENSILE STRENGTH IN LONGITUDINAL

 PLATE 7 FLEXURAL STRENGTH IN TRANVERSE

 PLATE 7 FLEXURAL STRENGTH IN LONGITUDINAL

 PLATE 8 TENSILE STRENGTH IN TRANVERSE

 PLATE 8 TENSILE STRENGTH IN LONGITUDINAL

 PLATE 8 FLEXURAL STRENGTH IN TRANVERSE

 PLATE 8 FLEXURAL STRENGTH IN LONGITUDINAL

 RESULT CONCLUSION :-

 The Maximum Tensile Strength is 241 MPa of the (15/35)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibres and minimum is 99.5 MPa for (20/10)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibers.

 The Maximum Flexural Strength is 151 MPa of the (15/35)%weight fraction of banana/glass fibres and minimum is 80MPa for (10/20)% weight fraction of banana/glass fibers.

FUTURE WORK

 In future we improve a strength of fiber by using different methods and also we take a different weight fraction of fiber and resin.

 In future work we try to find best fiber composite for use easily and it is cheapest in price.

PERIODIC PROGRESS REPORT

 PPR-1

 PPR-2

 PPR-3

 PPR-4

BUSINESS MODEL CANVAS

 Business model canvas has been introduce to make a good product out of the students final year project to help the society & increase manufacturing industries in INDIA .One can also make a patent from their project.

 Business model canvas is a strategic management and lean startup template for developing new or documenting existing business models. It is a visual chart with elements describing a firm's or product's value proposition, infrastructure, customers, and finances.

 CONTENTS OF BMC:-

1) KEY PARTNERS

2) KEY ACTIVITIES

3) VALUE PROPOSITION

4) KEY RESOURCES

5) CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP

6) CUSTOMER SEGMENTS

7) CHANNEL

8) COST STRUCTURE

9) REVENUE STREAM

 CANVAS :-

1) KEY PARTNERS :-

 Fiber Suppliers

 Manufacturer Of Plate

 Distributers

2) KEY ACTIVITIES :-

 Home

 Factory

 Shop

 Industries

3) VALUE PROPOSITION :-

 Mechanical Characterization Of Compisite Fiber

 Tensile Strength

 Flexural Strength

4) KEY RESOURCES :-

 Resin

 Glass Fiber

 Banana Fiber

 Press Machine

5) CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP :-

 Banner

 Presentation

 Live Demo

 Online Marketing

6) CUSTOMER SEGMENTS :-

 Various Industries

 Automobile Sector

7) CHANNEL :-

 Social Sites

 Personal Site

 Sample Send To Distributer

8) COST STRUCTURE :-

 Material Cost

 Manufacturing Cost

 Advertising Cost

9) REVENUE STREAM :-

 Usage Fee

 Subscription Fees

PDE

PLAGARISM REPORT

References

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