Purpose - The purpose of this study is to further investigate the consumption of pre-loved luxury goods; identifying the values attached to pre-loved luxury goods in the paradigm of fashion ready-to-wear. Previous research mainly focused on the first-hand consumption of luxury fashion goods, hence the need to further research the emergence of markets in the middle east for pre-loved luxury goods in particular luxury read-to-wear.
Design/methodology/approach – Data for this study will be generated through surveys and interviews with candidates who have previously experienced the consumption of brand new luxury ready to wear and pre-loved ready to wear.
Originality/Value – this study highlights a novel perspective to discussions on the marketing of luxury brands through linking the pre-loved and luxury consumption in the Middle East region. This study will suggest managerial implications for luxury brand marketers.
The idea of consuming pre-loved fashion is gaining greater recognition around the world, with the emergence of pre-loved fashion website in the middle east in 2011, it is worth researching and taking a closer look at the pre-loved environment. The concept of pre-loved fashion symbolizes the circulation of fashion goods through selling, gifting or donating.
Trading pre-loved ready to wear unveil a long history dating back to the year of 1700 (Ginsburg 1980). Add more history.
Over the years the recognition and acceptance of the consumption of preloved ready to wear has grown. For instance, the increase in the number of consumers who are seeking sustainability and more willing to recycle and reuse materials such as clothing (Appelgren & Bohlin 2014; Peattie 2010). The phenomena of being more sustainable have led to the increase of pre-loved trade all over the globe in various forms of vintage shops, not for profit charity shops, antique shops, thrift shops and online pre-loved platforms (Appelgren & Bohlin 2014).
Purpose of this research
Having visited offline and online pre-loved stores, there has been a reflection upon the motivations and obstacles towards pre-loved consumption. Also, through observing the different types of consumers, questions arose especially in regards to the driving forces and the affective impact.
This research will focus on pre-loved luxury brands' ready to wear. The purpose is to research the consumption when it comes to pre-loved consumption of luxury brands ready to wear. This study will focus on the motivations and moderating elements that surface when consumers are encountered with pre-loved ready to wear. Through further investigating the motivations; new aspects towards pre-loved consumption of ready to wear is expected to complement already existing discoveries, recognize changes and add deeper perception. Although there has been a lot of studies on the motivations of consumers towards pre-loved clothes, there are still some parts that have not received sufficient consideration. One of these parts is the moderators… (Add more)
In addition to the concept of pre loved fashion specifically ready to wear is rather novel in the middle east due to the idea that the pieces have previously been worn by someone else.
Utilitarian and Hedonic Values
Consumers seek value when shopping; some may find utilitarian value which is perceived as a functional and tangible motivation (Solomon, Bamossy & Askegaard 1999; Hirschman & Holbrook 1982; Babin, Darden & Griffin 1994), which is subsequent for pursuing an actual outcome of desiring a certain thing (Babin, Darden & Griffin 1994).
Reasons for buying ready to wear
Since this study is focusing on pre-loved ready to wear, it is correspondingly useful to examine the concept of why individuals purchase ready to wear to in general. The literature in this section will highlight various elements that would justify the motivations for buying ready to wear. Those elements influencing the motivations for buying ready to wear can be divided into five categories; physiological, social-cultural, personal, psychological and rational (Azvedo et al 2009). Subject to the category those influences can be anything from friends and family, work environment, geographical location, culture and norms, occupation and lifestyle, personality,..etc (Azvedo et al 2009). All those elements may influence and stimulate the purchase of specific ready to wear pieces as clothing represents individual's identity in the society (Kaiser, chandler and Hammidi 2001 cited by Tiggemann and lacey 2009). Therefore, consumption of luxury ready to wear might be due to the desire to demonstrate status, class, masculinity, and religion or to express affection to brands, certain lifestyle or even to show individuality and personality (Azvedo et al 2009).
For instance, it has been suggested that the connection between clothing and body image, triggers the motivation to shop for ready to wear (Tiggemann and Lacey 2009). Clothing has the ability to impact self confidence (Tiggemann and Lacey 2009), cognition and psychological processing ( Galinsky and Hajo 2012).
Whereas, ready to wear consumption can also be linked to fashion in the sense that it unveils particular values (Azvedo et al 2009). Fashion could be a specific style that is currently trendy and desired by many which consequently impacts the consumer behavior (Midgley and Wills 1979 cited in Evans 1989).
Fashion is considered a way of self-expression and a definer of identity but since fashion is also continually shifting, it is also considered a way to alter ones identity and perception (Gonzalez 2007 cited in Ekstrom and Salomonson 2014).
Fashion allows individuals to prompt their emotions and mindsets; it provides affirmation for individuality as well as confirmation of being part of a society or a culture (Azvedo et al. 2009; Evans 1989). Based on the previous notion, it is possible to presume that emotions is an essential element in the construction of fashion therefore, shopping for fashionable or luxury ready to wear is developed due to desire and pleasure and not due to need; making hedonic benefits a core motive when it comes to shopping for ready to wear (Azvedo et al 2009).
When selecting and consuming ready to wear, individuals base their decision making on the impact that those pieces have on their physical appearance as well as how they make them feel about heir appearance (Tatzel 1982). Clothing helps individuals illustrate certain traits while enhancing their physical appearance, social status and the perception of their personality by others around them (Tatzel 1982,…..). Tatzel (1982) indicated that consumer behavior towards consumption is based on motivation and skills; for example needs, income, emotions, and society.
Pre-loved Ready to Wear
Pre-loved items can be acquired through various channels; from business to costumer, or directly from customer to customer.
When it comes to businesses that are focused on selling pre loved they can either be physical stores or online stores and they can be categorized under charity stores, vintage and antique stores, thrift stores or simply pre-loved stores. Those businesses can either be for profit or not for profit, however this research will focus on stores that sell pre-loved ready to wear for profit.
Preloved items even ready to wear, can be divided into different categories. On one hand there are the undesired pieces that are simply disposable while on the other hand there are pieces that withstand great value and price. However there is also the in-between which represents pieces that are purchased due to external and internal factors such as prestige, needs and budget (Appelgren and Bohlin 2014).
Pre-loved ready to wear can be used to describe pieces of clothing that have previously been used and worn regardless of when the piece was created and purchased and for how long it was used for (Cervellon, carey and harms 2012). Nevertheless, depending on when the piece was created, it will determine whether the piece is to be considered as vintage even if it has never been worn (Mortara and Ironico 2011).
Cervellon et al (2012), stated that fashion pieces created before 1980 are considered vintage and any pieces created before 1920 are antique. Furthermore, retro is another type, which is similar to vintage yet, focuses on identity (Appelgren and Bohlin 2014). Those pieces that are considered vintage and antique provide nostalgic feelings and uniqueness hence why some pieces are high in value (Cervellon et al 2012, Appelgren and Bohlin 2014, Mortata and Ironico 2011).
The consumption of Pre-loved
After furthering explaining the idea of pre-loved in general, it is essential to review existing theories about the motivations influencing the consumption of pre-loved goods and ready to wear.
Income and prices
Research has suggested that motivations for shopping are usually due to either utilitarian or hedonic factors, similarly research on pre-loved consumption has suggested that hedonic motivations influence the consumption of pre-loved goods. Since the 90's, researchers have tried to justify the social and cultural importance of flea market, highlighting that there are both hedonic and utilitarian significance, because attendees to those markets enjoy searching for items, negotiating final prices and socializing with others who share the same love of pre-loved items (Sherry 1990, Stone, Horne and Hibbert 1996).
Personal ideologies/ critical motives
Ideal self: social comparison-shopping
Ideal self: critical motives: environmental motives
Critical motives: distance from the system
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