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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Position: Data Scientist – Social Media

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in Computer Science, Math, Engineering, or Statistics

Typical Starting Salary: $100,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $85,000-170,000

Locations:

Big Data Science companies are concentrated heavily in Silicon Valley (including San Jose, Santa Clara, Los Gatos, and San Francisco), but can also be found internationally such as in Paris, Tel Aviv, Shanghai, and other major international cities.

Companies:

• Google

• Facebook

• Twitter

• Snapchat

• Pinterest

• VaynerMedia

• Instagram

• Reddit

• Twitch

• YouTube

Job Description:

• Present and communicate insights about how users are interacting with the product and recommendations about how to improve the user experience the product to the management

• Work with other data engineers and data scientists to plan, build, and optimize the data modeling process

• Provide technical leadership and guidance to advertisers (paying clients) of the platform on how to best strategize their marketing strategy based on insights from the company's data

How statistics is used: Data Scientists in social media perform data mining and statistical analyses to find how factors including but not limited to age, gender, race, political views, and geographic location, affect the frequency and ways that customers use social media. This may involve performing t-tests and ANOVA tests to discover relationships between different variables. They then present this data and propose ways to improve the product for both platform users and advertisers.

Position: Materials Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in materials engineering, chemistry, or materials science

Typical Starting Salary: $66,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $54,000-104,000

Locations:

Materials engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as New York, Seattle, San Francisco, and Boston.

Companies:

• Alcan

• Carbide Processors

• IncoAlloys

• MagnaPlate

• Dofasco

• Corning

• Dynamet

• Satec

• Delsen Labs

• Buffalo Tungsten

Job Description:

• Use simulations and modeling to predict chemical and physical properties of new materials.

• Formulate new materials in the lab and test for different chemical and physical properties (such as improved tensile strength, different color, etc.)

• Work with other teams at company to evaluate which materials to pursue further development for

How statistics is used: Materials engineers have to consider the properties of different elements and materials when creating new alloys or other materials, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to conduct appropriate analyses. Then, for quality control, they need to do statistical tests to ensure the consistency of the material being produced.

Position: Actuary - Insurance

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in actuarial studies, statistics, or mathematics

Typical Starting Salary: $72,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $54,000-140,000

Locations:

There are many insurance companies located in New York, San Francisco, Charlotte (NC), Bridgeport (CT), and Lake County (IL). There are also many opportunities in other major cities like Seattle, London, and Paris.

Companies:

• Allstate

• Geico

• BlueCross BlueShield

• Aetna

• ING Group

• MetLife

• State Farm

• Mutual of Omaha

• Humana

• WellPoint

Job Description:

• Architect studies to gather data about the circumstances that prompt people to make a claim on insurance, then conduct the actuarial research and use conclusions to influence the company's policies

• Develop methodologies to set prices and policy values, based on risks, the policyholder's health/behavior, and other relevant factors

• Determine probabilities of sickness, death, and other events that the insurance may cover based on historical data

How statistics is used: Actuaries use both current and historical data to analyze the probability that a person or organization will make a claim on a certain insurance policy. Based on this data, actuaries set the price of insurance (the premium) so that the insurance company can make a profit while still maintaining a competitive price.

Position: Quantitative Analyst - Finance

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in statistics, mathematics, or computer science

Typical Starting Salary: $76,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $63,000-157,000

Locations:

There are many finance companies and hedge funds located in New York, London, Paris, Geneva, Zurich, Hong Kong, as well as San Francisco. Generally, quantitative investing firms set up headquarters in finance hubs around the world.

Companies:

• Jane Street

• Two Sigma

• SMB Capital

• FusionFind

• Citadel Securities

• D.E. Shaw

• IJC Associates

• Vennbridge

• Cloudquant

• Volare Capital

Job Description:

• Create algorithms to perform rapid, automated trading of investments of various forms

• Parse and analyze new data generated by financial markets every day, and decide what level of volatility and risk of investments are appropriate to maximize expected financial gain for the firm

• Determine how different international markets, including equity, bonds, ForEx, commodities, and options, are interrelated, and how this information can be used to make financial decisions to grow the bank's or firm's investment fund

How statistics is used: Quantitative Analysts use measures of shape, center, and spread of the value of various investment vehicles to predict how values will change in the future. Most notably, moving averages can help show if an investment has become overvalued or undervalued. They must also take into account the amount of risk of each investment and find the expected value of its growth or decline. Based on this, they will make decisions on what type of action to take on an investment.

Position: Meteorologist

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in atmospheric science, meteorology, physical geography, ocean science, or chemistry

Typical Starting Salary: $73,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $42,000-134,000

Locations:

Meteorologists are needed in a wide range of places, both in big cities like New York and Los Angeles, as well as smaller towns, such as Ellicott City and Spokane.

Companies:

• NOAA

• Centuria Corporation

• The Weather Channel

• CNN

• Spectrum Networks

• Cox Media

• Sinclair Broadcast Group

• Fox

• NASA

• E.W. Scripps

Job Description:

• Use specialized instruments and computers to measure weather metrics like temperature, humidity, and air pressure, to help make predictions about near-term future weather

• Utilize data from instruments on satellites to analyze global climate patterns over time and get insights into how the world's climate will change both in the near future and far future

• Present the appropriate predictions to clients and team members on a regular basis

How statistics is used: Meteorologists will have to combine the use of historical data and trends as well as current data, to make predictions, calculating probabilities of different weather outcomes.

Position: Pricing Analyst - Entertainment

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in finance, mathematics, economics, or marketing

Typical Starting Salary: $49,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $41,000-76,000

Locations:

Pricing analysts in entertainment have an important role in many places, such as Las Vegas, New York, and Houston, to name a few. Many international locations such as Paris, Berlin, and others are also relevant.

Companies:

• AMC Entertainment

• Bow Tie Cinemas

• Netflix

• Amazon

• Landmark Theaters

• National Amusements

• Regency Theaters

• Hulu

• UGC

• CineStar

Job Description:

• Formulate methodologies of setting product prices based on market conditions

• Present and justify changes in price to other levels of management

• Work together with other parts of the organization to gather data to help make informed decisions

How statistics is used: Pricing analysts have to analyze the pricing strategies of competitors to help set their own prices. Performing t-tests and ANOVA tests to find what factors contribute to real differences in price help pricing analysts analyze the available data to make important business decisions of setting prices.

Position: Chef

Major/Degree: Associate's or Bachelor's degree in culinary arts

Typical Starting Salary: $54,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $39,000-90,000

Locations:

Chefs are needed everywhere, and can be found in many locations such as New York, Tokyo, Paris, London, San Francisco, as well as many smaller cities and towns.  

Companies:

• Olive Garden

• Voltaggio's

• Masa

• Red Lobster

• P. F. Chang's

• Cheesecake Factory

• M&S Grill

• Fogo de Chao

• Carraba's

• Uno's

Job Description:

• Create new recipes and dishes for the restaurant's menu

• Instruct culinary team on how to cook certain dishes

• Help direct and prepare kitchen, and cook meals for clients

How statistics is used: Chefs have to be aware of the temperature ranges of their equipment (ovens, rangetops, etc.) and have an idea of the intervals of time that it takes to cook certain meats and vegetables. With data accumulated over time, they will be able to know the ideal amount of ingredients to give and how much time to cook, bake, and broil certain dishes (especially their own creations).

Position: Physicist

Major/Degree: Master's degree in physics or mathematics

Typical Starting Salary: $86,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $58,000-150,000

Locations:

Notable physics labs in the US are located in Los Alamos, Lemont, Batavia, and Berkeley. There are also major physics labs in Europe, such as CERN in Geneva.

Companies:

• CERN

• Argonne National Laboratory

• Fermilab

• NIST

• Los Alamos National Laboratory

• Intel

• NASA

• NIH

• Department of Energy

• Department of Defense

Job Description:

• Study how objects in the universe interact with each especially through forces like Gravity [astrophysics]

• Use high-powered telescopes to study the past of the universe (analyzing light that has traveled hundreds – million light years) [astrophysics]

• Research how to reconcile the laws regarding particle physics and astrophysics – one explanation being researched currently is string theory

How statistics is used: Physicists have to be knowledgeable in the properties of different elements and must use statistical analyses of probabilities that different particles or elements interacted in a certain way when doing physics research. This is especially important for experiments like that testing the Higgs Boson hypothesis. Similar statistics knowledge is important for understanding how celestial phenomena originate and function, such as supernova and pulsars.

Position: Security Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in engineering, mathematics, or cybersecurity

Typical Starting Salary: $73,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $57,000-130,000

Locations:

Many security engineer jobs can be found with government agencies and government contractors, which tend to be located in northern Virginia and Washington D.C., though jobs can also be found in many major cities like New York or San Francisco.

Companies:

• Lockheed Martin

• ADT

• Leidos

• Northrop Grumman

• NSA

• Engility

• FBI

• US Secret Service

• Booz Allen Hamilton

• Department of Defense

Job Description:

• Analyze existing systems, locations, or buildings for lapses in security

• Propose and inform clients about possible solutions to improving security

• Implement the appropriate security solution chosen by the client

How statistics is used: Security engineers have to synthesize information about crime rates and types, as well as the existing security in place, to find the areas with the highest probability of being breached. They must also analyze historical data using tools like z-tests when conducting the analysis of a new location.

Position: Ceramics Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in ceramics engineering, chemistry, or materials science

Typical Starting Salary: $72,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $66,000-106,000

Locations:

Ceramics engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as New York, San Jose, Charlotte, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

Companies:

• Engineered Ceramics, Inc.

• SELEE Advanced Ceramics

• Borges

• British Glass

• Ceradyne

• Corning

• Diatomic

• Feldspar

• Harrop

• Ipsen

Job Description:

• Use simulations and modeling to predict chemical and physical properties of new ceramics.

• Formulate new ceramics in the lab and perform strength testing and further experimentation to find a ceramic compound that meets the client's specifications

How statistics is used: Ceramics engineers have to consider the properties of different compounds when creating new ceramic materials. In addition, they have to use prior data to develop their curing process for different materials. So they have to use confidence intervals and center and spread of ceramics data to make the ceramics.

Position: Mechanical Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in mechanical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $55,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $51,000-97,000

Locations:

Mechanical engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as Philadelphia, San Diego, San Francisco, Los Angeles, and Chicago.

Companies:

• Accenture

• Boeing

• Borges

• British Glass

• Ceradyne

• Corning

• Diatomic

• Feldspar

• Harrop

• Ipsen

Job Description:

• Communicate with clients to determine engineering specifications and requirements

• Plan, and test prototypes for new products

• Collaborate with other engineering teams to design and integrate each team's contribution to the product during development pipeline

How statistics is used: Mechanical engineers have to consider the properties of different product designs and materials when creating new prototypes and products, so they have to use confidence intervals, center, and spread to choose the most efficient, effective, and strong designs.

Position: Marine Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in marine engineering or related engineering field

Typical Starting Salary: $44,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $27,000-70,000

Locations:

Marine engineering jobs can be found in many coastal cities, such as Bath, Newport News, San Francisco, Seattle, and many more.

Companies:

• Bath Iron Works

• US Navy

• 3D Marine

• Tradewinds Power Corp

• NAG Marine

• Marine Systems, Technology, Inc.

• Victor Marine, Ltd.

• Resolve Marine Group, Ltd.

• Javeler Marine Services LLC

• SeaArk Marine, Inc.

Job Description:

• Communicate with clients to determine engineering specifications and requirements

• Plan, and test prototypes for new marine propulsion and oceanography products

• Collaborate with other engineering teams to design and revise product during development pipeline

How statistics is used: Marine engineers have to consider the properties of different product designs and materials when creating new prototypes and products, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to evaluate how durable propulsion systems will be in the marine environment (esp. with respect to vibrations and saltwater).

Position: Manufacturing Analyst

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in mathematics or engineering field

Typical Starting Salary: $45,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $41,000-76,000

Locations:

Manufacturing analysts are necessary wherever there is manufacturing taking place. This means that many cities in China, such as Beijing and Shanghai, have high demand for manufacturing analysts.  There is also demand for manufacturing analysts in Japanese cities, San Francisco, Detroit, and other cities.

Companies:

• FoxConn

• TSMC

• Edifier

• Xiaomi

• Norinco

• Aigo

• Quoros

• Pheonix (bikes)

• Double Coin

• Opple Lighting

Job Description:

• Formulate methodologies to improve the efficiency of manufacturing

• Present new ideas and change proposals to the management

• Work together with other parts of the organization to gather data to help make informed decisions concerning manufacturing processes

How statistics is used: Manufacturing analysts have to analyze the production line and spot inefficiencies. Find the mean times for each process help manufacturing analysts analyze the available data to make important business decisions of whether to swap the existing process for a new idea.

Position: Stock Trader

Major/Degree: Bachelor's degree in finance, mathematics, banking, or economics

Typical Starting Salary: $94,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: 76,000-146,000

Locations:

Manufacturing analysts are necessary wherever there is manufacturing taking place. This means that many cities in China, such as Beijing and Shanghai, have high demand for manufacturing analysts.  

Companies:

• JPMorgan Chase

• Goldman Sachs

• Merrill Lynch

• Morgan Stanley

• Citi Group

• Guggeinheim Partners

• Ladenburg Thalmann

• Foros

• Credit Suisse

• Barclays Capital

Job Description:

• Analyze market trends and make investing decisions

• Carry out trades with other financial teams at the firm

• Some traders write automated trading scripts in collaboration with quantitative analysts

How statistics is used: Stock traders use measures of shape, center, and spread of the value of equities to predict how values will change in the future. They can use a candlestick chart to help visualize the data. Based on their evaluations, they will make decisions on whether to purchase or short-sell equities, and how long to hold them for during the trading day.

Position: Solar Energy Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in electrical engineering, mechanical, or chemical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $71,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $42,000-187,000

Locations:

Solar energy engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as Lehi, San Francisco, Los Angeles, Fort Lauderdale, San Mateo, and Louisville (CO).  

Companies:

• CanadianSolar

• RGS Energy

• JinKo Solar

• SolarCity

• Soligent

• Sunnova

• Sunpower

• Sunrun

• Trina solar

• Vivint

Job Description:

• Fabricate new formulas for photovoltaic solar cells

• Construct circuits to conduct quality control for new kinds of solar cells

• Present and communicate this information to clients

How statistics is used: Solar energy engineers have to consider the properties of different semiconductors and when creating new solar cells, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to conduct appropriate analyses and find the most efficient photovoltaic compound for energy production, while also compromising with other factors, such as strength and durability.

Position: Biomedical Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in biomedical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $65,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $48,000-93,000

Locations:

Biomedical engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as Boston, Baltimore, New York, San Francisco, and Seattle.

Companies:

• Philips

• GE Healthcare

• Roche

• Hamilton Medical

• Maquet

• Siemens

• Drager

• Medtronic

• Stryker

• Johnson & Johnson

Job Description:

• Develop new medical devices to help patients

• Communicate with hospitals and patients to determine their unmet needs

• Present and communicate this information to clients

How statistics is used: Biomedical engineers have to consider the health statistics of their target market whenever developing a new product. For example, if the engineer wants to help patients in an area where the electricity is intermittent, he may choose to add a longer-lasting battery to the product. In addition, biomedical engineers may use machine learning-based statistical models to perform tasks though a computer learning system.

Position: Geothermal Energy Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in civil, electrical, or mechanical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $60,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $60,000-100,000

Locations:

Geothermal engineering jobs are concentrated in areas where geothermal energy is easily accessible, such as in Iceland, Hawaii, and many other locations worldwide.

Companies:

• 3Degrees

• Alterra Power

• American Geothermal Systems

• ALDACOR

• Daldrup and Sohne

• EGS Energy

• PowerChem

• Radian Energy

• Sage Resources

• TermoGea

Job Description:

• Plan and help implement systems that can create electricity from the Earth's inner heat

• Construct circuits to conduct stress tests for geothermal equipment

• Work with clients to design a geothermal energy solution to their energy needs

How statistics is used: Geothermal energy engineers have to consider the properties of different metals, plastics, and shapes and when creating new heat exchangers, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to conduct appropriate analyses and find the most efficient system for geothermal energy capture.

Position: Nuclear Energy Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in nuclear engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $61,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $61,000-130,000

Locations:

Nuclear engineering jobs are scattered in many different geographic location. Countries like France and Japan use primarily nuclear energy, and countries like India and the US also have a fair number of nuclear reactors. So, cities like Tokyo, Paris, San Francisco, and New York are good places to get Nuclear Engineering jobs.   

Companies:

• US Navy

• Transatomic

• System One

• Transatomic

• Protingent

• Rockwell Collins

• MIT (research)

• Los Alamos National Laboratory

• Southern Company

• WMG, Inc

Job Description:

• Plan and help implement systems that can create electricity from nuclear fission of radioactive isotopes such as uranium or plutonium

• Develop the next generation of nuclear reactors, especially those that use thorium and produce less radioactive waste

• Work with clients to design a geothermal energy solution to their energy needs

How statistics is used: Nuclear energy engineers have to consider the properties of radioactive fuel (e.g. decay patterns), so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to conduct appropriate analyses and find a safe and efficient system of electricity production from the heat generated by nuclear fission.  

Position: Hydroelectric Energy Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in mechanical, environmental, or electrical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $50,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $50,000-106,000

Locations:

Hydroelectric engineering jobs are scattered in many different geographic locations. Quebec, Brazil, China, and the US utilize their supply of rivers for hydropower, which means that hydroelectric engineers are in demand at these locations.  

Companies:

• BC Hydro & Power Authority

• Centrais Eletricas Brasileiras SA

• China Yangtze Power Co. Ltd

• Hydro-Quebec

• RusHydro

• Agder Energi SA

• Duke Energy Corp

• Georgia Power Company

• Ontario Power Generation

• Statkraft SA

Job Description:

• Plan and help implement systems that can create electricity from the movement of water through rivers or streams

• Develop the next generation of hydroelectric dams and power systems

• Evaluate the viability of hydropower at new proposed sites

How statistics is used: Hydroelectric energy engineers have to consider the properties of the ground and soil surrounding a proposed dam site and use statistical modeling to predict the power output that a hypothetical dam could generate there. They also have to work with distributions of power demand at different times of year to design an appropriate system to bypass water through extra channels whenever demand is low.

Position: Civil Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in civil, mechanical, or electrical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $53,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $53,000-93,000

Locations:

Anywhere where there is a new project being built, there will be a Civil Engineer who will help oversee the project.

Companies:

• AECOM Technology Corporatoin

• American Bridge Company

• HDR, Inc.

• Jacobs Engineering Group

• US Army Courps of Engineeris

• Century Engineering

• Cochran Engineering

• Flatiron Co.

• Ontario Power Generation

• J. E. Dunn Construction Group

Job Description:

• Planning and surveying the land or body of water before starting a project

• Create Computer-Aided-Design models to simulate tensions and stresses in the structure of a building

• Evaluate the viability a building, bridge, or other structure at new proposed sites, with the help of geologists

How statistics is used: Civil engineers have to use statistical modeling to predict how a structure will behave in both normal conditions as well as adverse conditions (e.g. bad weather, heavy wind). They also have to analyze historical data and find relations between a building's structure and its stability, possibly using t-tests and ANOVA tests to determine if his suspicion is correct or not.

Position: Chemical Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in chemistry or chemical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $70,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $53,000-110,000

Locations:

Chemical engineering jobs can be found in many major cities, such as New York, San Jose, San Diego, San Francisco, and Houston.

Companies:

• BASF

• Dow

• Sinopec

• SABIC

• ExxonMobil

• Formosa Plastics

• LyondellBasell

• DuPont

• Ineos

• Bayer

Job Description:

• Use simulations and modeling to predict chemical and physical properties of new materials.

• Investigate new methods of synthesizing chemicals

• Formulate new materials in the lab and test chemicals for different chemical and physical properties

How statistics is used: Chemical engineers have to consider the properties of different elements and compounds when creating new mixtures and compounds, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to conduct appropriate analyses. In particular, chemical engineers will have to manipulate atoms and form new compounds based on probability distribution of electrons in the atom.

Position: Electrical Engineer

Major/Degree: Bachelor's or Master's degree in electrical engineering

Typical Starting Salary: $79,000 (varies by location and company)

Salary Range: $55,000-120,000

Locations:

Electrical engineering jobs would tend to be concentrated in California (Silicon Valley) and Seattle where there are many technology companies. With the tech revolution, however, there is demand for electrical engineers around the world.

Companies:

• Intel

• AMD

• NVIDIA

• Qualcomm

• Broadcom

• Samsung

• Apple

• Boeing

• ARM

• IBM

Job Description:

• Use software to design computer chips, such as CPUs, GPUs (graphics processors), and quantum computing chips.

• Evaluate and test existing electrical systems to check if they are performing correctly

• Communicates with software designers to produce specialized hardware that allows for additional software optimizations.

How statistics is used: Electrical engineers have to consider the electricity flow through the circuit and transistors when the chip is in operation, so they have to use confidence intervals and shape/center/spread to guide their product development. Electrical engineers will have to then conduct appropriate quality control analyses.

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