The Analysis of Linguistic Message, Non-coded Iconic Message, and Coded Iconic Message on Myth Printed Advertisement Pond's Acne Clear Using Roland Barthes Theory
Putu Ayu Linda Kristiana Dewi
In the era of globalization, mass media has an important role to deliver news, overviews, and certain information to the public. The function of the mass media is "to maintain the identification of the members of the community with the values and symbols of the society concerned" (Muis, 2001: 11). Basically, the content of media is the result of reality construction with language as its basic device. The use of language expresses the preferences, attitudes, and trends of communicators intended to be transmitted to message recipients. Advertisement has a communication message that is easy to remember and understand by everyone who reads, sees, and hears it. In advertisement, language is used as a message exchange and becomes a communication tool between advertisers and consumers. The messages contained in the advertisement are designed in such a way that it becomes interesting and memorable.With all creativity, advertising has become an important element in social life. Advertising is not just a marketing tool product, but also advertising has sold an ideal value in people's lifestyles.
The type of advertisement varies, it can be either a product or community service advertisement. In showing advertisement, several media are used such as electronic media, print media and online media. However, in this article focus on printed advertisement. In printed advertisement, through images and texts can produce signs in which they are signifier and signified which then form a denotative meaning, that is, explicit meaning which is merely a conveying of information and connotative meaning involving feelings, emotions and, culture value. Both of these formed a communication process that has an important force as a means of marketing in the form of information that is persuasive.
Based on the research background, the research problem is how are linguistic message, non-coded iconic message, and coded iconic message formed the myth of Pond's Acne Clear advertisement both connotative meaning and denotative meaning. The purpose of this study, to know the meaning of linguistic messages, non-coded iconic messages, and coded iconic messages that formed the myth of Pond's Acne Clear advertisement both connotative and denotative meanings. The subject of this study is Pond's Acne Clear in the form of printed advertisement. It is a new product from Pond's brand that offers "fight 10 causes of oily and acne problem ". The method used is qualitative with Roland Barthes approach.
To reveal the myths in the advertisement, this study uses the theory of Roland Barthes. The key of his analysis, Barthes catapulted the concept of connotative, denotative, and marking the 'myth'. Denotative meaning is a simple sign-fill relationship or the most obvious meaning. Connotative meaning is that it describes the interaction that occurs when a sign meets with feelings or emotions of the reader as well as the cultural values. Myth is the development of connotative. So, if the connotative is long established in the community then it becomes a myth. Myth may be a social class product that already has dominance. Barthes also distinguishes the advertisement into three messages: linguistic message, non-coded iconic message, and coded iconic message. Linguistic message is all the word in the printed advertisement that deliver connotative and denotative meaning. Coded iconic message is visual connotation derived from the arrangement of photographed elements. Non-coded iconic message is the denotations on the photograph.
II. THEORITICAL AND EMPIRICAL
Advertisement is a form of product information or services from producers to consumers and delivery of messages from sponsors through a media. "Advertising is the most persuasive sales message directed at the most potential buyers of a particular product or service with a cost as cheap as ever" (Jefkins, 1997: 5). Williamson (1978: 12) states that “ads are message systems designed to organize perceptions and create structures of meaning.”
a. The Characteristics of Advertisement
According to Kotler (2002), the characteristics of advertisement as follow:
1. Public presentation, advertisement is a form of public communication is best known by the society, so the advertised product provides a standard offer, because everyone receives the same message.
2. Pervasiveness, advertisement is a media that has a high absorptive capacity, because it allows sellers to repeat their messages. Messages allow comsumer to compare with offers from other sellers.
3. Amplified expressiveness, advertising gives the company the opportunity to reveal its products through beautiful paintings, sounds, and colors.
4. Impersonality, advertisement does not have a direct relationship with consumers, therefore consumers do not feel obliged to give attention and response to the advertisement.
b. The Purpose of Advertisement
Basically, the purpose of advertisement is to change or influence the attitudes of society, in this case the consumer attitudes. With appear of advertisement aims to introduce products or services to consumers so that consumers are provoked / affected. It will lead to changes in consumer behavior to be as desired by producer. In addition, the advertisement themselves have several specific goals such as to establish awareness of a new product or brand, to inform the features and superiority of the product or brand to the consumer, shape certain perceptions of the product or brand, shape the tastes of the product or brand or persuade consumers to buy the advertised product or brand.
c. The Message of Advertisement
According to Philip Kotler (1997) the effective message concerns five things, as follow:
- Message content
The communicator must think about what to say to the target society, in order to obtain the desired response such as appeals, themes, and ideas for sales offerings. This means formulating something of benefit, motivation, identification or reason to encourage society to think or do something.
- Message structure
The effect of persuasion and self-persuasion of the communication that is influenced not only the content of the message but also the structure of the message. Important issues concerning the structure of the message are the conclusion of unilateral reasons or disproof between both of parties and the order of the agreement.
- Message format
Message format created by communicator must be striking to attract attention. Advertisers use tools such as contrast and new elements, interesting images such as news headlines, message size and position, colors, feelings and music.
- Message saurce
Messages delivered by interesting or well-known sources will be more thoughtful and memorable. Marketing communicators often use famous people as an advertising model. This relates to the credibility of sources or factors of expertise, worthiness to be trusted and the ability to be liked.
- Frequency of advertisement
Advertisers should pay attention to the distribution of the frequency of ads that achieve by certain advertising campaigns. An advertisement frequency distribution pay attention how many people receive messages.
d. Advertisement Media
Mass media is a means to convey the content of messages or information of a general nature, to a number of people whose numbers are relatively numerous. Mass media can be classified into two categories namely print media and electronic media. The print media consists of writable sources such as newspapers, magazines, books, newsletters, advertisements, memos, business forms, etc. Meanwhile the electronic media consists of television, radio and internet.
Print media is one type of mass media that is printed in a sheet of paper. Print media can be defined as activities related to text production processes using ink, letter and paper, or other printed materials. These print media can be grouped into several types such as newspapers, news magazines, special magazines, newsletters, etc. Each type are different from each other in the presentation of writing and the rubric.
Print media has several characteristics that are first, print media either Newspapers or magazines are relatively clear who is the consumer. Thus, newspapers or magazines better represent the opinions of certain groups of people. Second, social criticism delivered through print media will be more weight or more effective because it is reviewed depthlier. Third, in the case of the presentation of advertising can be delivered informatively, complete and specific to fulfil the needs of the consumer community.
There are some elemet from printed advertisement, nalemy:
- The first is headline, a short piece of text, usually in larger type, designed to be the first words the audience reads. The headline is usually not the slogan (but is unique to one particular product.
- The second is image, any drawing, photograph, illustration, chart, or other graphic that is designed to affect the audience in some purposeful way.
- The third is copy, the actual text of the advertisement. The copy is where particular claims are usually made and specific persuasive words are used.
- The fourth is slogan, a catchphrase that evokes some kind of feeling about the company and the product. Companies look for slogans that are motivating and empowering. A company's slogan rarely changes, especially during a particular ad campaign.
- The fifth is logo, a unique design symbol that helps to identify the company visually.
B. Roland Barthes Theory
Roland Barthes studies how humans interpret things (language and visualization). The key to his analysis, Barthes catapulted the concept of connotative and denotative. In term of denotative meaning is a simple sign-fill relationship or the most obvious meaning. What is depicted is a sign of an object. In term of connotative meaning is the term used to indicate the significance of the second stage. This illustrates the interaction that occurs when a sign meets the feelings or emotions of the reader as well as the cultural values. Barthes also distinguishes the advertisement into three messages: linguistic message, non-coded iconic message, and coded iconic message. Linguistic message is all the word in the printed advertisement that delivers connotation and denotation. Non-coded iconic message is the denotations on the photograph. Coded iconic message is visual connotation derived from the arrangement of photographed elements.
In Barthes's framework , there is another aspect of tagging that is 'myth'. Myth is the development of connotation. So, if the connotation is long established in the community then it becomes a myth. Myth may be a social class product that already has dominance. Myths can be a mythology that plays an important role in cultural unity. This myth causes us to have certain prejudices toward something stated in myth.
2.2 Empirical Review
There are several studies that have been done with Roland Barthes approach to support this study, as follows:
Normalitas Perempuan Dalam Iklan Pond's by Tatag Handaka. The theory of communication used is the Sign Theory of Roland Barthes. The method that used are semiotics and critical research paradigm. The results of data analysis show that messages in advertisements contain denotative, connotative, and myth messages especially when they are repeated.
Analisis Semiotika Dalam Iklan “Fair And Lovely” Versi Nikah Atau S2 by Ika Malika dan Sinta Petri Lestari. This research uses a qualitative approach as its foundation with Roland Barthes semiotic analysis method. Through this research, researchers attempt to dismantle the myths about women who are behind beauty products advertising Fair and Lovely versi Nikah atau S2. The results of this study are in term of denotative meaning is her Father and Mother who has found the right match for their daughter, but their daughter still has plans to continue her master degree. The connotative meaning is her Father and Mother want to her daughter to get married soon than her daughter continue her master degree The myth of this ad is the image displayed on the advertisement is different from the educational view, especially women in Islam, that Islam does not discriminate between men and woman in any field, while on Fair and Lovely advertisements as if implying that a woman should be equal to men by same of education.
Identitas Budaya Indonesia: Analisis semiotika Roland Barthes dalam Iklan Aqua Versi “Temukan Indonesiamu” by Sinta Rizki Haryono and Dedi Kurnia Syah Putra. This research is Roland Barthes semiotics analysis with qualitative approach. The results of this study indicate that the elements contained in the advertisement Aqua versi “Temukan Indonesiamu” a visual and audio sign reveals that the existence of several cultures found from the daily life of the community can be an identity of Indonesia. The study also reveals how social realities in society are constructed into an advertisement. Until the end of this advertisement can provide a clear purpose, what messages to be submitted Aqua through television advertising.
From three studies, there are some similarities with this research that uses such qualitative method and analyzed based on roland barthes theory. The difference is that the third research above is an advertisement that uses electronic media while in this study using print media.
This research uses semiotics of Roland Barthes analysis related to three messages: linguistic message, non-coded iconic message, and coded iconic message to know the myths behind the POND'S Acne Clear advertisement both connotative and denotative meanings. This research is conducted with qualitative approach. This method is used to get the data in depth. Qualitative research produces descriptive data in the form of words and behavior that can be observed because the data presented.
IV. FINDING AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Linguistic Message
The firsth, it is word “Baru”. In terms of denotative meaning of "Baru" is newly created and produced it means there is a change of the product to increase its sales. The word "baru" is also written in capital letters to emphasize if the product is new production. The connotative meaning of "baru", indirectly invites consument to try new products from POND'S. With new variants from POND'S products make people interested to try and eventually buy because of curiosity with the product. Besides that kind of new POND'S product, also have various benefits for your face such as reduce blackheads, remove the cells of dead skin, etc.
The second, in term of denotative meaning, this type of POND'S product can fight 10 being the cause of oily skin and acne because the ingredients contained in this product are able to fight and overcome the problem. The connotative meaning is by resolve of 10 causes of oily skin and acne your facial skin will look smoother and brighter. Another connotative meaning is that it can indicate this product is better than other products, because the other face soap only makes the face more fresh and bright while this product can fight 10 causes of oily skin and acne. So that, your face is smooth and fresh not dull and spotty. This shows that to encourage the consumers only buy the products from POND'S not another product.
The third, in term of denotative meaning, this type of POND'S product can make your face clean, fresh, and bright after using it. The connotative meaning is with a clean, fresh, and bright face will make every woman appear more confident. Because with a dull, greasy and spotty face make people especially women feel not confident. So, if you want to have clean, fresh, and bright face use POND'S products that can give you evidence not a promise.
The fourth, it is word “POND'S”. In term of denotative meaning POND'S is the name of a beauty product. In term of connotative meaning is the consumers will know if the product in the advertisement is part of the POND'S product. So, consumers can differentiate if the product is a new variant of POND'S not the other product. Another connotative meaning, consumers who initially hesitate to buy the product will change the mind seat because she knows if the product is part of the POND'S product that has been used before.
The fifth, it is word “complete solution”. In term of denotative meaning is this product provides a complete solution to your facial skin problems. The connotative meaning is invites the consumers to buy this product not the other product because this product provides a complete solution for your facial problems that you are facing different from other products that do not necessarily provide a complete solution. The other connotative meaning POND'S product consists of various variants, but one type of POND'S product is just to solve one problem only. Different with POND'S Acne Clear product that is designed with complete content to solve various problems not only one problem like POND'S product before. So whatever the problem, be better to use POND'S Acne Clear product because it can be overcome various problem on your face and it is one of the strength of this product.
The sixth, in term of denotative meaning is acne clear white is a new variant of POND'S products. In term of connotative meaning, to introduce new variant of POND'S products. Because this is a new product means there is an improvement in terms of quality than the previous product. If the previous product only solves one problem, different from this product that can fight 10 causes of oily skin and acne. So if you want your facial skin is not greasy and spotty use this product because this product can handle it.
The seventh, in term of denotative meaning is multi action: facial foam + scrub. In this case POND'S Acne Clear product has two actions, can be facial foam or scrub. In term of connotative meaning, this soap is good because it has two actions by once using compared with the other product this soap is complete with two functions at once. Thus your face will look fresh and clean with this product.
The eighth, in term of denotative meaning is oil-absorbing herbal clay, pimple-fighting salicylic acid, brightening essence”. It is the ingredients that contained in the POND'S Acne Clear. In term of connotative meaning, with these ingredients can give an effect on your face after using it. Because of the content in the product can fight various causes of oily skin and acne that will have a good effect on your skin. So if you want to buy or use POND'S products be better to use this product, it does not mean the previous product is not good but this product has been designed in such a way to handle various problems on your face.
The nineth, in term of denotative meaning are remove 99% of bacteria that cause acne, absorb excess oil, reduce blackheads, treat the skin redness due to acne,lifting dead skin cells, the pores seen smaller, clean the dust and dirt instantly, soften the skin, reduce dull skin, brighten the skin. Those are the ten effects of using POND'S Acne Clear because these products have been proven and no doubt. In term of konotative meaning, the first, with the loss of 99% of bacteria that cause acne, your face will look smooth without acne. With a smooth face and free from acne, it will make you more confidently. The second, with excess oil absorption it will make your face will still look bright and not dull although long activities that you do, so don't worry about the oil on your face. The third, with less blackheads, your face will look clean. By a clean face you will feel happy because having a clean face without blackheads is every woman's dream and your charm will be visible. The fourth, can treat skin redness due to acne, thus your face will look as normal even though there are some acne. Acne that appears on your face is a natural thing, but red skin due to acne is very disturbing your appearance, so if you want to have skin that looks normal even if there are some acne on your face use POND'S Acne Clear. The fifth, can lift dead skin cells, thus your skin will look fresh because dead skin cells are replaced with new ones. With a fresh face then you will look younger. The sixth, the pores will look smaller then it will make you look younger and brighter.The seventh, dirt and dust will clean instantly so your face looks shiny, fresh, and clean. Because your face are fresh and clean it makes you feel more confidently. The eighth, the skin becomes soft so it will be seen if you do expensive treatments to make your skin soft but in fact, only using products from POND'S that have affordable prices but can give the same effect as doing expensive treatments and have been proven. The nineth, reduce dull skin then your skin will look shine because this product keeps your skin moisture such as not too dry and too much oil that causes your face becomes dull. The tenth, with a bright skin makes you appear more confident and show that having a bright facial skin does not need to do an expensive exposure, simply by using POND'S Acne Clear then you will get the facial skin that you want. If the cheap can make your facial skin like doing expensive treatment, why spend a lot of money
The tenth, in terms of denotative meaning based on invitro test. In terms of connotative meaning, this product has been proven to have good quality because it has successfully passed from the invitro test. Therefore, consumers who want to buy this product need not hesitate because this product is clearly proven to overcome the causes of problems that arise on your skin and have ten impacts that are profitable even with a relatively affordable price, not as expensive as you do the treatment at the beauty salon.
4.2 Non-Coded Iconic Message
The first, denotative meaning is maudy ayunda as star of POND'S product. She is trusted by POND'S company to promote new product from POND'S. Connotative meaning is visual picture how beautiful maudy look like. Because maudy has a bright, fresh, dan glow facial skin, so she is suitable to promote the product. Consumers who see the maudy ayunda with a bright and fresh facial skin will believe after using pond's product she will have a bright, fresh and glow facial skin. Thus indirectly will encourage consumers to try and buy new POND'S product.
The second, denotative meaning is packaging from POND'S product. The connotative meaning is to introduce how the packging from new POND'S product. So consumers can recognize if this product is a new POND'S product considering POND'S product consists of several different variants, thus to make the consumers know the new product from POND'S, the advertiser give the packaging model of the POND'S new product.
The third, denotative meaning is water. The connotative meaning is indicating face soap, because if we wash anything it would need water. Thus in the advertisement, water is portrayed as a means to wash because this product is a kind of face soap. The other connotative meaning, water also indicates freshness because after washing face using this product then your face will feel fresh and light because dust and dirt attached to your face have been cleaned.
2.3 Coded Iconic Message
The first, denotative meaning is why model used white tanktop. In connotative meaning, model uses white tanktop because it is to highlight a clean, bright and fresh face. In addition, this product is a kind of face soap product so the existing model on the advertisement using tanktop than dress in order to facilitate her to wash her faces easily. Model must adjust the costume with the product that she was starring because it is impossible for model to use a dress for soap advertisement product.
The second, denotative meaning there is the light behind the product. In terms of connotative meaning behind the product there is light to make the product look bright. So the consumer can see the product clearly. In addition why there is light because the product in the advertisement indicates bright, clean, and radiant after using the product. So indirectly the light behind the product illustrates how the impact after using the product from POND'S.
The third, denotative meaning is the pose of model that focuses on her face. In terms of connotative meaning, because this advertisement is a product for face thus the pose of the model more focused on her face so that consumers can see the results after using POND'S products through model in the advertisement. As we can see, model's face look fresh, clean and radiant with there is no acne or excess oil. Due to the satisfactory results after using POND'S products, model in the advertisement show her happiness by smile. This indicates that POND'S product is trusted can make our face clean and fresh without the presence of acne and excess oil.
The fourth, denotative meaning is white and blue color in the background of the advertisement. In connotative meaning white represents cleanliness and purity. Advertiser use white with the purpose of the advertisement looks simple not glamor but can attract the attention of consumers to buy products from POND'S. Not only white, advertiser combine with blue. Blue color is believed to overcome skin problems and symbolize confidence. In the advertisement, this product is believed to be able to fight 10 causes of oily skin and acne, so blue here can give consumers confidence and trust to use this products in terms of overcome anything problem related to the face.
The fifth, denotative meaning is the word 'POND'S and Baru' are written with capital letters whereas other are written using lowercase letters. In terms of connotative meaning, the word Baru is written in capital letters so that the consumer can read clearly if the product is a new variant of POND'S. Because it is a new product, indirectly invites consumers to try the product. The word 'POND'S' are also written in capital letters to enable consumers to see clearly if the product is part of the POND'S product not the other product. So essentially the advertiser writes both letters in capital letters to attract the attention of the consumer, making the consumer see clearly and the text is indicates what the advertisement is about. On the other hand, other words are written with lowercase letters because the advertiser does not overemphasize the reader to read them. the text only as a supporter containing additional information relating to the advertisement.
Based on the discussion, it can be concluded that the myth of pond's advertisement is formed from linguistic messages, non-coded iconic message, and coded iconic message that exist in the advertisement both denotative and conotative meaning. In term of linguistic message, POND'S Acne Clear is a new variant of POND'S products equipped with complete solution and has multi action by once used. This product can fight 10 oily skin and acne, so your face will look clean, fresh, and bright. Thus it can make every woman appear more confident and the beautiful charm will be visible. With the ingredients that contained in the POND'S Acne Clear can remove 99% of bacteria that cause acne, absorb excess oil, reduce blackheads, treat the skin redness due to acne,lifting dead skin cells, the pores seen smaller, clean the dust and dirt instantly, soften the skin, reduce dull skin, brighten the skin. Because this product is a new variant, indirectly invite consumers to try and buy. Consumers do not worry about it, because this product has been tested based on invitro test. In terms of non-coded iconic message is maudy ayunda is appointed to be the star of POND'S Acne Clear because she has bright, fresh and radiant skin thus will make consumers believe if you want to have fresh, bright, radiant skin using POND'S Acne Clear. Because this advertisement is a facial soap so the water in the advertisement are used as a means to wash your face and indicate freshness because after washing your face using this product then your face will feel fresh and light because dust and dirt attached to your face has been cleaned. To make people familiar with product POND'S Acne Clear, the advertiser given a sample packaging on the advertisement. So people can recognize and remember POND'S Acne Clear product. In terms of coded iconic message, there is part of the advertisement is not directly visible but has a denotative and connotative meaning like a model that uses a white tanktop, the light behind POND'S acne clear product, the pose of the model is more focused on the face, background of the advertisement are white and blue, and why only the word "Baru and POND'S" that use capital letters while other writings use lowercase letters.
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