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Year 11 Geography

Senior Geography Project

Felix Weston

Due Date: Wednesday, 20th June 2018

Figure 1 Source: King's Ilearn Page

Analyse the diffusion, adoption and adaptation of mass consumer culture reflected in media, fashion, brand images, sport, music and religion at ONE location studied during fieldwork.

Assess the factors affecting cultural integration such as technological change, transnational corporations (TNCs), global media networks, cultural imperialism and the actions of governments at ONE location studied during fieldwork.

Using GIS technology, show various types of maps and data visualisations that are

relevant to your investigation on Cultural Integration.


- I would like to thank the CLL staff for the binding of the project

- Organisers of the field trip

- Class peers for collaborative help throughout including photos

Table of Contents:

Table of Contents

Introduction 3

Methodology 4

Primary resources: 4

Secondary resources: 4

Study Area: 7

Research Findings 10

Mass Consumer culture 10

Mass culture reflected by the media 11

International cultural integration through fashion 14

Billabong: 14

Quicksilver: 15

Rip Curl: 15

International Brands and Mass Consumer in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont 15

Sport, music and religion form part of cultural integration, diffusion, adoption and/or adaption: 16

Cultural Integration 17

Technology change affecting cultural integration 17

TNC in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont 17

Global Media Networks in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont 18

Global Media Networks Affected Cultural Integration 19

Cultural Imperialism 19

Governments Impact on Cultural Integration 20

Conclusion 21

List of Illustrations

Figure 1

Circular Quay View

Page 1

Figure 2

Map of Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area

Page 7

Figure 3

Satellite image of the Study Area of Darling Harbour and Pyrmont

Page 8

Figure 4

Land use map

Page 9

Figure 5

Mass Consumer Culture

Page 10

Figure 6

Fairfax media

Page 14

Figure 7

Google Wharf 7

Pg 18


In this Senior Geography Project many topics will be addressed throughout including the primary and secondary research findings, Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area which displays cultural integration largely throughout both areas, how diffusion, adoption and adaptation are influenced by the media through various different cultural topics throughout the Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area. The cultural integration of technological change, TNC's, global media networks, and cultural imperialism and the actions of governments at the Darling Harbour are also discussed.


Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study. It comprises the theoretically analysis of the body of methods and principles associated with a branch of knowledge.

Primary resources:

-Photography: the photographs taken within the field study whilst travelling around the Darling Harbour, Pyrmont area.

-Field study booklet: A booklet completed in the field study to gather information and key questions.

-Observation: self-observations from the first-hand experience is best for a practical learning and observant style of learning.

Secondary resources:

-Geography textbook: A book put together by experts for students about geography

-Internet photographs- Pictures taken by photographers

-Internet graphs and information- Charts, Tables and graphs from information on the internet



Primary source because the picture of an object, subject, art or landscape was taken by the investigator and it was in the view of the person taking the photograph with no interference of any sort and was first hand. In SGP there are Photographs of CBD high rise buildings and Chinatown. Advantages of this would be, the investigator knows what he is studying and therefore gets a reliable picture of what he's/she's studying, another advantage would be there was no interference of any sort from external factors in the collection of this data. Some disadvantages would be, the photograph was taken by someone researching a field of study not by a professional photographer which may result in the quality of the image, another disadvantage would be that during the time of studying the research aspects of the image and landscape may also change.


a primary source because it is a booklet of relevant information with questions that were answered when investigated Sydney harbour and the CDB area first hand. An advantage when using this technique would be having the knowledge of the study area and definitions at your access whenever you need to use it. A disadvantage would be that the questions were already written out so if we had other questions that came up we would have to of researched on our own.


a primary source because the investigator is viewing objects, buildings and subjects first hand and is there in flesh. An advantage of this would be that the investigator is there and knows what the environment is actually like and study area is really like instead of researching observing objects, buildings and subjects first hand which makes this method authentic and reliable. Disadvantages may be when just observing and not taking photos key aspects of the observations may be forgotten or altered another disadvantage would be the audience will not understand what the investigator is talking about because there is no hard evidence of this source.


Text book

A secondary source because all the information was put together and researched by experts and authors rather than an investigator. An advantage is that everything the textbook covers is does with extensive detail and is extremely reliable. A disadvantage would be that the textbook doesn't cover everything and if details change they will not be altered until the following year.

Internet Photographs

A secondary source because these Photographs were taken by professional photographers or members of the public of the region that may not have intended these photographs to be used when researching cultural integration. An advantage would be that these photographs were

taken by professionals which results in the quality of these photographs are high, another advantage would be that there are a large variety of photos of Sydney's CBD or Chinatown. A disadvantage about this source would be that the chances of an investigator trying to find photograph of advertising on a building may be slim.

Study Area:

This report focuses on the Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area which displays cultural integration largely throughout both areas. This is done through the areas of food courts, shopping strips, restaurants, and of course media. Darling Harbour is a very diverse location. Throughout the area it has large shopping mauls and food courts with various cultural shops that display a significant amount of cultural integration.

Map of the Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area

Figure 2 (Source: google maps)

Satellite image of the Study Area of Darling Harbour and Pyrmont

Figure 3 (Source Google maps)

Land use map of areas of service, tourist, shopping, Recreation, and the financial district

Figure 4 (Source- Field Study)

Research Findings

Analyse the diffusion, adoption and adaptation of mass consumer culture reflected in media, fashion, brand images, sport, music and religion at ONE location studied during fieldwork.

Diffusion is the spreading of something more widely with areas and of ideas and technologies throughout countries, cities, and suburbs.

Adoption refers to the act of embracing ideas, habits from other cultures and religions.

Adaptation is the action or process of adapting or being adapted through that of cultures and other countries.

Mass Consumer culture

Mass Consumer culture is a hypothesis in showcasing vital arranging that considers the relationship customers have with specific items or administrations. A standout amongst the most notorious cases of shopper culture is Apple's ascent to the best to innovation, since it made an item that fit the requirements of buyers in a way that purchasers turned out to be a piece of an innovation development. As an entrepreneur, recognizing your objective market is fundamental and includes something other than essential socioeconomics; buyer culture helps target gatherings of individuals who share a similar want and a similar requirement for an item or administration.

Mass culture reflected by the media

Mass consumer culture can be reflected by numerous worldwide media systems.

Social mindfulness all through customer culture can be driven by social and political issues. The 2018 Super Bowl had numerous ads take a social point of view, adjusting themselves to bigger causes, for example, ecological security, catastrophic event help and individuals doing appropriate by others. This was a-run of the mill of Super Bowl plugs, since a few years prior, the objective was to make the most incredibly interesting business.

The move originated from a progression of national emergencies including tropical storms, mass shootings and rising political strains. These organizations had a heartbeat on what the shopper culture was encountering past what items they were purchasing. This is an approach to accomplish positive sentiments from the general population while never discussing an item or administration.

The media influences individuals in differed routes, some of which are great while others aren't as lovely. We should investigate the great and awful side of media's effect on culture.

The positive of viewpoints media on culture are:

• The media has its method for demonstrating us productive data with regards to news channels, travel and other instructive shows. Children advantages from viewing these, since it can help confidence, elevate intrigue levels in a specific subject, or urge them to make pertinent inquiries.

• We know what is occurring around us, with a reasonable knowledge about how things function somewhere else on the globe. We can see the world through the TV, regardless of whether we are established in one detect the entire time. It is an escape to places obscure, outside, and mysterious with learning of what goes ahead around us without being physically present in that place.

• Video amusements today are progressively dynamic arranged, influencing children to get off their behind and participate in recreations that require physical development. This could help keep kid's dynamic inside, if not outside.

• The media in the entirety of its structures can acquaint us with imaginative outlets that can enable us to better ourselves in various ways, be it in our own or work lives. It can change our points of view and push us to accomplish more than what we constrain ourselves to. It can likewise enable us to draw in with other individuals around the globe, and be more open and comprehension towards different societies.

With these positives consequences for media on social incorporation additionally accompany numerous negative influences these include:

• Violence is a central point with regards to media, being a possibly unsafe instigator with regards to youthful groups of onlookers. Children are impacted effectively by what they see on TV or the Internet, impersonating such acts (if not as outrageous, however on the lines of viciousness) on senior citizens, or children their age.

• Advertising can imperil one's concept of what excellence and wellbeing is, seeing that items spin around these two viewpoints in an over the top way. Children can end up fixated on the way they look, particularly through excellence reality shows and magazines. It can prompt medical issues like anorexia and bulimia, or utilize the tricks of faulty big names in the business as impacts.

• Obesity is on the ascent for kids who plant themselves before the TV, not moving for quite a long time. We're discussing kids who don't have the most recent innovation and gaming gadgets. This can fuel a youngster's powerlessness to remain dynamic, accordingly driving him/her to exponentially put on weight after some time.

• The media can impact one to do things that aren't moral, such as getting into substance manhandle. Motion pictures depict propensities that are undesirable as 'cool' or 'develop', constraining children to be at standard with inner circles who utilize media as an apparatus to control helpless children of the sort.

International cultural integration through fashion

International cultural integration through fashion is portrayed through fashion in many different ways. The fashion industry is both dynamic and competitive. It is an industry that thrives on constant change and the promotion of youthful images. It dictates what is in and what is not. Each season, designers look to the traditional fashion capitals of London, New York, Paris, and Milan for inspiration. Globalisation of the fashion industry us everywhere and is the United States of America that leads the way. Many of these industrial businesses are owned by large transnational corporations, which target the youth and subtly influence which brand of T-shirt or designer jeans you buy. However, that very few of the garments that are marketed and sold as ‘made in the USA' or ‘made in Australia' are actually made locally. Most are made in developing countries where labour is relatively cheap and health and safety issues are not considered an important issue.


Since its founding in 1973, has grown into one of the world's leading designers, producers and distributors of apparel and accessories for surf and board sports. It targets markets both male and female markets. Products range comprises over 2200 product lines in Australia, over 1300 product lines in North America and over 1200 product lines in Europe. Billabongs products are sold in more than 90 countries by many directly controlled operations.

Billabong logo Figure 5 (Source Google Images)


Alan Greene and John Law in 1969 started up their own business which was quickly spread by word of mouth through the famous Jeff Hakman who was intrigued by their design and quality of board shorts so decided to help them and spread their business even more towards the surfing community and culture. A bug key to success of Quicksilver has been its roots in surf culture and its sponsorships of top surfer, snowboarders, skateboarders, and surfing events. The company has the likes of world champion surfer Kelly Slater on its sponsorship books.

Rip Curl:

Rip Curl was founded in 1969, by Doug Warbrick and Brian Singer at Torquay and is now a major Australian Manufacturer of boardwear. Today Rip Curl not only producers not only surf gear but also mountain wear, eyewear, watches, footwear, and bags. Rip Curl has become one of the largest boardwear brands in Australia, Europe and South America and is growing rapidly in North America however is still a privately-owned company.

International Brands and Mass Consumer in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont

  Many international brands throughout Darling Harbour McDonalds American fast food brand, KFC American fast food restaurant, Valleygirl is an international fashion shop selling variety of clothing to girls of all ages. These international brands display mass consumer culture in Sydney through

Sport, music and religion form part of cultural integration, diffusion, adoption and/or adaption:

Sport is widely recognised as an important part of Australia culture. For many Australians, sport is tied up with the image we have of ourselves and the image we want the rest of the world to have of us. Sports starts often become popular heroes, sometimes placed on higher pedestals than film or rock stars. We watch and judge their performance keenly and share their triumphs and their failures, sometimes as if they were our own. For many, Australia's participation in international sporting events becomes an opportunity to express patriotism. Where sport is concerned, this appears to be an urge that is shared the world over, only one needs to look at international cricket or rugby matches to see evidence of this.

Music is particularly at the mercy of marketing and globalisation. If artists are to succeed in this highly competitive industry, they needed to be contracted to one of the large music corporations: Sony BMG, EMI, Universal and Warner. These four companies have overtaken vertical and horizontal control over almost every aspect of the industry. Since these corporations are so big many Australian small bands are finding it difficult to compete and many of the local venues where they once played can no longer afford to sponsor them.

Globalisation of the music industry also means that the music we are exposed to on radio stations and in music stores is mainly that of bands from the United States, Britain or Ireland. Australian artists account for less than 40% of the top 100 album sales by volume. This is considered an achievement as most of the concentrated global media market and that Australia's share of global music sales is less than 2%.

Religion offer a philosophy that seeks to explain the meaning of human existence and our place in the universe. Most religions or systems of belief share common features, such as belief in god and that god's message. Globalisation is affected with the advent of Internet, worldwide religious debates, discussion of ethical issues, and publishing of Scripture passages and other religious tracts became commonplace. All these developments promote cultural integration and are a consequence of globalisation.

Assess the factors affecting cultural integration such as technological change, transnational corporations (TNCs), global media networks, cultural imperialism and the actions of governments at ONE location studied during fieldwork.

Cultural Integration

Cultural Integration: The act of amalgamating traditionalistic attitudes, beliefs and rituals with another culture whilst still upholding characteristics of previous ethnicity. This movement resonates heavily with that of Darling Harbour and Pyrmont owing to much of the oriental populous being located within. 

Technology change affecting cultural integration

If a technological change can be defined as an increase in the efficiency of a product or process that results in an increase in output, without an increase in input, then both communication and transport change can be seen to have affected cultural integration. After analysing the Australian Bureau of Statistics, we can see that both locations have multiple backgrounds within. Most commonly being Chinese, Scottish, or English. 

TNC in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont

Macquarie Bank, HSBC, LG, AMP, Commonwealth Bank, ING direct, PWC, and Rabobank are all examples of major TNC's within the Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area of Sydney. These all show diverse cultural integration by dealing internationally and expressing new ideas and thoughts on a Global perspective. Giving off these new ideas to other countries and corporations allows for these TNC's to also receive impeccable amounts of fresh and advanced ideas from other upper class TNC's from other nations.

Global Media Networks in Darling Harbour/Pyrmont

Fair Fax Media: on Darling Harbour Road produces Australian newspapers spreading ideas—culture.

Channel 7: Corner of Pirrama and Darling Ireland Road displays diffusion of Australian television programs through Home and Away

Channel 10 in Pyrmont show diffusion of American culture by bringing high amounts of their television programs to the Australian public.

Nova in Pyrmont spreads Radio media through domestic areas.

Foxtel and Google on Wharf 15 displays large diffusion of American TV leading to further integration.

Global Media Networks Affected Cultural Integration

Global Media Networks affect cultural integration in a number of different ways. One important way is the diffusion of culture as they spread their host's culture to other countries and by setting the values and atmosphere of the original country to everybody else in the world. This increases chances of adoption and adaptation. For example, Google on Wharf 15 in Pyrmont has affected cultural integration in a very positive way by being a source of clear and precise information relating to all topics. Google is very large corporation and one is of the top leading businesses of the future in the world. Google provides new technologies not only for its own business but the rest of the world and countries in cultural differences to different areas of those particular countries. Google also has a major search engine which enables countries from all over the world to seek information and advice not only from their own country but allows communities and businesses to be able to explore new ideas with essentially ‘the click of a button'.

Cultural Imperialism

Simplistically, it is the practice of a more dominant culture, overthrowing or imposing a less notable and authoritarian culture. Most commonly it is the transformation of previous economic or political systems to the preferred style of the imposers. 

American fast food, fashion, music, TV and movies are the universal elements of the emerging global culture. 

Their dominance is so widespread and pervasive that critics now refer to the process as cultural imperialism: the dominance or hegemony of one culture over all others.

There are those that regard the process of cultural integration as far more complex than simply the spread of American popular culture. They argue that globalised culture is really a hybrid culture: the result of the intermingling of cultures.

In such a context, American popular culture becomes just one of many elements contributing to cultural change and integration.

Governments Impact on Cultural Integration

Numerous Governments have effectively advanced the procedure of social combination. They have done this by deregulating their economies, empowering the presentation of new data based advancements, supporting migration programs and advancing multiculturalism.

Different governments, while for the most part respecting the apparent advantages of monetary incorporation, expect that the presentation of American and Western pop culture and unnecessary corporate greed will demolish neighbourhood societies.

Diverse governments have endeavoured to secure their countries and neighbourhood culture against that of the American shopper culture through changing limitations and controls.

Specifically, nations all through Europe and Asia have tried to secure themselves against the impact of American qualities and states of mind.


This report displays the primary and secondary research findings, Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area which displays cultural integration largely throughout both areas, how diffusion, adoption and adaptation are influenced by the media through various different cultural topics throughout the Darling Harbour and Pyrmont area. The cultural integration of technological change, TNC's, global media networks, and cultural imperialism and the actions of governments at the Darling Harbour are also discussed. The results of this research largely differed from my expected hypothesis. I thought darling harbour would be mainly a location of cultural tourism however it contains various different types of land use. These include tourism, shopping, recreational and a financial district. Realising this intrigued me to look further into studies coming to realise the high amounts of cultural integration of all four aspects listed above.

Many limitations throughout this report was the lack of primary evidence I was able gather throughout. This was also affected with the amount of time spent at in the field work and the inconsistence of information that could have been developed. Such as going to the area of study once at a certain time of day could be different to going to the areas of study on different days and different time. For example on a Saturday night would reflect more on the tourism aspect as for midday midweek would show to us the work place environment that Darling Harbour and Pyrmont really are.


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