I do not know how life could have been nowadays without automobiles. Since the beginning of Automotive Industry, the world had changed. Thanks to this now mandatory invention, the paths and journeys had become much shorter and entertaining than ever before. Even now, after 132 years, when the first modern automobile was developed, the engineers still find something new to integrate into our cars, in order to make our driving more comfortable and safe. It is impressive to see how technology evolves and with it, our cars. I mean that, 132 years ago, all that a car needed to function were basic components, like a chassis frame, wheels, a gasoline engine and more mechanical elements related to the engine. But nowadays, automobiles have a multitude of sensors (parking sensors, rain sensor, lane departure warning, electronic stability program, hill start assist etc.), screens (for navigation), cameras etc. The technology came to be so advanced that you can now buy a self-driving, autonomous car.
Such a great invention could not have been possible without side effects. That is why automobiles are one of the main causes of global warming and pollution. But engineers have seen this and they took a stand. They wanted to replace the running fuel engines entirely and they succeeded. Humankind now has a wide range of electric vehicles to choose from. This alternative of the classic, running on fuel engine is pollution free and will probably be everywhere in the coming years.
Being interested about this subject I decided to gather the most common automobile terms and explain them in the following glossary.
The first modern automobile
Mr. Carl Benz applied for a patent for his “vehicle powered by a gas engine” on January 29, 1886. In July 1886 the newspapers reported on the first public outing of the three-wheeled Benz Patent Motor Car, model no. 1.
The very first Motorwagen used the Benz 954cc single-cylinder four-stroke engine with trembler coil ignition. That engine was producing 500 watts (2⁄3 hp) at 250 rpm and it was an extremely light engine for that time, weighing about 100 kg.
The Automotive Industry during the WWI
Automotive industry had changed during the WWI, because all manufactures implemented armored bodywork and some of them, even automatic machine guns. They were also making ambulances and trucks for transporting resources and war equipment.
There were several Brands that left some marks on the World War I. In SUA, Ford was the biggest American supplier for armored touring cars and it remained the same even after the war. By 1919, Ford was producing 50% of all cars in the United States and 40% of all the British ones.
In Europe, there were many manufacturers that contributed for military car supplying. Renault was the French main producer of military equipments, being known for its FT light tank. Renault produced approximately 3600 of them.
World War I provided Renault precious tools and opportunities to develop itself and become a known french vehicle manufacturer.
For Daimler AG, the military took the normal automobiles, lorries, buses and ambulances and changed the basic bodywork with a bullet proof one. Before the war begins, Daimler had been making 105HP engines for normal tractors, but right after the war started, these engines were transferred to armored tractors and also, used for the first British tanks ever built, which was
The Automotive Industry during WWII
In SUA, the manufacture of passenger cars stopped completely when the war started. No cars, commercial trucks or auto parts were made from February 1942 to October 1945.
The whole group of automobile manufacturers were concerned only on supplying war material for the army. An interesting fact is that, these companies continued to advertise heavily, because they wanted to be remembered during and after the war, they wanted to keep their brand alive. And in order to do that, they proclaim a patriotic role in war production. The advertisements were placed on trucks, aircraft and munitions.
The same idea was implemented in Europe. But besides the marketing part, the automotive industry had a huge role during WWII. Without powerful automobiles capable of transporting heavy loads, the soldiers would not have been able to carry all the war equipment throughout Europe.
The main car brand used during the Second World War was the American Jeep. The ability of this car to run on all kind of roads made the brand very popular. Great suspensions and deep-ribbed tires were the most important components that made driving possible on such uneven roads.
Important Automobiles manufacturers
The above picture shows the main car manufacturers that sell automobiles within Europe. Next, I will present a brief history of each one and after that, I will insert the sale chart for carmakers in Europe in 2016 and 2017 as well.
• Ford Motor Company was founded by Henry Ford on June 16, 1903. It is an American multinational automaker headquartered in Deaborn, Michigan. The Company sells automobiles under the Ford brand, and most luxury cars under the Lincoln brand.
• Daimler AG was founded on 1st of May 1924 after an Agreement of Mutual Interest signed between Benz & Cie (founded in 1883 by Karl Benz) and Daimler Motoren Gesellschaft (founded in 1883 by Gottlieb Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach). It is a German multinational automotive corporation with its headquarters in Stuttgart, Baden-Württemberg,Germany.
• Volkswagen AG was founded on 28th of May 1937 by the National Socialists. It is a German multinational automotive manufacturing company headquartered in Wolfsburg, Lower Saxony,Germany. Volkswagen Group sells passenger cars under the Audi, Bentley, Bugatti, Lamborghini, Porsche, Seat, Škoda and Volkswagen brands.
• Toyota Motor Corporation was founded in 1937 by Sakichi Toyoda. It is a Japanese multinational automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota,Aichi. Toyota sells passenger cars under the Lexus, Daihatsu, Mitsubishi and Toyota marque.
• Nissan Motor Company was founded in 1934 by Yoshisuke Aikawa. It is a Japanese multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Nishi-ku, Yokohama. Nissan Group sells cars under the Nissan, Infiniti, Mitsubishi and Datsun brands
• Groupe Renault was founded in 1899 by Louis Renault. It is a French multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Boulogne-Billancourt, France. Renault Group sells cars under the Dacia, Alpine, Renault, Lada, Venucia and Samsung brands.
• BMW (Bayerische Motoren Werke) became an automobile manufacturer in 1929. Its founders were Karl Rapp and Franz Josef Popp. BMW is a German multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Munich, Bavaria. BMW Group sells passenger cars under the Rolls-Royce, Mini and BMW brands.
• Hyundai Group was founded in 1947 by Chung Ju-yung. It is a Korean multinational automobile manufacturer headquartered in Seoul, South Korea. Hyundai Group sells passenger cars under the Kia, Hyundai and Genesis brands.
MANUFACTURER SALES 2017 SALES 2016 % Market Share
VW Group 3,717,566 3,642,233 23.8
– VOLKSWAGEN 1,706,369 1,721,899 10.9
– AUDI 826,370 830,933 5.3
– SKODA 705,421 663,147 4.5
– SEAT 400,968 350,508 2.6
– PORSCHE 73,456 71,172 0.5
RENAULT Group 1,628,472 1,526,874 10.4
– RENAULT 1,150,498 1,101,221 7.4
– DACIA 472,800 421,644 3.0
BMW Group 1,042,580 1,031,840 6.7
– BMW 827,137 822,724 5.3
– MINI 215,443 209,116 1.4
FORD 1,031,957 1,034,635 6.6
DAIMLER 992,528 945,074 6.3
– MERCEDES 893,574 839,779 5.7
– SMART 98,954 105,295 0.6
TOYOTA Group 717,849 638,418 4.6
– TOYOTA 673,510 593,760 4.3
– LEXUS 44,339 44,658 0.3
NISSAN 566,191 550,584 3.6
HYUNDAI 523,258 505,377 3.3
-KIA 472,125 435,316 3.0
Terminology is the study of terms and their use in language. The word “Terminology” comes from the medieval Latin “termin(us)” which means “word expression” and has a huge role in understanding the meaning of words.
The one who invented this concept was Eugen Wüster. Its first approaches are
of methodological and normative nature and less theoretical. Terminology is
thought to be a working tool to scientific disambiguation and technical communication.
A much more shorter definition is that all the terms of a specialized field, such as terminology of physics, chemistry, mechanics etc., form the terminology of a specific area.
Nowadays, this concept is very important, because the language industry is developing, resulting inter-linguistic connections and term loans. Regardless of the field of activity, all terminologies are consisting of words in both the common language and strictly specialized
words, which individualizes each specialized language. Compared to the usual vocabulary, terminology is relatively closed, because the terms are as precise as possible in one domain.
Terms are lexical units, organized systematically, belonging to a specialized field. Terms can be formed by modifying existing resources: by derivation, composition, change of grammatical value, abbreviations, acronym.
However, in everyday speech, terminology is not present. It is mainly used at certain times, in order to describe as accurately as possible a concept that is not part of the basic knowledge.
The glossary of terms
A glossary of terms is intended to assist you in understanding commonly used terms and concepts. This can help you understand and analyze the terms given in a specialized field more efficiently.
A glossary may include many foreign words or technical terms that could help unfamiliar readers understand a text at its best.
Unlike dictionaries, that gather all the words of a language and explain their meaning to a basic level, the glossaries take only the specialized terms from a certain field and explain them to the interested individuals.
In this case, I own a glossary made of 75 English-Romanian terms about the auto domain.
The semantic fields
The semantic field for the English and Romanian glossary terms are:
1. SOURCE / SURSA TERMENULUI: Denotes that the term was taken from a specific source;
2. I.D LANGUAGE / LIMBA VEDETEI: It can be English or Romanian;
3. I.D COUNTRY / ŢARA VEDETEI: The country from which the term was taken over;
4. STANDARD DEFINITION / DEFINIŢIE STANDARD: Here, the meaning of the word must be explained in a concise manner;
5. STANDARD DEFINITION SOURCE / SURSA DEFINIŢIEI STANDARD: This space is for the source from where the definition was found;
6. NOTA BENE: field which represents information about etymology and origin of the term;
7. NOTA BENE SOURCE / SURSĂ NOTA BENE: It presents the document or website
where the term was found;
8. ROMANIAN CORRESPONDENT/ CORESPONDENT ÎN ENGLEZĂ: The Romanian
correspondent for the English term/ The English correspondent for the Romanian term;
9. GENERIC CONCEPT / CONCEPT GENERIC field which represents the domain of the
10. GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY/ CATEGORIE GRAMATICALĂ: field presents the
grammatical analysis of the noun/noun phrase/verb/adjective;
11. Synonym / Sinonim: Synonyms are different words with similar or identical meanings:
12. Hypernym / Hiperonim: A context in which the reviewed term is present:
13. Hyponym / Hiponim: A hyponym is a term whose meaning denotes a subordinate or
subclass for term;
14. CONTEXT: The contexts must be extracted from genuine documents and they do not
have to be translated.
15. USE AREA / ARIA DE UTILIZARE: field represents the domain in which the term is
16. DESIGNATION STATUS / STATUTUL DESEMNĂRII: a term could be official,
accepted, rejected or obsolete.
The concept map
The concept map is an illustration of some subdivisions that make the understanding of the main element and the relationships between them much easier. By interrelating concepts in networks of concepts and labeling relationships between the concepts, this tool called concept map, helps you integrate different concepts in one place. To do that, you need to analyze the patterns and structures of the given topic. But once you do that, everything will be much understandable for each reader.
In order to create an exact representation, you need to choose the central element and then the most important subdivisions of it. And by that, I mean that in a concept map, only the essential in understanding the main topic should be added. That is exactly what I did with mine.
This Automobile Glossary includes the main auto parts, some types of passenger cars (SUV, Hatchback, Crossover etc.), sensor etc.
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