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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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Education is a very important thing in the era of globalization today. Academic decisions at the SPM or STPM level are often used as benchmarks in determining the future. According to Prof Datuk Dr Md Tahir Md Azhar (2015) the perception must be changed as the student's wisdom to conceal the future is important. Anyone can get education as long as there is a desire and wise make planning a direction. Additionally, he acknowledged that the students had excellent results with full capacity to choose the preferred program or institution based on the institution of meritocracy applied. Therefore, regardless of whether to choose an IPT or a skill institution, it is important to get the information that the specialization can guarantee the future as you learn to get a job after graduation instead of being a respected unemployed. Therefore, students need to focus more on the desire and willingness of each decision made in continuing education to a higher level in line with the wishes of employers today. We will discuss two main courses that are in the next paragraph and the requirements needed in each course to be taken.

Actuarial science is the most wanted course by Chinese in Malaysia that has high IQ in mathematics. The rapid development in the financial, investment and insurance industry in the country's development requires a lot of talent in this field. What is certain is that bumiputera labourers who graduate in this field still lack. In fact, many do not know that the area of Actuarial Science is a difficult field and also offers high salaries. Works as an actuary was ranked number one in the world. An actuary is a professional business professional associated with insurance inventories, pensions and other financial programs. Through the application of probability, statistics, risk theory and financial principles, an actuary could calculate future risks related to the program of insurance, annuities and pensions. The program is designed to produce skilled actuaries in various departments within various insurance companies such as actuaries, underwriting, policy services, corporate planning, and investments and so on. In addition, the program aims to provide an adequate basis to sit for an actuarial science profession at the "associateship" level. Focus is also given so that the graduates can contribute effectively in the financial sector to another and not limited to only the insurance sector

Consequently, to achieve all of these previously an actuary must compile and analyse data to establish the mathematical model. Probability models of illness, death, accident and so on and unemployment probability tables are built. After all the company's probabilities and costs are calculated, an actuary is able to set a premium price that will meet the expected payment of insurance benefits. Thus, an actuary once known as financial architects and social mathematicians because of its unique combination of business skills and their analysis in solving financial problems and social growing. The actuarial calculations and plans are the backbone of industry and financial securities. In addition, many actuarial works involve mathematics and an actuary must also keep abreast of current issues and business trends, social sciences, laws and economics. Students are encouraged to take professional examinations, whether organized by the Actuarial Society in the USA, Australia or Canada, or the Actuarial Institute in England, or the Faculty of Actuaries in Scotland. Those with professional qualifications will be more likely to work and have a better chance of earning a higher salary.

Based on the early history of actuarial duties is related to life and business, especially the mortality and compound benefits. Actuarial roles are also closely related to financial risks. Actuarial duties include insurance and investment. Actuarial duties include insurance and investment. In North America and Australia, actuarial involvement is in the field of strategic planning, environmental risk, demographics, weather forecasts, health insurance, property management and funds and law firms. In other countries, actuarial roles are concentrated in the insurance sector and investment and management of financial security systems. In addition there is also an actuary who works as a consultant. They provide advisory services to companies and other bodies who want to hire actuaries. Usually the consultant's advice covers broad issues the focus of individual consultants is usually focused on the development of actuarial expertise in the use of business environment. In addition, an actuary can work in governmental sector; they are usually assigned to manage pension plans or government insurance. Many actuaries also work in the profession of education as a lecturer at the university. In order to acquire the skills, students will be exposed to basic mathematical studies such as statistics, quantities, algebra, etc. In addition, students are exposed to economic fundamentals, financial mathematics, accounting and finance principles, actuarial mathematics, numerical methods, statistical methods, risk theory, investment analysis and portfolio management, actuarial planning and control and issues in actuarial science. A person should be the actuary is students who excel in mathematics, is love to research and always want to know who likes to learn something and like to solve complex problems. In addition, an avid games like chess and challenging computer game is also very suitable to become an actuary.

Among the universities that offer this course in Malaysia include University Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM), University Teknologi Mara (UITM), University Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) and University of Malaya at bachelor degree, but University Teknologi Mara (UITM) offer this course in diploma level, the Actuarial Science program is one of the programs under the Mathematics Science, Science and Technology, UKM.

In conclusion, actuarial science courses are the best choice nowadays because the dumping of work in this field is very high. So students who have completed their studies do not have to be reluctant to do the work that will be offered to them afterwards. Graduate in this field can enter the takaful and insurance industry, consulting, fund, securities, stocks, finance, banking, marketing, reinsurance, investment, capital, health, transportation (land, sea and air), mining, oil, business and multinational companies . They can also be entrepreneurs, sellers or employers in the public sector (such as central bank, domestic revenue, financial groups, public trustees, or education).

The second area of specialization and high demand in employment is the field of information and communication technology (ICT). The subjects included in this field is the creation of software, programming (programming), business information systems and management, database management systems (database), graphic design, animation, multimedia, website design, network system (network), engineering hardware, data communication systems and digital computer systems. Those who have passed the SPM / STPM can pursue a bachelor's degree in information technology in higher education institutions (IPT) local. A degree awarded by a particular foreign university is also recognized by the Government of Malaysia. Students will need to check out a list of overseas higher education institutions recognized by the Public Service Department (PSD) before taking courses overseas. The job opportunities in this field are numerous and can be said to be brighter because of the widespread use of computers. Graduates can find employment at government agencies; manufacturing and service firms; trade organization; computer manufacturing company; local and overseas banks; research organization; local authorities, institutions of higher learning, international organizations or working as consultants to provide IT solutions to various agencies including governments.

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is another advanced term for information technology (IT) which emphasizes the roles of unified communications and telecommunications integration (telephone lines and wireless signals), computers and enterprise software, middleware, storage and audio visual systems required, which enables users to access, store, transmit, and manipulate information. The term ICT is also used to refer to the convergence of audio-visual and telephone networks with a computer network through a single cable or single link system. There is a large economic incentive (cost savings due to the elimination of telephone networks) to combine telephone networks with computer network systems using a cable integration system, signal distribution and management. However, the definition, as "the concepts, methods and applications involved in ICT are constantly changing almost daily." The breadth of ICT covers any product that will store, retrieve, manipulate, transmit or receive information electronically in the form of digital, e.g. personal computers, digital television, e-mails, robots. Skills Framework for the Age of Information is one of many models to illustrate and manage the efficiency of ICT professionals for the 21st century

Those involved in ICT are given various titles depending on the area of expertise and their specialty: programmers of use; system analyst; database administrator; system administrator; software consultant; network administrator; website designer (web designer); multimedia & animation experts; information system manager; website administrator (webmaster); IT project manager; hardware engineer; computer system auditor; software engineer; database designer; and data communication analysts. Those who are ICT-qualified will be able to earn a better salary if they have a professional qualification - Microsoft Certified Professional (MCP). In Malaysia, a new IT professional can earn a starting salary of between RM 2,000 and RM 2,500 a month. Those with work experience of about 6 years and network administration, website design, graphic designer & animation, multimedia advertising and business solutions can earn a salary about RM 6,000-RM 8,000 per month. Chakrabarty (1979), explains that computer literacy means to learn how to use a microcomputer software and device that can generate something through the use of computers. While Dologite (1987), it states that literacy has a relatively simple meaning, which is the level of knowledge and ability of a person to use a computer.

 Information and Communication Technology (ICT) (Information and Communication Technology) is the technology needed for data processing. The scope of the title is very broad. It covers all aspects of information management and processing. The accuracy and ease of use is the use of computers and software to modify, store, protect, process, transfer, view, and obtain information regardless of place and time. The technology exists as a medium for distributing various kinds of information for different purposes. For example, education, advertising, notification, telecommunications and so on to obtain information, store information, retrieve information, process information and disseminate information.

Information and communication technology (ICT) can help management in making decisions, adapting to changes, and improving communication within the organization. The fact is, ICT is very helpful and helps school management to work more efficiently, effectively, easily, quickly and make good decisions involving information, processes and work such as student registration, multiple records, inventory control, timetables, teacher options, number of teaching hours , exam related matters, stock purchases and so on. Laudon and Laudon (1997) which states the information and communication system is an integrated component that collects and stores information to help organizations decide, plan, control and analyse. Teachers can also obtain information from various sources through ICT for learning and teaching (P & P) and know how to use communication technologies such as CD ROM, disks, video, computers, mobile computers, and computer software applications such as e- mail, database, word processing, electronic spread sheets, internet, presentation software and others. According to Stair and Reynolds (1999), the main purpose of the information and communication system is to help the organization achieve its goals by providing managers with " insight "On organizational operations so that they can control, manage and plan more effectively and efficiently.

In addition, IT is also a fast growing field. It radically changed the world by introducing a variety of new ways of doing business, making business, entertainment and creating art. In short, it covers matters relating to computer science and technology that are closely related to computer hardware and software, design, installation and implementation of information systems and application usage.

Challenges faced in the development of ICT in Malaysia this is a problem of lack of adequate ICT workforce. Utusan Malaysia (10 June 2005) reported that Malaysia experienced a shortage of local professional workforce and had to use 40,000 foreign professional workforce and among the areas identified as having the problem were information technology, as well as mechanical, high-tech machine maintenance and industry reference. Troubled employers to get experienced and skilled IT workers not only in terms of quantity, but also faced with difficulties in obtaining quality candidates such as experienced, skilled and well-behaved (Atiqah, Khairy, Mutasim, 2012).

Nowadays demand in the field of information technology has helped many graduates in Computer Science, Information Technology, Software Engineering and others to get jobs in the information system is the best. There are many jobs in the information system that can be considered. These include systems analyst, Web managers, database administrators, programmers, network administrators, technical writers and instructors. Thus, the presence of various information and communication technology (ICT) has changed the way people communicate, work, trade, and performs daily activities. Communities recognizing the importance of ICT knowledge and skills, the government and the private sector have provided facilities at ICT centres for the public to gain exposure, knowledge, and related services. Therefore, members of the community need to utilize ICT facilities in their respective places to gain knowledge and skills for the development of self, family and society. Internal and external challenges to the individual, the family, and those in the community.

In conclusion, choosing the right specialization in continuing education at university level is a very important decision to secure future employment opportunities. The two courses discussed above are courses that have a lot of job opportunities especially in Malaysia. Labor demand in the above field is very high. Students who wish to continue their studies at the university level are advised to choose the right courses, and selected areas of interest and the investigation must also advance the scope of learning and so on. There are many fields that offer high employment opportunities in Malaysia. Students who wish to pursue employment to a higher level should be doing a lot of research on all courses offered at the university inside or outside the State. The selected course will guarantee your future as well as the country. It’s meaning even though the country's economy is in an unstable state, but the opportunity to work in the field remains. For example, majors involve professionals such as accountants, information technology and engineering. Also, identify the talent and skills that will make it easier for you to study at the university and then gain added value in the future, then by knowing your own personality, the selection of departments will be easier. According to John Holland, personalities are categorized as realistic, thoughtful, artistic, helper and masterful. Of the six categories, you can customize yourself according to the chosen course.

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