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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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  • Number of pages: 2

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The rapidly industrialized society we live in brought many scientific and cultural advances, but none more siginificant than the ability to produce massive amounts of food using said advanced technology. In an era of more advanced information, the means of producing this food has come under great scrutiny, as evidence against pesticides and other harmful methods grows. This has, understandably, lead to an increase in organic food purchasing among the general public. This study aims to understand the method by which these consumers come to the organic food conclusion. Some of the prominent motivating factors to purchase organic foods include environmental concern, health concern and lifestyle, product quality and subjective norms. This study evaluates consumers based on the influences of factors like environmental concern, health concern and lifestyle, product quality and subjective norms on the attitude towards organic foods.

This study conducted a quantitative survey comprising of 50 consumers in two major Indian cities. The results of this survey indicated that environmental concern was the most highly correlated to organic food purchasing behavior, but most other standard issues are also highly correlated with purchase intention, like product quality, lifestyle concerns, and health concerns. This indicates that as Indians become more educated to the health hazards of non-organic food, they may adopt lifestyle qualtites that lead to the purchasing of organic foodstuffs.

What remains unclear is the bidirectionality of this correlation. Is the indian population becoming more attuned to the scientific underpinnings of healthcare, leading to organic food purchasing, or is it in the reverse direction, where their introduction to modern health practices comes from organic food purchasing and various forms of marketing/advertising. At a fundamental level, this study only revealed the level of correlation that various factors are to a persons' likelihood to purchase organic foods, but fails ultimately to understand why they make those purchases. Especially in a rapidly developing economy that is unfolding before our eyes, the opportunities to understand human behavior is unbelievable. The authors fail to ask these significant questions and ultimately their study only provides us with a cursory glance of indian health-food purchasing behavior. More robust data sets and larger sample sizes are necessary to improve our understanding. But importantly, the purchasing of organic food is on the rise and that is a trend to capitalize upon.

Article 2

In Sri-Lanka an agricultural lifestyle laid the foundation for healthy lifestyles for thousands of years prior to this modern era. As they have moved away from traditional food habids, new non-transferable chronic diseases have begun to plague the population of Sri Lanka. The WHO has indicated the 38 million deaths have been recorded directly due to unhealthy diets, and this is most notable in Sri Lanka and other east Asian countries. In Sri Lanka, behavior is beginning to shift to purchasing organic, and agriculturally sustainable foods instead of pre-packaged food with high fat and carbohydrate contents. Yet organic food is perceived to have special and unique value, and this study aims to determine what that value is determined to be by Sri Lankan citizens and what their purchasing intention is based on their reference group.

Using primary data from a structured survey of 400 Sri Lankans of various ethnicities, the data was analyzed using a multiple linera regression model. Interestingly, environmental concern was not the most highly correlated with purchase of organic foods, but in this one, income also was analyzed and highly correlated with organic food purchasing in a positive fashion.

The research finding demonstrated determinants of organic food purchase intention of Sri Lankan customers and it was reported that, awareness and health consciousness were the two key determinants of purchase intention of organic food. Increase in one unit of health aware ness lead to increase in36.7%of purchase intention. Increase in one unit of health consciousness leads to increase in 25.2% of purchase intention. Environment concern and Reference group influence were not reported as determining factors which were affecting on purchase intent ion of organic food in Sri Lanka. With the increasing level of awareness, customers tend to have more intension to purchase organic food as well as the customers who concern about the health, have increased intention to buy organic foods. Knowledge about organic food had positive impact on consumption of organic food and the same was proved in Sri Lankan context. Yet, Sri Lankan customers' purchase intention of organic food has not been significantly impacted by the environment concern, where as many authors, highlighted that environmental concern has a significant impact on consumption of organic food. Reference group influence on purchase intention of organic food has also not considered as impacting factor in Sri Lankan context.  Extending organic food consumption is a sound and sustainable solution for the environmental and health problems prevail in Sri Lanka. Policy makers need to draw special attention on improving awareness levels and promote the health benefits of organic foods in order to stimulate real purchasing decisions of Sri Lankan customer

Article 3

There is an ongoing trend towards the consumption of organic food in many industrialized countries. For food producers and marketers, it is interesting to know the determinants of organic food consumption. The great majority of previous research on this topic was based on consumer surveys or interviews with questions on pastor future behavior or attitudes towards organic food. However, there is a potential bias in these measures. The aim of this study was to determine the drivers of actual organic food purchases and compare them with the drivers of attitudes towards organic food. The analysis was based on household panel data from Germany provided by the company GfK documenting all food purchases of  9470 households during the entire year of 2008. The data on actual purchases of organic food were linked with survey data from the same households on attitudes towards different food characteristics. The analysis confirmed the phenomenon of an attitude-behaviour gap in the market for organic food. Nevertheless, the structural equation models provided evidence that attitudes towards organic food and organic food purchases were both driven by the same de-terminants. In both models, 'naturalness and healthiness' and 'environmental protection' were the two most important factors. Other significant factors with a positive influence were the preference for local and domestic food and the desire for high quality food and enjoyment of eating. Price consciousness had a significant negative effect.

This study really unfolds the fundamentally important questions of the directionality of behavior and attitude response as well as the phenomena of behavior-attitude asymmetry. The asymmetry is that people purposely do not conform their behaviors to their attitudes unless they can handle the economic impacts of those decisions. But in Germany, things like naturalness and environmental impacts were seen as some of the most important factors culturally, which is surprisingly similar to the indian results. Also, it showed that the things which drive attitude towards organic food and the thing that drive organic purchasing behvaiors are fundamentally similar to one another, without much overlap, but you cannot generalize the attitudes to the purchase behavior.

The study does have limitaitons, principally around the demographics, as you cannot extrapolate outside of Germany, although this adheres closer to a western philosophy than the other countries. Also they don't know who makes the actual purchasing decisions, although it is assumed to be head of household and that will inform the authors as to the sex/earner bias for organic/non organic food.

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