Review of Related Literature
Due to the accessibility of literature on the psychological/social analysis of place, this review of literature will concentrate mainly on studies of place and place attachment, marketing strategy and social gathering places in the Kingdom of Bahrain. These studies were obtained thesis, magazines, books which were mainly available in the Kingdom of Bahrain. The foreign literature studies have been obtained from the book which were published outside the Kingdom of Bahrain
To every and each individual the experience of place is unique, and this is directly related to his or her lived experience. Human nature always tries to find to find comfort, and they are emotionally bind with particular places. “Places root us—to the earth, to our own history and memories, to our families and larger community” . We have to understand the importance places, in order to explore why people are so attached to it, and why do they want to go to the same place persistently.
In our review first of all, we will discuss the Local Literature, then we shall discuss the foreign literature, then the local studies, in the end we will talk about the foreign studies.
2. 01 Local Literature
Bahraini Ghada Alansari in one of the article states that social gathering places (Coffee-shops) in the Kingdom of Bahrain is on a rise. She further states that today Bahrain has taken this tradition to another level, mixing local and international customs and introducing a whole new coffee house culture. The traditional ghahwas developed into luxuriously decorated places where music, chess and shisha (hookah or hubble bubble) can be enjoyed. According to Proshansky, Fabian and Kaminoff 1983, describe these social places (Coffee-houses) as a place where you get involved emotionally, and it becomes your daily life routine.
a) Marketing Strategy
Walker, Orville and Ruekert, Robert. 1987. “Marketing's Role in the Implementation of Business Strategies: A Critical Review and Conceptual Framework.” Journal of 51 (Jul): pp. 15-33.Marketing, Historically, marketing strategy formulation is viewed as an antecedent to performance out comes. It is the modus operandi that allows an organisation to concentrate its limited resources on the best available opportunities to increase sales and achieve a sustainable competitive advantage.
Marketing strategy has been a pivotal focal point of academic investigation since the 1980s, according to (Mavondo 2000). There are several descriptions of marketing strategy in the literature and such descriptions reflect several prospects . A customary definition of marketing strategy is a plan for pursuing the firm's objectives or how the company is going to obtain its marketing goals with a specific market segment. While Brodrechtova 2008 explains that marketing strategy is a roadmap of how a firm assigns its resource and relates to its environment and achieves corporate objective in order to generate economic value and keep the firm ahead of its competitors. In laymen terms it is to determine the nature, strength, direction, and interaction between the marketing mix-elements and the environmental factors in a particular situation . According to Levie 2006, the aim of the development of an organization's marketing strategy development is to establish, build, defend and maintain its competitive advantage. A thorough analysis of the newest scientific articles on strategic management and organisational behaviour indicates that 71% of them analyse company performance as a dependent variable, 16% of them analyse it as an independent variable while 13% of the studies analyse performance as a dependent as well as an independent variable
b) Social Places (Coffee-houses)
The significance of social associations that happen in places must not be ignored and might develop a great bonding with the society . The societal association of relatives, friends, neighbourhood, and culture might be equally, or more significant, than the place alone. Customers are very concerned with innovation and quality of service these days. In fact, they keep an eye on the service and experience they receive from coffee-houses these days.
2. 02 Foreign Literature
a) Place attachment and Innovation :
According to Tuan (1974), place attachment means a feeling of being attached. While Harris, Brown, and Werner (1996) highlighted place attachment as both the sensation of being emotionally involved as well as the development of becoming attached. Stokols and Shumaker (1982) states that higher ecological quality are those that supports the aims and the activities of an individual.
Place attachment serves several purpose and functions for the people and their culture. It has the ability to offer certainty on a daily basis, a place where you can relax from the more official responsibilities of life, and the opportunity for controlling certain areas of life .
Furthermore, according to Bougoure and Neu (2010), in coffee-shops perspective, tangible service components received a reasonable high mean score, showing that coffee shops provide attractive menu and comfortable dining area. Hence, this causes Bahrain consumers are happy with the service quality provided.
Baker, Levy, and Grewal (1992) stated in one of their work that there are some atmospherics scopes such as ambient factors, design factors and social factors that attract customers to the coffee houses Ambient factors consist of noise, aroma, music and colour, whereas design factors consist of shop's layout, tables, barricade display, as for the societal aspects, it consist of categories of consumers and worker's outlook and appearance .
b) Marketing Strategy
Professor Seppälä in his work states that marketing strategy has a positive impact on performance, and to have the best response the quality of food should be perfect. Human opinion of excellence of food is reliant on the visual image. It should be well noted that colour and appearance can have a halo outcome which transforms subsequent taste opinion and food tolerability .
2. 03 Local Studies:
a) Marketing Strategy and Customer Satisfaction
Dr Adel I. Al Alawi discusses the customer relationship management in the Kingdom of Bahrain. he states that customer relationship management is a new weapon to persuade consumers and increase their loyalty. He further states that a company or an organisation should know what consumer wants from them. In addition he argues that managing consumers is not an easy task. Altering consumer preferences exert direct weight on organisation plus it is not very easy to satisfy these preferences .
b) Coffee-shops, Place attachment
The coffee shop (Qahwa) is the main place where people socialise, and discuss politics, business and social news. It acts as the media medium. It is a place where people gather to experience the traditional culture, and traditional and western food, and it still attracts local residents and tourists.
Consumers at the end of the day would like to have an excellent service from the coffee-shops, since they come here to spend their time, and that can only be provided by an efficient and excellent customer relationship.
2. 04 Foreign Studies
a) Coffee-shops, Place attachment
The relationship to culture and history might happen through place or through symbols, which are associated with places. Those locations become part of the lived experience, an interwoven module of life encounters, and is inseparable from them.
b) Marketing Strategy, Innovation
In accordance to Mintel (2001) branding is seen to give customers comfort and confidence concerning the quality of food, service, menu pricing and on the whole standards, this gives the customers the confidence about knowing what they are going to get. Brands have provided customers the sense of not to have to think of where to go to eat. “Success of branded entrepreneurs is due to their ability to provide formula food, which is making use of contemptible ingredients, consistent in quality and providing fast service”
Interior design of a restaurant or coffee shop plays a vital part since most of the consumers are fascinated by stunning aesthetics in it. The features of interior design is including wall painting, pictures, flowers, plants, ceiling decorations, wall decorations and floor covering . Atmospheric music can increase sales. Researcher stated that music influence purchase intention.
According to Ryu and Jang (2007) " Ambience such as aroma and scent had the most important influence on customers' emotional responses, which in turn affect customers dining behavioural intentions".
2. 05 Review of Relevant Theoretical Models
Figure 2.1 Customer Satisfaction and its Impact on Behavioural Intentions of Casual Dining Restaurant in Manama the Kingdom of Bahrain.
The outcome of this study illustrates that every characteristics have major encouraging connection towards consumer satisfaction and behavioural intentions. The better the consumer fulfilment, the higher the behavioural intentions, and the best thing is that the customer will come back to the restaurant.
2. 06 Proposed Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
If we take previous study into consideration, we can see that the dining experience characteristics influence consumer fulfilment. If we study thoroughly we can see that the planned framework illustrates the independent variables which are service quality and servicecape towards consumer fulfilment that will persuade behavioural goals. There are 5 elements that has been tested in service quality, and is called SERVQUAL, five scopes consists of tangible, reliability, responsiveness, assurance and empathy. This research shows that service quality has an enormous impact on consumer satisfaction.
2. 07 Hypotheses Development
a) The Relationship between Service Quality and Customer Satisfaction
A good or bad quality of services provided by coffee shop will openly persuade on consumers, whether consumer are pleased or displeased towards the service perceived. Service quality is an important section of consumer fulfilment . It has become the major determinant of customer satisfaction and they have major connection in numerous industries such as fast food industry. Furthermore, measuring service quality by implementing SERVQUAL five dimensions has also becomes a key determinant of customer satisfaction. According to Ivyanno and Nila (2012), their research showed that there is an influence of five dimension of service quality on tourist satisfaction.
Therefore, this research proposes that:
H1: There is a important association between service quality and customer satisfaction.
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