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Introduction

The World Health Organization estimated that 80% of people worldwide rely on herbal medicines for some part of their primary health care. For many millions of people, often living in rural areas of developing countries, herbal medicines, traditional treatments and traditional practitioners are the main – sometimes the only – source of healthcare. This is care that is close to homes, accessible and affordable. (Ehrlich, 2015; Carr, 2014).

The consumption in these medicinal plants has become such a prominent alternative source in providing therapeutic aid. Whether sick or poor, the utilization in herbal medicine are frequent in areas succumbed by poverty due to the fact of insufficient funds or inability to attain health care.

The World Health Organization has recently defined traditional medicine (including herbal drugs) as comprising therapeutic practices that have been in existence, often for hundreds of years, before the development and spread of modern medicine and are still in use today. Indigenous tribes also worked and communed with plants and herbs believing that there was an exchange of healing information from the plants themselves that guided them through the process of selecting the right herbs and plants for healing (Agarwal, 2013; Adelmann, 2013).

According to Agarwal and Adelmann, the World Health organization recognized the use of herbal medicine worldwide and its' contribution in the development in modern medicine especially since many pharmaceutical medications derive from natural herbs/plants. Moreover, many medicinal plants throughout several generations have brought knowledge on its negative and positive aspects.

People have practiced natural medicine for centuries. Prior the advent of modern technology, doctors and their patients had to rely on natural techniques and herbal remedies to treat illnesses or heal injuries (Tanner, 2013).

This merely indicates how much of an influence the usage of medicinal plants has throughout many centuries. Herbal medicine has been known for its versatility due to its availability, history, and cost which has impacted the peoples' decision in considering the consumption of herbal medicine.

Despite the differences in backgrounds, social status, and beliefs, herbal medicine has captured the attention of many and continues to be a relevant topic. Therefore, herbal medicine is an aspect which portrays an active role in the lives of many worldwide.

Rationale

In recognition of the deep-seated practice of traditional medicine as an alternative modality for treating and preventing diseases in the Philippines, the Department of Health (DOH) launched the Traditional Medicine Program. This program aims to promote an effective and safe use of traditional medicine. Then President Fidel V. Ramos appreciated the importance of the traditional medicine program and signed into law Republic Act 8423 (R.A. 8423), otherwise known as the Traditional and Alternative Medicine Act (TAMA). This gave rise to the creation of Philippine Institute of Traditional and Alternative Health Care (PITAHC) which is tasked to promote and advocates the use of traditional and alternative health care modalities through scientific research and product development. (Philippine Herbal Medicine, 2014)

Therefore, according to Philippine Herbal Medicine, to accommodate to the peoples' consumption/usage of herbal medicine the government sought ways to ensure the safety of the public. In order to do so, the program was developed to provide guidelines and regulations to protect the public.

The act envisions the potential heightening in the endorsement of herbal medicine with the aid of scientific research. Moreover, scientific research provides further explanation on possible concerns, beneficial effects, and background.

Due to the implementation of the act, it has reassured to the public in regards to its' beneficial effects backed with scientific evidence, as well as, regulations and guidelines that should be taken into consideration. For this reason, many of those who have encountered herbal medicinal, have acknowledged the substantial number of medicinal herbs as their alternative route in means to treat, prevent, aid, and promote their overall health.

Thus, considering the publics' viewpoint on the DOH approved medicinal herbs allows nurses and other members of the health team to reflect on ways to continue to promote the lives of other who wish to consume herbal medicine.

Current State of the Research in the Field

According to recent and current studies, Consumers from developing countries mostly rely on advice from family and friends, overprescribing physicians, unqualified drug sellers, and the marketing campaigns of the pharmaceutical companies (Saleem & Khann, 2016).

According to Saleem and Khann, our surroundings heavily impact ones' decision-making process whether it comes from a reliable family member or commercials it provides the people some source of justification on their decisions in life.

Thus, the importance of proper dissemination of actual factual information must be applied. Therefore, if done conversely, it can lead to the spread of wrongful information and inadequacy of self-prescribing these medicinal plants may not facilitate in the progression of the rehabilitation process.

Zhao and Ma explain that, the most common is self-medication, which is the selection and use of medicines to treat self-recognized or self-diagnosed conditions or symptoms without physicians' prescription (Zhao & Ma, 2016).

Consequently, in terms of self-medication majority of the public are guilty in committing this. Although, not all situations to treat common colds one must seek aid from a doctor and is usually overlooked. Thus, taking matters to their own hands and with adequate knowledge leads to self-medicate according to ones' condition.

Another study by Abdelmalek, Alkhawaja, and Darwish claim that, it was interesting to note that the presence of a physician in a family did not affect the use of herbs. This could be explained by the lack of physician input into patients' education on the use of herbs. But Health-care professionals, among which physicians, could play an important role in raising public's awareness on the proper use of herbs in treating diseases (Abdelmalek, Alkhawaja & Darwish, 2016).

Through Abdelmalek, Alkhawaja, and Darwish findings, it shows the significance of the role of every health-care professional in providing the general public information on which herbal medicine could be applied with their condition.

In addition, despite the risks and the widespread use, it is vital to ask patients about their use of herbal remedies while taking a routine drug history (Greener, 2016).

Thus, seeking the knowledge of the general public can be essential to understanding the practices they take into consideration when it comes to herbal medicine. Health-ca re professionals must and the public must work together to determine way to promote the lives of many.

Although their practices or perceptions on these medicinal may not be altered, at least they are more fully aware of the capabilities of these medical plants and can apply it in their daily lives'.

Synthesis of the Art

A response to symptoms, or illness behavior, is the differential perception, evaluation and consequent response to specific symptoms (Mechanic, 1962).

Meanwhile the continuing growth in the utilization of herbs for self-medication by patients or individuals is also attributed to a number of other reasons like patients being uncomfortable about discussing their medical problems and fear lack of confidentiality in handling their health information, fear of possible misdiagnosis and wrong treatment by patients with non-specific symptoms or general malaise, and lack of time to see a physician; this is usually a reason where prior visit didn't lead to a more positive experience. (Studdert, 2013)

Medicinal plants and herbs has been used by our Filipino forefathers for many centuries, this knowledge was passed on from generation to generation. Traditional medicine has been practiced since ancient times in every culture throughout the world and has been an integral part of human evolution and development. The evolution of Philippine traditional medicine is an interesting study that is influenced by religion, mysticism, magic, superstition, folkloric herbalism and western medicine (McDermott, 2014; Philippine Herbal Medicine, 2014).

A decoction is an extract of herbs produced by boiling the herb in water. This method is used for hard seeds, roots, and barks which require longer steeping than an infusion. It is also a method of reducing and preserving water extracts and best for children and persons with weakened constitutions. (Herbal Encyclopedia, 2018).

Herbal Medicine is also known as people's medicine as it is easily available and safe. One of the major advantages of herbal medicine is that the risk of negative side effects is often substantially reduced compared to traditional medicine. Herbs typically have fewer and less dramatic side effects, and they are safer than prescription drugs to use habitually over longer periods of time. They also tend to be more effective in individuals with chronic diseases or long-standing health complaints that haven't responded to traditional medicine. (Pithava & Pithava, 2016; Crawford, 2013)

Herbal infusions allow it be easy make a potent drink, extract oils and flavors from herbs. Herbal infusions are a wonderful way to enjoy early spring herbs as well. (Jeanroy, 2018).

Tinctures are liquid extracts made from herbs that you take orally. They are usually extracted in alcohol, but they can also be extracted in vegetable glycerin or apple cider vinegar. Tinctures are easy and convenient to use. (Caldwell & Lore, 2017).

To prepare akapulko, cut freshly washed akapulko into small pieces, add one glass of cooking oil to one glass of cut fresh leaves, fry until crispy. Then, cut two white candles and strain along with the candle and cover once it's cool. (Akapulko Herbal Medicine, 2015.)  

When preparing lagundi, boil a cup of lagundi leaves, steep and then strain the liquid. It is recommended to drink one half cup of this lagundi tea three times a day. (Halamang gamot/Herbal Medicine, 2013. Lagundi / Vitex Negundo Herbal Medicine, 2011).

To make sambong tea, finely cut 50 grams of fresh sambong leaves and boil. It helps with upper and lower respiratory tract affections like sinusitis, asthmatic bronchitis, influenza. Let it seep for 10 minutes. For better results, you can consume 4 glasses a day (Frontiers, 2016; Sambong, 2014).

To prepare ampalaya extract, wash and finely chop leaves in two glasses of water, boil for 15 minutes in an uncovered pot, let it cool and strain. Drink 1/3 cup of the solution 30 minutes before meals 3 times a day. (National League of Philippine Government Nurses, 2013)

To prepare bawang, you can either have it fried, roasted, soaked in vinegar for half an hour or blanched in boiled water for 5 minutes. Consume 2 pieces three times a day after meals (Herbal Medicine Bawang, n.d.)

To prepare guava, boil one cup of water for 8-10 minutes use decoction as mouth wash use as wound disinfectant wash affected areas with leaves 2-3 times a day (Medical Health Guide, 2016).

For Ulasimang Bato or Pansit Pansitan, prepare 1/2 cup of fresh leaves and chew 3 times a day. Put 1 1/2 cups of fresh leaves in an earthen jar. Pour in 2 glassfuls of water, and then cover it. Bring mixture to a boil. Remove the cover and let it continue to boil until the 2-glass full of water originally poured has been reduced to 1 glassful. Let it cool and then strain the mixture. (Uses and Preparation of Ulasiman-bato; Pansit-pansitan, 2011).   

For yerba Buena, dry the leaves for at least 2 weeks and crush. Add 2 tablespoons to a tea cup. Allow the 30 minutes for mixture to steep. It is recommended to do this 3-4 times per day. (Hakala, 2013).

For Tsaang Gubat, prepare these herbs and chop a desirable size and boil in 2 cups of water and make sure that you boil 1 cup of chopped leaves in low heat for 15-20 minutes and drain. Drink as tea daily. (Beran, 2014).

Akapulko is used for intestinal parasitism, for cough and as expectorant in bronchitis and asthma. It is also used as astringent and used to treat ringworm, scabies, eczema, tinea infections, itches, insect bites and herpes. (Rodriguez, 2017).

Lagundi is used to prevent and treat worm infestation, skin diseases such as eczema, ringworm and it is also use an analgesic function to treat rheumatism, muscle pain and inflammation of joint. (6 Remarkable Healths of Lagundi, 2016.)

Niyog-niyogan is also believed to help suppress the growth of tumor or anticancer. Decoctions of its roots are also to relieve rheumatism while its fruits are used to relieve toothaches. Niyug niyugan is effective in the elimination of intestinal worms particulary the ascaris and trichina. (Rn Speak, 2018.)

Ampalaya is use for rheumatism and gout, diseases of the spleen and liver, aids in lowering blood sugar level, helps in lowering blood pressure, relives headaches, disinfects and heals wounds and burns. It can be used as a cough and fever remedy, treatment of intestinal worms, diarrhea, helps prevent some types of cancer, and enhances immune system to fight infection. (Ampalaya Momordica Charantia, 2014).

Bawang is used to treat high cholesterol, respiratory problems, poor digestion and low energy, regular eating of garlic helps lower blood pressure, controls blood sugar and blood cholesterol, and boosts the immune system (Piccio, 2013).

Guava is used to treat skin burns, scalds, scrapes, sunburn, wounds, eczema, psoriasis. Pansit pansitan is used for arthritis, gout, skin boils, wounds, burns, skin inflammation, abscesses, pimples, headache, abdominal pains, kidney problems, and eye inflammation. (Halamang Gamot/ Herbal Medicine, 2017; Medical Health Guide, 2016).

Yerba Buena is used to soothe digestion, eliminate bad breath, aid in weight loss, reduce menstrual discomfort, and protect the immune system. Tsaang gubat is used to treat intestinal mobility. (6 Best Benefits Of Yerba Buena Tea, n d.; Rn speak, 2018)

Several methods are used to extract the beneficial components from plants. Boiling both helps extract the active component while removing possible impurities. Decoction consists of boiling for a long period of time then steeping. Accordingly, teas or infusions are the commonest route of administration of the plant extract, although inhalation is also often used and solid components such as bark can be chewed (Halberstein, 2005).

  Therefore, it can be synthesized that, throughout the world, our ancestors have spent generations discovering and generating remedies to treat, maintain the stabilization to one's health, as well as, facilitate in the rehabilitative process with the aid of the natural resources that surrounds their daily lives.

With the help of Mother Nature, it has revolutionized the world of medicine. Up until today, all of humankind has relied on the usage of herbal medicine at some point in their lives. Countries, from across the globe, big or small, each has its own approach to treat the ill, rehabilitate the weakened, and forestall diseases from dispersing through these practices. Culture, beliefs, religion, climate, and location play an active role to which one uses these alternative remedies.   

Although the modernized pharmaceutical world continues to thrive, many continue to advocate in the continuance of the utilization of medicinal herbs. The program developed by the government seeks to cultivate the effective and safe use of these practices to accommodate to common or potential users. Substantially, this merely conveys the importance of herbal medicine in the lives of millions.

Problem in the field

The history of herbal medicine continued to evolve over the course of thousands of years as more discoveries were made regarding plants that many people had in their regions. “Albularyos” began to mix certain herbs depending on the ailment. This allowed for a completely personalized treatment of all patients but required that those to obtain a vast knowledge of all types of herbs that were available in the region. Trade of various herbs with various regions from all parts of the world signified that alternative herbal medicine becomes more complex than ever before.

Many people underestimate how truly potent herbal supplements and medications can be. When consumed by someone inadequate amount of knowledge pertaining to herbal medicine or combined with other herbs, this alternative form of medication can have harmful side effects.

But herbs can be a source of very potent toxins, and in fact many things we use as medicines derived from plants are toxic, poisoning predators (Davey, 2017).

Many people idealistically prefer quick and easy results which encourages them to increase their dosage or consume multiple doses in one time rather than having to wait for their scheduled intake will result in greater results. In this case, the body can be overwhelmed by the amount, thus causing a negative reaction.

When it comes to ones' body we should always keep in mind that minor adjustments should be thought carefully and with caution whether it may be herbal or modern medicine. Therefore, consuming the right and proper dosage is the key to prevent negative reactions. In conclusion, if one would like to avoid side effects some research and adequate knowledge would make an immense difference.

Naturally, those who reside in the city are primarily the ones that have easier access to avail the medical services including check-ups, laboratory examination, and treatment with the use of newly technology discovered to make treatment more accurate.

However, not all people have the access of availing medical services since not all are living in the city specifically those who are in the far-flung areas that would a walk for long distances to reach the urban center. The people who are living in an island that needs to travel using pump boat to get in to the city or main land. It is a basic human right for all to receive some sort of medical service, despite their economic status. Lack of sufficient funds and inaccessibility shouldn't be a motive in which the rest of humanity should look otherwise.

Gap to be bridged

  Many of studies have discussed the various prominent issues and advantages regarding the consumption of alternative herbal medicine. There are studies that have indicated the possible hazards due to toxicity and ineffectiveness in treating condition. Conversely, there are some studies that have expressed its' beneficial results, availability due to the fact you are able to utilize plants locally, natural, low costing, and environmentally friendly.

However, this study is significant because it utilizes the participants past and current experiences with the usage of the ten approved DOH medicinal plants. In addition, this research unparalleled due to the fact it shall explore the participants' decision-making process in terms of health care and level of awareness. Thus, this research will not only influence the lives of the public but also the health-care workers, and the government. It shall be used as a basis in which must be conducted to provide better care for all.

Objective of the Study

In address to this research, the paramount aim is to determine the prospects of the ten herbal medicines approved by DOH. The objectives of this study (or statement of the problem of this research) are to determine the medicinal plant among the ten herbal medicine approved by the DOH used for curing common illnesses, and the prospects of ten herbal medicine approved by the DOH in terms of; preparation, uses, dosage, and manner of administration and; and the proposed measures that may be offered to enhance utilization of the ten medicinal plants.

Theory

This study is anchored on two theories. The first is the theory of Dorothea Orem's Self-Care and second is The Health Belief Model. First and foremost, Dorothea Orem's Self-Care Theory conceptualizes its idea into three parts: theory of self-care, theory of self-care deficit, and theory of nursing system.

The theory of self-care focuses on each individual's ability to perform self-care, defined as “the practice of activities that individuals initiate and perform on their own behalf in maintaining life, health, and well-being. (Wayne, 2014)

A persons' capability in caring to their needs progresses as they age, personal life experiences, socio-cultural orientation, health and available resources. The second part of the theory of self-care, allows others to reach future demands and teach another

Secondly, The Health Belief Model developed by Hochbaum, Rosenstock and Kegels during the 1950's was utilized in this research study.

The model suggests that decision‐makers make a mental calculus about whether the benefits of a promoted behavior change outweigh its practical and psychological costs or obstacles (Green & Murphy, 2018).

Through this model, it shall address issues focusing on patient compliance and potential preventive health care practices that are being enacted by the individuals. The Health Belief model proposes that one's perception invokes actions taken when revolving their health-related behavior.

Furthermore, it provides an insight to understanding the reasons to the behaviors in relation to their health and in what terms they will comply with health care therapies. There are four critical areas which entice their choices in terms of; perceived severity of a potential illness, the person's susceptibility to that illness, and benefits of taking a preventive action, as well as, self-efficacy.

Conceptual Framework

Through these theories, the prospects of the DOH approved Ten Herbal medicine shall provide an insight regarding the preferred herbal medicine to tackle illnesses at hand.

The Health Belief model in regard to the usage of the ten herbal medicines approved DOH. Perceived susceptibility refers to the person's assessment of the likelihood of the individuals' of getting sick. If they are prone to getting ill most likely their usage of herbal medicine would differ to those who rarely get ill.

Perceived severity on the condition on their illness will also determine the underlying cause in selecting specific herbal medicines they'd prefer to tackle their condition.

Due to the fact, the Department of Health (DOH) has scientifically proven that these ten approved herbal medicine contain actual beneficial effects has validated their perception on the beneficial effects for these medicinal plants. Therefore, it has significantly influenced their decision-making process.

With adequate knowledge and awareness of the medical plants, has heightened their confidence in their ability to take action to treat, rehabilitate, and promote their way of living.

Through Orem's Self- Care theory, the role as a nurse promotes the usage of one to initiate self-care. For this reason, nurses should educate, as well as, accommodate to the needs of the client in discretion to ones' beliefs. This allows utilizes the use of decision making, therefore, the client can determine their abilities on whether assistance is needed. For instance, the clients' ability to choose certain herbal medicine according to their preference indicates the promotion of self-care.

Methodology

The qualitative research utilizes the descriptive design. The data was gathered by means of the interviewing process which focuses on the idea of one-on-one interviews.   

The participants are particularly familiar with the ten herbal medicines approve by the DOH and shall be the basis of the research study. The participants are composed of 8 people consisting of; two albularyo, two students, two elderly people, and two mothers along with two key informant which are two barangay health workers who all reside in barangay Salvacion, Sto. Domingo, Albay.

The criteria the researchers utilized to select the potential participants is based on purposive sampling. The participant selected will be able to provide the researchers the most accurate information in relation to the study being conducted. However, prior to conducting the research, the researchers obtained approval from the Dean of the College of Health and Sciences of University of Santo Tomas- Legazpi. Then, the received the consent of Barangay chairman.

In addition, all information gathered through visitation and one-on-one interview with each participant will observe anonymity and strict compliance of nondisclosure of personal information shall be observed and taken seriously.

The materials used to execute research study are interview guide questions, direct observation, journaling, and recording. The interview guide questions are in English which was interpreted by the researcher for facilitation in the understanding of the participants.

The interview guide questions are sectioned into three different parts. First, it shall focus on the medicinal plants using for curing common illnesses. Second, shall revolve around the prospects encountered in terms of; uses, right amount of dose or dosage and the manner of administration. And finally, will determine the proposed measures to enhance awareness in the utilization of the ten herbal medicine approved by the DOH which lasted from 10-15 minutes.

The conduct of the study will be done through visitation, where the researchers utilize the interview guide questions. Each participant was provided with assistance throughout the whole process to ensure that the participants answered the question with their full knowledge and honesty.  Through this, the researchers were able develop rapport with the respective participant to lessen potential anxiety/nervousness.

The researchers' uses variations tools such as interview guides, one-on-one interviews, audio recording and observation technique for gathering information. Retrieval of information collected from the participants were transcribed. All data gathered were subjected to be reviewed to determine if all questions are answer properly.  

The common medicinal plants commonly used for household illnesses

Researcher: Maray na hapon tabi tiya, estudyante tabi kang University of Sto. Tomas-Legazpi na dating Aquinas University. Yaon tabi kami digdi para mag interview sa mga nanay, studyante mga albularyo buda ina manungod sa pagamit kang herbal medicine.

Mother 1: Maray na hapon man po. (smiling at researcher)

Researcher: May mga pira pirang apot kami, Para maaraman mi Kung ano ang igagaramit sa barangay nindo po. Kung aware sinda sa pagamit ki herbal medicine. Pag naghihilang tabi aki mo po nay ano tabi igagamit mo.?

Mother 1: Kasi pag may kalintura baga pighihilot muna.

Researcher: Pero aware ka tabi nay kang Herbal medicine? (Covering her mouth while talking)

Mother 1: Iyo, Pag may sipon malunggay, Tigpapakuluan ko tas tigpapainom ko sa aki ko. Oregano kaya natatakot ako magpainom. Igwa akong tanom kinararawan kang ayam, bati magayon kuta ang tubo buda dahoon kang beriran.

Researcher: Ano po ang kadalasang tig gagamit nindo na herbal medicine? Salaog kan harong pag may ng hehelang na membro kan sa indong pamilya?

Mother 2: Permerong, nagamit ko uyan na oregano. Para yan sa abo. Uyan na laya at sambong para sa pamaros at lagundi para sa abo. (Smiles)

Researcher: Bale po ako po si Bien. Siya po si angelica huni man po si Seiko. Bale po ma interview po kami sa mga piling residente kang salvacion na nagagamit kang herbal medicine para maaraman mi po su  mga igagamit nindo kung iyo to ang approved kang DOH, bale po ano po pigagamit nindo?

Albularyo 1: Sa akin ano pigagamit ko su tawas baga pag naghihilot. (Participants are looking towards the BHW) Ang gamit ko lang kandila pinggan buda lana. sa mga dahon su tuba tuba, su lakad bulan. Malunggay pigpisi ko tapos bayabas pigpapakuluan ko lang makulog ang tulak.

Researcher: Ano tabi ang herbal na medisina ang kadalasang tigagamit sa laog kan sa harong nindo?

Albularyo 2: Numero uno ang tuba tuba para sa may pilay buda sipon. Sa trangkaso uyan na artamesa at kalamansi.

Researcher: Ano po ang mga kadalasang tig gagamit nindo na herbal medisina sa laog kan saindong harong kung may naghehehalang po?

Elderly 1: Uya na dahoon ki lukban tiglalaga ko minsan Lube lube, Minsan dilaw na laya.  (Adjusted glasses and sitting position then smiles.)

Researcher: Ano po ang kadalasang tigagamit nindo na herbal na medisina digdi sa harong nindo pag may naghehelang na miyembro ng pamilya?

Elderly 2: Lakad bulan. (Leans forward towards researcher).

Researcher: Para sain po ang lakad bulan?

Elderly 2: Para yan sa may mga pamaros, pigbubulong yan sa nag didismayo. (Looks to the side and back at the researcher).

Researcher: Ano pa po?

Elderly 2: Nagagamit man akong dilaw na laya.

Researcher: Parasain man po ang dilaw na laya?

Elderly 2: Bulong man daa iyan sa laog kan ginhawa, kaya tig iinum ko man yan aga- aga. (Nods)

Researcher: Ano tabi agi ang mga kadalasang tigagamit nindo na herbal na medisina sa laog kan harong pag may nghehelang sa pamilya?

Student 1: Uyan kulogon kugon, lakad bulan, oregano.

Researcher: Ining lakad bulan? At oregano? Na inin sain mo ini sain mo ini tigagamit?

Student 1: Ang lakad bulan sa may mga pamaros sapayo sa mga nalilibong.

Ang oregano naman sa may mga abo sipon. Asin pwede man sa may mga pigsa at lugad. (Adjusts sitting position).

Researcher: Anong kadalasang tigagamit nindong herbal medicine sa harong nindo?

Student 2: Bayawas tapos lagundi po.

Albularyo 1 and 2, elderly 1 and 2, as well as, Mother 1 and 2 all obtain the same results in regards to their personal most commonly used of herbal medicine to treat the usual household illnesses. According to their results, all were able to address that lagundi, lakad bulan, ambong, dilaw na laya or turmeric, artamesa, niyog niyogan, bayabas and/or guava leaves were their most commonly used medicinal plant.

However, Mother 1, expressed that doesn't particularly perceives that herbal medicine should be her first instinct. She preferred that she'd rather massage the sick family member. Despite those claims, she believes in the abilities of malungay leaves and learned that oregano is used for the flu. She has some oregano planted in her garden but rarely uses it due the fact she heard from a neighbor the possible side effects of utilizing the plant. Meanwhile Mother 2, advocates the usage of herbal plant to cure common illnesses. She proactively insisted that she primarily used oregano to cure cough and also recommended drinking ginger as tea and sambong for cough.

Albularyo 1, uses more herbal plants as compared to Albularyo 2. In Albularyo 1's case, she was immensely familiar with medicinal plants approved and not approved. Those plants consisted of tuba tuba, lakad bulan, bayabas and malungay. While the second Albularyo, stated using tuba tuba, kalamansi, and artames. In relation to this, both of the elderly participants use merely the same herbal for the same illness. They particularly insist dilaw na laya or ginger, lukban leaves, lakad bulan or sambong. Apparently, many of the older generations in their barangay make a ginger tea and drink it every morning up until now.

Lastly, Student 1 clearly shows a higher level of knowledge in terms of herbal medicine in comparison to Student 2. According to Student 1, her was able to identify various herbal plants that he particularly sees his mother preparing. He claims consisted of lakad bulan or sambong for the “pamaros”. Oregano for flu, as well as, pigsa or furuncle. However, Student 1 is more knowledgeable on the use of guava leaves and lagundi.

According to the statements of the participants, there are only few notable herbal plants approved by DOH that they particularly use.  They were mainly able to identify lagundi, sambong, and guava leaves along with other unapproved herbal medicine.

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