CHAPTER – 3
3–1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
After the completion of literature review, in which prior Research Papers, Books on Marketing Management, Books on behavioural aspects of individuals, Books on in general Buying Behaviour are covered. Based on this literature review, consultation with Guide and finding the NCR (National Capital Region) population, following objectives are set for the current study titled “FACTORS AFFECTING CONSUMER BUYING BEHAVIOUR IN CONSUMER DURABLE GOODS (NCR)”:
1) To study the demographic profile of the individuals who are interviewed with Questionnaire in NCR.
2) To know & analyse the factors & their importance, which influence the Consumer Buying behaviour for the purchase of the Durable Goods in NCR.
3) To identify the Buying Behaviour of Consumers towards the purchase of the durable goods in NCR.
4) To study the post - purchase behaviour of Consumers in NCR.
5) To study the sources of information used by the consumers and their importance in Purchase decisions.
3-2 RESEARCH HYPOTHESES
After the thorough review of Literature and for studying the behaviour of consumer and on the basis of the sources they use to purchase the Durable Goods, the sources are divided in to two broad categories:
1) Shopping Facilitator: Retail Store/Shop and the Shopping Malls
2) Online Shopping Portals: Websites that enable a multi-vendor checkout system enabling retailers to sell in one portal and allow the consumer to check compare and order the Goods of his choice.
For achieving the objectives framed for the study following hypotheses have been developed:
To study the Consumer satisfaction for purchases made using Shopping Facilitator/Online shopping Portals.
H0: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the facilities provided by the various Shopping facilitator/Online shopping portals
H1a: There is significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the facilities provided by the various Online Shopping Portals
H0: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the handling of the grievances by the Shopping facilitator/Online shopping portals
H1b: There is significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the handling of the grievances by the Shopping facilitator/Online shopping portals
H0: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the cost effectiveness of the services
H1c: There is significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the cost effectiveness of the services
H0: There is no significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the rating of the various Shopping facilitators/Online shopping portals
H1d: There is significant difference in the opinion of respondents regarding the rating of the various Shopping facilitators/Online shopping portals
To study the Consumers expectations and satisfaction towards Shopping facilitator/Online shopping portals
H0: Branding is not one of the criteria of selection of the Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal for the respondents
H2a: Branding is one of the criteria of the Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal for the respondents
H0: Good network is not the criteria for selection of the Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal for the respondents
H2b: Good network is the criteria for selection of the Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal for the respondents
H0: There is no significant difference in the opinion of the respondent before and after using the services of Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal
H2c: There is significant difference in the opinion of the respondent before and after using the services of the Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal
H0: Social media is not the important tool to search the information for selecting a Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal
H2d: Social media is the most important tool to search the information for selecting a Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal
3-3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
The study is based on both the primary and the secondary data. The primary data was collected on the basis of questionnaires administered to various respondents in the various Business Centres in NCR such as New Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Noida. Two schedules were prepared and tested before administering these questionnaires to the respondents. The information was sought from the Durable Goods Buyers regarding their background, finance, marketing practices and opinions on Marketing infrastructure, institutions and problems etc. The secondary data was collected from published and unpublished records and reports of the Government of States and Union Department. Most of the secondary data is collected from the various Government & Non-Government web sites.
The manufacturers and marketers of consumer durable goods or any types of products or goods are always interested to know the factors, sources of information, importance after sales services and other such points which are being considered by the buyers before making their purchase decisions.
3-4 SAMPLING DESIGN
In this research probability sampling procedure has been used. In this study, we have applied Stratified Random sampling. Stratified Random sampling is generally used if in a population from which a Sample is to be drawn does not constitute a homogenous group. Since the concentration of Durable Goods Buyers is not distributed uniformly, hence the Universe is heterogeneous. In this case, stratified random sampling is used to stratify the sample on the basis of Age, Gender, Education, Occupation, Marital Status, Shopping Companion etc.
The first step in developing any sample design is clearly defining the set of objects to be studied. In this research universe is finite. Geographical region divided on the basis of the five most prominent centres in National Capital Region (NCR) such as New Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Noida. The objective was that each group represents the universe. In this research, sample size selected on the basis of population proportion. In this research primary data was collected with the help of personal interview.
The fieldwork carried out in New Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Noida representing all geographical areas of NCR. A set of questionnaire given to the respondents and told them to tick the answer in the space provided in front of each question. The units have been selected by using the stratified random Sampling technique. Sample refers to the number of items to be selected from the universe to constitute a sample.
The total number of sample size was 400. In this research, sample size is selected on the basis of population proportion. This Study covers the views of NCR resident Durable Goods Buyers regarding their usage of Shopping Facilitator / Online Shopping Portal in the country.
The entire Universe includes population of people in New Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Noida, on which the study is focused and has been selected for study purpose on the basis of population density.
3-5 SAMPLE SIZE DETERMINATION
Determination of the Sample Size was done by using the Slovins (1960) formula which is as follows:
n= N / (1+N.e²) Where
n = Sample Size (number of samples), N = Total Population,
e = Margin of Error/Error Tolerance, for 95% confidence level, e = 0.05.
1 is the constant value
1) For the year 2013 in New Delhi, Total Population was 23.1 Million (2.31 Crores)
So, N = 231,00,000 & for 95% confidence level e = 0.05
n = N/1+Ne²
n = 231,00,000 / [1+231,00,000 x (0.05)²]
n = 231,00,000 /(1+57756)
n = 231,00,000/57757
n = 399.9515
Therefore n = 400
2) For the year 2014 in New Delhi Total Population was 25 Million (2.50 Crores)
So, N = 250,00,000 & for 95% confidence level e = 0.05
n = N/1+Ne²
n = 250,00,000 / [1+250,00,000 x (0.05)²]
n = 250,00,000 /(1+62500)
n = 250,00,000/62501
n = 399.9315
Therefore n = 400
3) For the year 2015 in New Delhi Total Population was 26.3 Million (2.63 Crores)
So, N = 263,00,000 & for 95% confidence level e = 0.05
n = N/1+Ne²
n = 263,00,000 / [1+263,00,000 x (0.05)²]
n = 263,00,000 /(1+65750)
n = 263,00,000/65751
n = 399.9939
Therefore n = 400
The basis was taken from the data published by “Population of India 2016 Copyright © 2016” (http://indiapopulation2016.in/population-of-delhi-2016.html). The data was collected from five business centres viz. New Delhi, Gurgaon, Faridabad, Ghaziabad and Noida using structured questionnaires, which were filled by 80 Consumers of each area.
3-6 TOOL OF ANALYSIS
The data has been analyzed keeping the objective of the study in view. The analysis is finally based on data on several aspects in tabulated form, besides making use of simple descriptive tools of statistics.
The data collected was then transferred to an electronic spreadsheet for data analysis using SPSS Software.
Frequencies tables with valid and cumulative percentages were developed, Correlation of variables were done to identify the influences.
Statistical tools such as cross tabulations-Tests, Chi-Square Tests and Mann Whitney tests were employed as and when required to establish the significance of hypotheses statistically.
3-7 SCOPE AND LIMITATIONS
This Research work is an attempt to study, analyse and understand the Consumer Buying behaviour for the Durable Goods. There are many aspects of buyer behaviours as per changes in areas, products, services, economic levels, social level, and so on. But, this study will concentrate on Buyers' Behaviour for consumer durable goods based on:
- Who is the major decision maker in the family
- Whether there is any significant effect of other people's opinion
on their purchase decision
- Which place is being used for the purchases and many other
Finally this study will be concentrated on the buyers' behaviour during pre-purchase stage, purchase stage and post-purchase stage.
In any study/research the types of markets can be divided in lots of segments. But for this study (as per the Indian consumer durable goods Manufacturers & marketers) the market is mainly divided the geographical areas or regions in to two segments viz, Urban and Rural, the scope of this study is limited up to the urban areas in Delhi – NCR region.
The limitations of this study could be on the following points:
1) The data collected & inferences drawn from urban areas of the Delhi – NCR area may not be applicable to the rural area of the NCR.
2) Though we will make every attempt to collect genuine data from the selected at-random interviewee but answers given by him will not be verifiable and they could give false or miss-leading information.
3) The study made and interferences drawn may or may not be applicable to any other urban areas of India.
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