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This is a proposal for a work based project to improve team work in Business Banking Unit of Ecobank Nigeria Limited. I am currently a Relationship Manager in Business Banking Although I was a Team Head before now; in the course of these I discovered total lack of commitment, dedication and uncoordinated team spirit among members of my team at the workplace which has led to ineffective and inefficient performances and the inability to meet set targets. Thus, to bring about a high performance team spirit I have decided to inject the spirit of commitment, the ideal of communication, identifying area of competence  (comparative advantages) and confidence building among team members. To achieve these I decided to lead by example with regular communication with a little morale booster in form of work appraisal to build confidence and competency thereby achieving a decent turnaround of attitudinal and behavioural tendencies for high performance individually and as a team. This study will scrutinize ways to improve teamwork in business banking unit of the Bank with recommendation to Head of Human Resource. The study will employ both primary and secondary data approaches to ascertain challenges facing teamwork in the unit and identify ways to improve performance, the study will depend on data from team members and team leads in business banking unit to ascertain their view on teamwork and if the organization reward systems, structures, culture support teamwork and how it can be improved. Features gleaned from the literature for successful teamwork shall be use to analyse the success or otherwise of the investigation thereof.



2.1 Review of Professional Context

My Professional Career started with Ecobank Nigeria Limited twelve years ago. Currently I'm the Relationship Manager in Business Banking Unit of the Bank. Though I had worked as a team head, and acted as a branch manager in same, supervising six other team members.

Ecobank Nigeria Limited is among the top 10 banks in Nigeria, based on asset and liability position. Its corporate head office is based in Victoria Island, Lagos. The parent company, Ecobank Transnational Incorporated situated in Togo, has strong presence in 36 African countries.

My role in relationship management and sales function includes the following;

o Identification and marketing of prospects within the target market, gathering intelligence information on product performance, customer attitudes and new business/product opportunities for the attention of the segment head.

o Identification of customers' needs, proactively seek to provide products/services to meet such needs, and advice on appropriate selection of banks products.

o Effective management of customer relationships (internal and external types).

o Preparation of customers' loan applications, and collation of data to the approving authority through appropriate channels.

o Effective and constant monitoring of medium level customers account balances with a view to beefing up same.

o Rendition of credit/risk asset reports and deposit liability report on a weekly basis.

o Appraising credit requests from customers and making appropriate recommendations to unit head.

o Balance sheet management.

The combination of relationship management and selling skills which I have developed over time has made me an effective relationship manager and team lead. It also helped me in understanding customer's needs through effective listening, and proffering solution, by offering banks product and service which suit such need. Another important aspect of my job is my supervisory role in my team. This entails ensuring we work in harmony, towards achieving our set goals and budgets, and attending management performance review meeting to give update of my team's performance.

The bank sales unit has three business segments in domestic banking which includes:

1. Business Banking

2. Personal Banking

3. Public Sector

These business units have similar functions involve in the selling of the bank's products and offering services to customers;

' Business Banking unit deals with companies that their annual turnover exceed $5,000,000 and their business are structured,

' Public Sector unit as the name implies deals with government owned Establishment, Churches, Mosques and NGOs

' Personal Banking basically deals with individual accounts.

At the beginning of each financial year, the Finance Monitoring Group advise each sales agent (including the team leader) the respective target for the year. The target is broken down by month for easy evaluation. Each team in the investment banking unit consists of six sales agents (including team leader) with individual goals based on market size, assessment of competition and the level of staff, regardless of the performance of sales agents on the previous year by an additional target financial control for the staff level is added to the current staff performance. (By personal example is N100million current performance for the previous year and the target for the level of staff in the N50Million later this year, it means the target of staff for the current year is N150Million, this means that personnel at different levels have different target. However the assessment is conducted twice a year to access individual performance and the result of the evaluation is used to promotion, training and disengagement.

This structure will ensure each sales agent to be more productive and responsible to meet its individual target, and the growth of their income position regardless of the position of staff.

This structure has a clear basis for evaluation, and the system is easy and transparent as it exposes the poor performance of personnel and it goes a long way to ensure that employees are productive in achieving the set goals.  Unlike the old structure that encouraged redundancy, unethical behavior and conflicts of interest as it was difficult to identify the laggards and most efficient staff because the evaluation was subjective, as the supervisor could promote and favour who they wanted.

As team leader, I work closely with my team members and organize training and coaching / mentoring at work in the other to drive performance and ensure the objective of the team for the financial year are met and exceeded. My team's performance form basis of the unit appraisal, but the appraisal system assess only individual performance and this pose a serious challenge driving the team.

Despite the strategy adopted by the Bank to improve the performance of the unit, the challenge remains as only few sales officers met their target, and most sales officers performance were relatively low, although management continues to provide training for sales teams to increase staff performance.

However, my relationship and discussion with my team members made me realize the team members do not cooperate with each as members of the team and I tried encouraging team members because I think if the member of the team synergized the performance of the unit will improve.

According to D. D. Clutterbuck and Megginson (2004: 1-2) The organizations hire teams as they saw it as an effective way to organize all the hard work yet to have designed options. Teams provide the link between the individual and the organization; and between the need to make confined resolutions and customize, and the obligation to comply with the plans and large-scale plans. The teams also provide the subject of an activity that meets the needs of the population for socialization. They establish the environment where people can share the effort, the reward and risk. They provide a sense of common identity, rooted in shared ideas, purposes, stories and attitudes. And they provide an opportunity for conversation, support, recognition, and other activities that make people feel motivated and increase self-esteem.

The appraisal is based on the key performance indicator evaluation system which evaluates individual team member performance, and they are pre-occupied to achieve their personal goals. This belief has a negative impact on the activity of the unit otherwise restructured because it could lead to a loss of income.

I talked to my supervisor and other team leader and saw the obvious flaw in the system, and share the same view with me, but the team leaders are all concerned to meet their own target because they also believe is the way to go. The line manager has discussed this challenge with the human resources unit and they are ready to implement any possible solution that will address this issue.

Therefore, the bank can effectively manage these challenges by improving teamwork through cautious management of its appraisal based system based to promote teamwork rather than individual performance which is characterized by competition internally.

 Jeffrey H. Dyer and Nile Hatch (2004: 57-63) found that some organizations set up official organizational structures and reward systems that become problems to effective teamwork. For example, reward systems that provide strong individual motivation often create strong impediments for collaborative behavior within a team. Inappropriately, so many organizations, hail the significance of teamwork but don't encourage and support those who work in teams. The evaluation system would remain, but the key performance indicators will be adjusted to encourage team spirit and performance (e.g. if a major part of key performance indicators (KPI) is adjusted say 30% should contain the performance of the team achieved, it will encourage officers to ensure the team performance are met).

In my current project work, I decided to research on improving teamwork through effective team management at Ecobank Nigeria Limited, I would use team work methods to examine the best operations and the performance evaluation process for this study. This study will help discuss ways in which Ecobank Nigeria manages can improve its performance appraisal system as a way to motivate staff, improve team work and improve the team performance of the unit.

2.2   Research Focus

This research work will help Ecobank Nigeria Limited to alleviate operational practice that encourage competition among staff rather than promoting teamwork by identifying ways in which team work can be improved.  The study will focus on how to drive an effective and efficient team for high performance, and recommendations will be made to human resources department for it to be adopted by the bank. As indicated above, this will be discussed at the head of unit management meetings to discourage individual assessment still berating the need of the spirit of teamwork as a general appreciation for high performance and efficiency at work and avoiding unnecessary bias that leads to unhealthy rivalry between team members.

To do this, the conceptual framework developed by Belbin and Parker - "4C shall be explored and in the review, taking a precise and informed awareness of the literature of teams and team work will be demonstrated. Therefore, the material of specific subjects will be evaluated. The main part of the review covers: defining teams, assessment teams, construction teams, effective teamwork and basic skills. Similarly, the main themes, philosophical methods and approaches need to be analyzed. This study will also improve my career and managerial skill as it will make me an effective team lead in management of the team and driving performance.


The term team is mentioned in the same way, as effectiveness, efficiency, problem solving and success. Referring to many authors the use of team and team work has dramatically increased over the last 30 years. (Gustafson & Kleiner, 1994: 85; Guzzo & Dickinson, 1996; Salas, Burke & Cannon-Bowers, 2000: 107) It is also mentioned that the team appears to be a winning formula. (Woodock 1989, cited by Ingram et al 1999: 101) However, some authors mentioned that teamwork is just a "fashion" and are not always the best solution. (Church 1998: 62).

According Scarnati (2001: 5) teamwork has been defined as "a cooperative process that allows ordinary people to achieve extraordinary results" Belbin., 1993: 93 and 2010, Parker 2007: 81, 2009 Cook 48, Harris & Harris, 1996: 101) also reminded the team as a goal or purpose which team members can develop effective relationships,  to achieve team goals, which is obviously absent in my team  at my work place because performance evaluation is based solely on individual performance rather than team performance, which encouraged competition rather than cooperation. Teamwork is based on individuals working together in cooperative environment to achieve the objectives of the joint team through sharing knowledge and expertise as identified earlier, it was missing in my team largely due to the lack of system that support collaboration. Most books always stresses that one of the essential elements of a team is its focus toward a common goal and a clear goal against the particular person or self-glorification among my team members (Belbin 2010: 73, Fisher, Hunter, and Macrosson 1997: 205; Johnson & Johnson, 1995: 108; Parker, 1990: 43; Harris & Harris, 1996: 146).

In a functionalist sense, teams are defined as follows: they "are composed of individuals working together in close proximity with each other and interact with other teams in the workplace" (Ingram, et al. 1999: 125) observed as open communication is an essential characteristic of a high performance team, but this is pretty nonexistent in my teams as the commitment of the individual is placed higher than the team spirit because the team members are absorbed in achieving personal target and lack of understanding of team work ethic and the importance of synergy in other to achieve the goal of the team. In addition the teams should follow a distribution of roles and the coordinated style and a spirit of dynamic interaction (Belbin 1996: 77; Belbin., 1993: 93, Belbin 2010: 103 Parker 2007: 90; Salas, et al, 2000: 108, Mullin, 2002: 111).

For a team to be successful ,  team work should be  based on the synergy between all team members by creating an environment where they are all ready to contribute and participate to promote and maintain a positive team environment which is completely absent in my team. Members of the team must be flexible enough to adapt to accommodate work environments where the objectives are achieved through teamwork and social interdependence rather than  personalized competitive goals (Belbin 2010, Parker 2007: 136 Cook 2009: 53, 2005 Katzenbach: 72, Dyer et al 2013: 147). In his example Hackman (2011) stated that high performance teamwork observed a search in a looking Glass project (PLG) Simulation. This is the brainchild of Fred Ambrose, intelligence chief officer of CIA, PLG pit simulations is a team of intelligence professionals and law enforcement (the "blue team") against a "red team "savvy opponents with the intent to harm its interests. A" white team. "- A group of intelligence experts and content - plays the rest of the responsibilities of intelligence Community. The responsibilities to the red team was using what members all knew or should develop the best possible plan to make the greatest possible damage to a specific targeted by the organizers - in this case, a coastal city of medium size which was home to a large naval base. Members can complete their knowledge by consulting open sources such as the Internet and seeking advice from other people in their personal and professional networks. What they came up with was to be entirely product of its own imagination and ingenuity of the team members.

So how do we understand the striking differences between what happens in red and blue teams in PLG simulations? Although there is no final answer to this question, there are at least four viable options that are observable: (1) It is inherently easier to be on the offense than on defense ( 2) red teams are better at identifying and using the special expertise of two of their members and external experts, (3) the earlier stereotypes compromising the ability of blue teams take seriously what they observe and deal with it competently, and (4) red teams develop and use more performance strategies on the appropriate tasks. Therefore, they are more successful in the task that is attributable to 4Cs as they communicate frequently identifies expertise, diverse ideas and opinions, etc. unlike the blue team. (Hackman 2011: 8-13).

In addition, Guzzo & Dickson (1996: 307-308), which began the task of reviewing all the literature of the performance and efficiency of the team in organizational contexts. In their comprehensive review, they discuss researchers Macy & Izumi (1993: 235-313), which analyzed more than 125 studies to understand the role of team and organizational change. Macy & Izumi find that all organizational interventions, those in the field of development of the team have the greatest impact on measures of financial performance. Furthermore, as Guzzo & Dickson (1996: 324). "Financial performance indicators show the greatest improvements when multiple changes are made simultaneously in all aspects of organizational structure, human resources management practices and technology". In their review report analyzing Macy & Izumi, The intrepid Guzzo & Dickson (1996: 326) also discuss research by sociologists Kalleberg & Moody (1994: 948-962), which found that "organizations that adopt sets of practices that included teams as an important element of organizational design tend to excel on multiple performance dimensions. " In addition, Guzzo & Dickson describe the research Levine and D'Andrea Tyson (1990: 203), which states that "participation usually leads to small improvements in the short-term performance and sometimes led to significant improvements in performance long lasting "(emphasis in the original). The conclusion of Levine and D'Andrea Tyson: the participation of senior employees "is the most likely form to cause significant increases, sustainable productivity, and work teams are the primary means by which [such] substantial participation is reached "(quoted in Guzzo and Dickson, supra.)

The research provided a number of attributes required for successful teamwork. Many of these attributes were systematically identified and hoped to support or instilled in my team, Belbin and majorly defended Parkers 4Cs in the literature as follows: Commitment to team success and shared objectives - team members are committed the success of the team and common goals for progress and development. Successful teams are motivated, committed and aim to achieve at the highest level; open communication and positive feedback - actively listening to the concerns and needs of team members and value their contribution and express what helps create an efficient working environment. The team members must be willing to give and receive constructive criticism and provide authentic feedback; appropriate team composition is critical to creating a winning team. The team members must be fully aware of their specific role in the team and understand what is expected of them in terms of their contribution to the team and the project; and Commitment to team processes, leadership and responsibility - the team members must be responsible for their contribution to the team and the project. They must be aware of the team's processes, best practices and new ideas. Effective leadership is essential; adding also; Interdependence - the members of the team must create an environment where together they can contribute much more than individuals. A positive environment of interdependent team brings out the best in each one allowing the team to achieve their goals at a much higher level (Johnson & Johnson, 1995, 1999).

In summary, the 4Cs implementation and impartation hoped on my team should help promote and encourage team members to achieve, contribute, and learn through interpersonal skills that include the ability to discuss issues openly with team members, honesty, trustworthy, supportive, show respect and commitment to the team and its individuals. These fosters caring work environment by building the capacity to work effectively with other team members and building an ontological attitude of one for all and all for one workstation and improving the performance of 'unit.

Penultimate, the review has shown that good teams have an X-factor and are able to achieve more collectively than they would as a group of individuals regardless of multitasking abilities. This is quite evident in the current English Premiership football team (Leicester City) is doing well in the league and maybe top EPL champion for 2015/16 season an evident  reason for this is obviously teamwork and team spirit in terms of cohesion, communication and confidence as the manager, the goalkeeper defenders to the midfielders and strikers. There is this team and individual understanding, cohesion and determination that has translated to self-confidence and believes thereby orchestrating high performance compared to other teams like Arsenal that lacks most of the basic requirement for high performance despite Ozil being the most creative Giroud has failed to deliver upfront thus, lost the top spot since January only struggling for a fourth place. In essence, in as much as we appreciate individual abilities to succeed, the necessity of team spirit is paramount for high performance at the workplace.

To perform well, all team must include members who have the knowledge and skills that task requires; it must be recognized that each members have abilities, willingness, desire and commitment to the team building; and we must weigh the input of members - avoiding the trap of being more influenced by those who have high status or are highly vocal than by those who actually know what they are talking about. Research documented that these simple conditions more difficult to achieve than we might suspect. People are commonly deployed to teams based on their organizational roles rather than what they are good at doing. In addition, teams usually disregard individual skill and focus more on what members have in common. Only rarely will team spontaneously evaluate whose members know what to and then use that information to decide whose ideas should be rely on most heavily. These are what I want to manifest Banking Business Unit to provide high performance and productivity, which would also be monitored or assessed periodically through individual assessments and team assessment using questionnaires and opinion samplings to know the level vis-''-vis compliance efficiency and effectiveness of the commitment to work, multitasking adaptability and synergy and provide good advice to team leaders and members, identify challenges and potentials of leaders and members of the team as a whole, specifying a goal of convincing team, establish clear standards of conduct and also highlighting the likely consequences of the leaders and organization of the team.


The goal of the research is to improve team work in Business Banking Unit of Ecobank Nigeria limited and to further accentuate the 4Cs of Belbin and Parker to tackle the issue of teams and teamwork in the workplace as non-performance of my team at the workplace was observed and identified as the absence of all these 4Cs as explained and expressed both by Belbin and Parker.

The aim of this project is to apply these 4Cs as proposed by Belbin and Parker as a basic foundation for effective and efficient performance of my team since being observed and identified as non-existence on my team to raise the bar team at a high performance level for increased productivity and service to my workplace. In other words, changing the lack of commitment, communication, sense of rivalry or unhealthy competition in complex and deliberate commitment to achieve success, open communication for positive feedback, trust and confidence between team players, thereby promoting effective synergy within the team for high performance in the workplace, which is precisely what is needed and required at Ecobank for effective and efficient performance at highest level.


3.1 Research Approach

Research Approaches are strategies and research procedures that cover the steps broad assumptions detailed data collection methods, analysis and interpretation. This plan includes a number of decisions, and they must not be taken in the order in which they make sense or in the order of their presentation. The overall decision involves the approach should be used to study a subject. To inform this decision they must consider the philosophical assumptions the researcher brings to the study; investigation procedures (called research models); and specific research methods, data collection, analysis and interpretation. Choosing a research approach is also based on the nature of the research problem or a problem to solve, the personal experiences of researchers and the audience for the study. In this research, therefore, two research approaches are advanced.

Often the distinction between qualitative and quantitative research is framed in terms of use of the words (qualitative) rather than numbers (quantitative) or using closed questions (quantitative assumptions) rather than open-ended questions (questions qualitative interview).

Qualitative research is an approach to explore and understand the individuals or groups assign meaning to a social or human problem. The research process involves the emerging issues and procedures, data usually collected in the participant analysis inductive building data particular to general themes, and the researcher interpretations of the meaning of data. The final written report has a flexible structure. Those who engage in this form of investigation support a way to see the research that honors an inductive style, emphasis on the individual significance and the importance of making the complexity of a situation.

Quantitative research is an approach for testing objective theories by examining the relationship between variables. These variables in turn, can be measured, typically on instruments, so that digital data can be analyzed using statistical methods. The final written report has a play structure consists of introduction, literature and theory, methods, results, and discussion. As qualitative researchers, those who engage in this form of investigation assumptions about testing theories deductively, construction of protections against bias, control alternative explanations, and be able to reproduce and generalize the results.

Qualitative and quantitative research methods were chosen because they serve as the use of real tool for improving the overall efficiency of the team and individual effectiveness of each team member. The approaches to team building involve an analysis of the current criteria of the team in terms of planning, problem solving, communication, and other dimensions of an effective team in the context of qualitative indices and quantitative. Team building includes comments from team members on their perceptions qualitative style of each person in the actual team structured experiences help team members apply this information, and the net result of this phase of development the grid is a plan for the team and individual improvement.

According to Dawson (2009) qualitative research approaches effects respondents participating fully in the research process as they believe that their own inclination and understanding will be brought to the project. Therefore, it gives an understanding of the challenges or the effect of teamwork in the workplace that the collected data is the foundation and pivot giving recommendations therein. For the purposes of this research, however, the quantitative approach is most appropriate given the information collection mode.

3.2 Research Questions

In order to achieve my purpose for this research, I formulated the following research questions to form the basis for the data gathering and analysis.

1. Does lack of communication affects teamwork?

2. Will inappropriate team composition affect teamwork?

3. Can lack of commitment among team members affect team work?

4. Is unhealthy competition affecting teamwork productivity?

3.4   Method of Data Collection/Analysis

Both primary and secondary data are adopted for this study. According Denscombe, (2010), he reiterated that there are two benefits to this form of methodological triangulation, "the results can be documented or equated with data produced by the two methods; the results can be supplemented by adding something different from a method to what is known about the subject by using another method." Denscombe,(2010). Therefore, the aim of this study is understudy the effectiveness, efficiency and impact of teamwork as it affects the performance and development of the individual member of the team, the team itself and unity of the in general. Thus, the analysis will be based on primary raw data inform of questionnaires and personal interaction with team members within the organization and analysis of secondary data as performed by Belbin, Parker and other authors examined on the subject of discourse. Team performance as components of society will be determined by the analysis of periodic assessment records of the company on the performance of the team (secondary data), matters relating to poor performance of the team and issues such as the challenges facing the members of the team, the team  vis-''-vis the  organization approaches to deal with them.

Primary data from this study will be collected mainly through a survey of interviews and questionnaires. The use of this investigation is necessary because it is fast, inexpensive; it also provides easy ways and accurate access to information on population (Zikmund et al, 2010: 97). A survey instrument as the interview / questionnaires will also be very necessary because the issue of discuss is a modern day occurrence with little data available in the company. Nevertheless the advantages of investigations and the fact that they provide unique ideas that is more comprehensive, the investigations in general have their limits and may tend to provide inaccurate information or present polarization elements or dishonest answers (Pramborg, 2004: 59).Conversely, this situation can be avoided by the type of cases that were selected for the survey.

The main data collection instruments for the survey will be in-depth interviews with Semi structured interview guide. In depth structured interview will be used in this study for the following reasons: it will enable me the critically review participant responses and it will help me collect a quality and comprehensive data that I need (Saunders, 2012: 157 and Dawson, 2009: 50). According to Saunders (2012: 107), in-depth interview can also give me the opportunity to continue the discussion in areas that were not considered before, but could be important for the study by addressing issues that will allow me to achieve the purpose of research work.

I will employ the semi-structured interview guide for the data gathering as it will allow me to know precise data which can be compared and contrast with the data  gathered from the other interviews (secondary data) (Dawson, 2009: 48).  This approach will help me to collect comprehensive views from the participants about the subject of concern (Malhotra, 2007: 73). Smith (1995: 61) also reiterated, using semi-structured interview guide for the data collection will give me the chance to ask supplement questions on exciting issues.

I intend to conduct the interview with few people in the team precisely from business banking unit at Ecobank Nigeria Ltd to collect appropriate data to compliment this research work. Barnett (2002 cited by Saunders, 2012: 107) claimed that using a sample which denotes the entire population makes it possible to accomplish a higher general accuracy in the data collection than using the entire population. Extreme cases sampling procedure will adopted  as a thoughtful plan to select the participants who have relevant information about the issues at hand in order to safeguard data validity (Dawson, 2009: 73 and Saunders, 2012: 123). The participants will be drawn from diverse classified levels in the unit, since the study will be entirely nameless as no personal details of the participants will be required, Notwithstanding that some of the response from the participant will be based on the respondent view on the topic of discuss, it might likely to be subjected and untruthful, I will rely on my view , my personal interaction and observation since am on the team member in the unit.  

3.5 Ethicality Check

I solemnly declare to abide by the laid down ethical requirements of research works by ensuring that the study is completely anonymous as no personal details of any individual participants in the research work will be required. I will ensure that so far as ethical sovereignty is concerned, the name of the company as well as all its employees that will form part of the respondents in the study will be kept unnamed unless explicitly given permission for identities to be revealed and that each statistic collected will also be treated with utmost confidentiality and will not be disclosed to any third party, except to the officials of University of Chester.

This research work will not cause harm, hazard or consequence to the participant and incentive will not be offered to any participant as a way getting them to be involved in the research work and each participant will have advance knowledge and consent before they take part in this research work.  I the permission of my line manager to undertake this research as the work will help in improving the performance of my unit as well as my organisation

In other to buttressing the integrity of this research work, I hereby declare that this proposal is my original work,  as it has not been presented at any university for any degree and I have duly acknowledged and referenced other people's work as usage of someone's work without recognition is known as plagiarism which was considered in this work.


There are many advantages to working in a team:

' In a team you learn how to plan and organize

' In a team one  learn to negotiate and compromise

' In a team one put  decision-making skills in practice

' In a team one gain knowledge and ideas from another person through interpersonal relationship

' In a team one  meet new people

' Team require less work for each individual

' Team makes one have fun performing duties

Finally, team work provides practical real-life experience. Few people will obtain jobs that enable them to work in complete isolation; it is necessary to learn how to work with other people, even if you would rather work alone! Since no man is an island .one should be aware at the onset that team members will evaluate each other at various points and that your participation in the team effort will be factored into your grade.

In summary, one of the most powerful actions a group can take on behalf of itself and the organization is to determine what type of group it has now and what type it is expected to be in order to best serve the needs of the organization and its employees. This is a powerful step in the development of the group. Then the group can make a proper planning for its own development, in conjunction with what the organization needs to be with an appropriate investment of development resources for the possible return.

People are fundamental to any organization total quality management (TQM). The only point where a real responsibility for quality is may lie with the person or group doing the work or the implementation of the process. The complexity of most of the processes in an organization places them beyond the control of any one individual, and the only effective means to fight against the process improvement or re-design is through the use of labor 'team.

Teamwork has many advantages:

' A greater variety of difficult issues can be addressed by the expertise and pooling resources

' Difficulties are exposed to a greater range of knowledge, skills and experience

' the team approach boosts morale and ownership through participatory decision-making

' the recommendations are more likely to be implemented unlike when they come from an individual.

In conclusion, the employees will not participate in continuous improvement activities, without commitment from teams and groups of team that we created an improvement culture and an effective mechanism for capturing contributions individual. Thus, the team must be driven by a strategy, structure and be implemented in a thoughtful and effective way. When properly managed and developed teamwork improves processes and produces results quickly and economically through the free exchange of ideas (open communication), information, knowledge and facts. It is an essential component of an organization's total quality, build confidence, improved commitments, open communication and the development of a culture of interdependence rather than independence minimizing rivalries and unhealthy competition.

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