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Course Title: Marketing Management

project Title: Starbucks Coffee Company

Students name: Diana Elimy Ahmed

ID number:12328

Professor's Name: Annil

Table of Contents

MARKETING MANAGEMENT: 6

Significance of Study: 6

Inbound Marketing: 7

The Significance of Marketing Management: 8

COMPANY PROFILE 9

Brief History 9

Story Behind the CEO 9

Italian Inspiration: 11

Convenience 11

Passion behind Quality: 12

Entertainment 12

Mission Statement: 13

Number of Stores: 13

The Products: 13

Being a Responsible Company 13

CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION: 14

Marketing Management 14

The 7Ps Strategy of Marketing: 15

Product: 15

Price 15

Promotion: 16

Place: 16

People: 16

Process: 17

Physical Evidence: 17

Impact of Macro and Micro Environmental upon Marketing: 17

REVIEW OF LITERATURE: 19

RESEARCH METHODLOGY: 21

Research Philosophy: 21

Research approach: 22

Research Design and Justification for the Choice 23

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection 24

Research Strategy: 24

Research Methods and Their Justification 25

Validity and Reliability of Data 25

Ethical Considerations 25

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 26

Marketing Management in Starbucks: 26

Current Status: 29

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: 31

REFERENCES: 35

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MARKETING MANAGEMENT:

Significance of Study:

Marketing has been defined as a combination of multiple processes that are used to design, create, connect, transfer and deliver the values from the origin to its destination (i.e. from the company to the customer). It has been referred as an organizational function. Marketing is defined as the heart that lies in the centre of the organizational success; because of it, the success circulated within the whole company, like the blood. If a company has a weak system of communication and marketing, then there are high chances of failures, or there would be little success ahead. However, effective marketing and communication could make them bigger and better in terms of success, expansion, productivity, creativity, and in all other means (Kotler, 2009). In such senses, the marketing management should have to administer all of such critical situations, circumstances and functions.

In the similar circumstances, the marketing managers used to make coordination with the wider range of activities, like the identification regarding the needs and requirements of customers, communication with the product value to their respective valuable customers and clients. It also includes the generation of leads referring towards the organizational sales along with the establishing a platform upon the online basis because it has been proved as an area of marketing management which has been growing increasingly with the perspective of its importance.  

According to the Corporate Executive Board (CEB), 'the modern buyer completes around 60% of the buying process before engaging the sales rep' Buyers have now acquired more knowledge and information as they have gained the education of the purchasing rules and on online basis as well as they have also learned the company's products by themselves. All of these things become possible because of that respective online platform provided by the companies and organization for their valuable customers. Therefore, the customers and clients become enable enough to get the access of the company's history and the case studies. The online platform opened a new way in the sector of marketing (Phillipson, 2016). Through the online platform, the company could make their communication and marketing system stronger and effective which ultimately would lead them tow the success.

The marketing management is also responsible for the development of an effective leadership in perspective of the generation strategy which has helped the teams responsible to fulfil the requirements and reaching up to their quota. Before they made discussion and decision over their strategy, the marketing manager of the organization used to spend their time roaming and doing researches in order to get updated with the market. This has been done with the purpose to get the information of the new trends in the market, acquiring the information of the customers' needs, getting knowledge regarding the approaches of the organizations' competitors and rivals which they were thinking to adopt, along with the decision tm make differentiation in the range of the products to make a stand-up position among competitors and rivals.

Inbound Marketing:

The marketing managers are nowadays trying to keep their focus upon the inbound marketing. Since the beginning of this twenty first century, there has been found a fluctuation in the attitudes and behaviours of the customers. The change in behaviour of the buyer refers towards the traditional disruptive advertisements messages have no longer been effective in senses as they were earlier before.

Inbound marketing has been defined as a methodology, which has helped the companies and organizations as a source to attract the consumers and customers through their respective official website. Inbound marketing refers towards the generation of leads by means of content targeting and pushing out a wider variety of channels by means of social media websites, creative blogs, and search engine optimization in association with emails (Kotler, 2002). All this is possible because, such content which is powerful could become a key in the lead generation. Regarding the online platform, the content used to lie as the centre element integrating the marketing strategy.

The Significance of Marketing Management:

Referring towards the importance and significance of the marketing management, it was raised with the purpose to meet and fulfil the competitions among the rivals and there has been found as an improved method for the distribution and reduction of costs along with the profit

maximization.  The marketing management is supposed to be an important operation and function in the enterprise commercially and from the business perspective as well (Chand, 2015).

The importance of marketing management could be highlighted and get more focused through the following statements:

1) New products could be introduced through the marketing approach.

2) There could be made more increments in the existing production and in such senses the productivity could made boosted.

3) Through an appropriate marketing management, the cost of sales and the cost of distribution could be made reduced.   

4) The organization can made their entry in the export market and in such means, they could expand their business.

5) It has developed the communication and transportation system, within and outside the country. It has raised the capital income and the demands for the products has also increased.

The paper has aimed to understand the significance of marketing management in association with a detailed literature regarding the Starbucks Company.  

COMPANY PROFILE

Brief History

The Starbucks Company was founded in the earlier 1971. The first official store of Starbucks was opened in the Seattle's Pike Place Market. The name to the company 'Starbucks' was given as the owners were highly inspired with the first individual Moby Dick of Herman Melville, who, at that time was the leading retailer whose products were supposed to be the best as Moby Dick was famous for their specialty in the brands of coffee. They used to have millions of customers who visited them from all around the world (Lee, 2013). They used to have stores in Europe, Latin America, Middle East, and North America and in the Pacific Rim as well.  

Story Behind the CEO

The current CEO of Starbucks Company is Howard Shultz. However, there is another story behind the ownership of Starbucks Company. Howard Schultz was born in 1953 in Brooklyn, a state in New York. Their family has moved to Canaries when Shultz become 3. He was an active man and supposed to be a leading participant in the basketball team. In 1970, he left his state for University of Michigan; he completed his graduation as he has done the BS in the communication department. After education, he joined a company Hammarplast, who used to sell European Brand Coffee all around the states in USA. With gradual changes in time, he got promotions and soon get the promotion as a Director from a usual employer. At such stage, he observed that they used to sell their products to another company named as, 'Starbucks Coffee, Tea and Spice Company', which was actually situated in Settle. In 1981, Schultz moved to Seattle, it has been 10 years, since the original Starbucks Company was working, the actual owners who have founded the Starbucks Company were three old college best friends. Their names were Gordon Bowker, Jerry Baldwin and Zev Siegi. The story of Starbucks, at that time, was inside the borders of Seattle, and not outside of it. The logo for the brand shows an inspiration or an attachment with the sea. As it was a mermaid, which has been chosen completely by all three of them. When Schultz met the real owners, he showed his interest towards the expansion of the business and the transformation of the older Starbucks Caf'' into the newer one, all it was happened in 1981. In 1982, Schultz was being hired as the director of retailer operations and marketing by Starbucks. Earlier in the=at time, Schultz worked with highly dedication considering the business as its own. Later in 1983, he made a movement from USA to Italy, in order to make the marketing of its product that is coffee beans or its powder. When Schultz came back to Seattle and discussed his idea (selling of the drink rather than its beans, or powder) with the owners (Schultz & Gordon, 2012). The respective idea was generated in Schultz's mind because he has observed in Italy that people are solely connected with each other through a coffee drink. The discussion was successful as they allowed Shultz to re-change the older settings and reshape the business in the manner of his own wishes. In 1984, Schultz opened up a coffee bar in Seattle with the purpose to make sales of instant coffee drinks. This success of instant coffee drinks created a sense of disappointment among the original owners if Starbucks and they left the mission of making the Starbucks bigger. Therefore, Schultz also left the place and Starbucks in 1985. Later in the same year, he opened up a chain of coffee bars naming them II Giornale. Within two years of his successful business in the coffee bar chains, he made enable enough and with the help of investors, he purchased the Starbucks from its originators.  He merged up the II Giornale with Starbucks and publically announced himself, the Chief executive Officer (i.e. CEO) of the company. The merged company was named as Starbucks. After doing a successful business for a longer period of time, he resigned from his post of CEO and again made a public announcement of his resignation (Schultz, 2012). After eight years, he re-joined his company back, giving an interview to CBC, he said, 'We are not in the business of filling bellies; we're in the business of filling souls.'

Italian Inspiration:

When Schultz made his first joining in the company, Starbucks was already established as a known retailer and roaster of whole grounded, high quality coffee beans. A small business trip to Italy gave more fertility to Schultz's mid as he observed the relationship of people with the highly rich in flavor coffee drink, which was supposed to be their traditional drink.

Espresso, at that time was the most common drink in Italy, become an element of attraction for Schultz. Therefore, in 1987, when Howard Schultz purchased the Starbucks from their originators (Starbucks, 2008). He started selling coffee drinks, tea, along with some food items in association with the products of entertainment with the purpose of doing marketing of his cafes and coffee in the whole region or city.

 Convenience  

The Starbucks stores are founded all around the city in USA including the urban and sub urban areas and in some other rural communities round the globe. There have been founded a higher range of their 'Drive Thru' and 'Off- Highway' which ultimately has become an alternate and a convenient source for the customers. Moreover, the Starbucks has gained the license to work at the official sites. Therefore, in 1991, they have opened their stores at the airports and in the travel plazas which were being operated by the HMSHost all around in the United States of America. Apart from that, they have also founded the foodservice and licensed stores in the college campuses as they signed the licensed agreements with Compass, Aramark, and Sodexho.

Referring towards the Starbucks' experience, Howard Schultz has claimed that, 'You get more than the finest coffee when you visit a Starbucks'you get great people, first-rate music and a comfortable and upbeat meeting place. We establish the value of buying a product at Starbucks by our uncompromising quality and by building a personal relationship with each of our customers. Starbucks is rekindling America's love affair with coffee, bringing romance and fresh flavour back to the brew.'

Passion behind Quality:

The Starbucks Company has always offered their customers, a wider range in the flavours of coffee form all around the world. The buyers for coffee used to travel towards such locations where the coffee is actually grown. Such regions include Asia- Pacific, Arabia, Africa, and Latin America. The buyers used to make such trips with the purpose to extract out the coffee beans of superficial quality. All of these high quality coffee beans used to come to arrive at store after they got processed from the Starbucks' highly qualified roaster where the coffee experts used to create the world's best Starbucks signature called, 'Starbucks Roast.' The dark colour in the coffee is not just the colour but the aroma of that hard work which the experts has done to roast it; enriching it with flavour and aroma (Allison, 2010).

Entertainment

Apart from that coffees, Starbucks also offer a wide variety of multiple other hand- crafted beverages; including the teas, pastries, Tazo, Ethos, along with multiple flavoured sandwiches served with colourful salads. Starbucks also owned unique styled coffee machines, coffee brewers with eccentric items and confections.

Starbucks also provides Entertainment to their customers by means of giving them the finest range in music, in books and through films and movies a well. The purpose behind the provision of such entertainment is to provide them an opportunity to spend quality time in their cafes, while enjoying the finest and perfectly brewed coffee.

Mission Statement:

 Their mission is stated I the company profile as, 'Our mission is to inspire and nurture the human spirit ' one person, one cup, and one neighbourhood at a time.'

Number of Stores:

Starbucks now owned a huge number of stores expanding from East to West, North to South, around the globe. The total number of stores (as of October 2, 2016) is found to be as 25,085. Starbucks is working on the achievement of goal as to invite the customers from worldwide to their stores; giving them an opportunity to experience the exceptional beverages.

The Products:

Starbucks offers an exceptional range of products to their consumers and customers. In coffee, they have around 30 blends. However, in hand- crafted beverages, the company offer Espresso, Frappuccino, smoothies and multiple flavours in teas. In fresh items, the offer baked pastries, salads, bistro boxes, oatmeal, fruit cups, sandwiches, and yogurt parfaits.

Being a Responsible Company

Starbucks has maintained a perfect balance between the profitability and social conscience. They have made a holistic approach ethically in sourcing the high quality coffee. Other responsibilities include the practices of purchasing, providing their support in the farmer loans, while also taking part in forest conservation programs (Company, 2016). The company ensures a moral support to the farmers, this establish a long- term relationship of supplies between the company and the farmers, the high- quality beans have been carefully harvesting, blending, roasting and sent for packaging for the last 40 years.

CONCEPTUAL DISCUSSION:

Marketing Management

With the word marketing, there pops up a sense that without an effective marketing strategy, any organization could not get success. However, if the marketing strategy is found to be effective and useful, then the graph of success could go beyond the limits and expectations. Through an effective marketing strategy, any organization could make themselves successful, could expand their business within the borders and beyond the borders as well.

Marketing has all in all 5 basic concepts. They all vary from each other in terms of their function.  These five concepts are described as:

' Production Concept

' Product Concept

' Selling Concept

' Marketing Concept

' Societal Marketing Concept

If these concepts are studied deeply, then one comes on the conclusion that, the customers attract towards such product that are available on ease and at a less expensive cost as per claimed in the production concept. The product concept states that the customer move towards such products that have a standard quality, better performance must have some innovation. The product must have a unique feature so that it could appeal the customer towards itself. The selling concept refers towards that approach the customers used to implement. Customers used to make their access towards such products whose companies promotes their products and services aggressively. The marketing concept, focuses upon the needs of the markets and mainly targets upon the delivery of values in comparison to their rivals and competitors. The Societal Marketing Concepts, is somehow similar to the marketing concepts. The concept mainly focuses upon the requirements and desires of customers (Bhasin, 2016).  

The 7Ps Strategy of Marketing:

The 7Ps strategy is supposed to be an important yet a renowned tactic in the field of marketing. The tactic is not only used for the customer satisfaction but also for targeting the market needs. All of these 7Ps are controllable in nature, covering both the aspects of the marketing environment is the external and the internal as well (Tracy, 2004). The 7Ps, when combined, become extremely helpful and is known as, 'Tactical Marketing Mix'

Product:

The product generally refers towards the item the organization is selling to its customer while highlighting all the features and characteristics of that respective item. The features of the product includes its advantages, the performance, the efficiency, the cost, and the benefits the customer could avail from it.  Marketing a product include all of its features to be discussed while the quality, the repairing time, the maintenance factor are also need to be highlighted on a lighter note.

Price:

This P of price deals with the costing and pricing factor which also needs to be discussed in brief detailing. The pricing factor affects the customer, the price either could attract the customer towards itself or it could make them far away. The cost should be reasonable, affordable and must be justifying the quality of the product. If the price is found to be lower then, there would be no value of the product among the customers. If the price is found to be higher then, the customers would not even pay attention towards it. The price must possess a factor of discounting along with the seasoning pricing.

Promotion:   

The promotion strategy is included in the 7Ps strategy because the promotional activities are used to create awareness among the customers regarding the needs of the product, any organization has introduced in the market. The promotional activities include the sales tactics, advertisements, direct marketing (Business and industry portal, 2015). These are all in combinable is known as, 'Advertisement tactics.'

Place:

Place is supposed to be the location, where one could find the products and services available. The place referred towards that location where the customer could make their access at ease in order to avail the services and the product, the organization has offered to their customers. Place also holds a fundamental position in the marketing strategy, because if the customer found inaccessible to the location, there will be no use of the product. All of the features of the product become vague, if the place where the product is found un- reachable.

People:

The people discussed in the marketing strategy includes the people employed in the organization as employer, employees, workers, labours and the other staff members associated with the organization either directly or indirectly. The salesmen are supposed to be those people who used to have direct interaction with the customer providing the customer services. They organization could improve its competition by recruiting the maximum suitable position on their required designations. In such a way, the organization could utilize their skills for the betterment of themselves.

Process:

Processes involved the procedure required to deliver the product from the production line to the customers' table. It includes a quality system; fulfilling all the requirements of the standard; ensuring the delivery of the product to the destination (i.e. in the hands of the customer). The cost and time could be saved by means of increasing the efficiency.

Physical Evidence:

     The physical evidences involves those things which the customer used to observe when it comes interlinked with the business dealings. It includes the physical environment, the interior designing, the packaging of the product, the branding logo. Moreover, it also includes the dressing, the behaviour of the workers and other staffs. The outer and the inner layout of the location where the product is available. Good and effective physical evidences could increase the sales.

Impact of Macro and Micro Environmental upon Marketing:  

There have been found two major factors affecting the marketing these two factors are found to be not in control of the marketers but even in the similar circumstances, these two factors put an influential impact upon the market decision especially in the creation of the marketing strategy.

Macro Environmental Factor:

  It includes the suppliers, the resellers, the customers, the competition and the general public. Suppliers are responsible for the success of any business organization because the suppliers used to possess that power which is required for the successfulness. The resellers used to work as a 3rd party while taking the product from the organization to the market. He customers are also supposed to be included in the macro environmental factor. The customer is an important factor because it used to buy the product and avail the benefits of the product. The competition referred towards those organization who used to produce the similar products and offers the services of similar nature (Oxford Marketing, 2015). This factor of competition gears up the productivity and efficiency in the market. The public is included because it is the duty of the organization to satisfy the public, because public hold that power through which the organization could achieve its goals.

Micro Environmental Factor:

It includes the demographic forces, the economics, natural and physical forces, technological actors along with the political, social, legal and cultural factors. The demographic forces include the age, education level, lifestyle, ethnicity and the cultural factors which the organization has targeted through the product. The economic factor is important because it affects the production within the organization and it also affects the decision of consumers. The natural and physical factor involve the impact of the natural sources (like forest, aquatic marine products etc.) which has affected the organizations' productivity. All the other factors also affects the company's production (Agarwal, 2010).

REVIEW OF LITERATURE:

Marketing is causally defined as a source of advertisement or selling an item, product or service. Somehow, it is true but marketing is supposed to be something beyond the advertisement and selling. Marketing is a matter of interest for everyone. It is usually applicable upon the goods, services, persons, properties, organizations, ideas and informations.  Marketing management is usually kept up to date.

Production, marketing and then the delivery of the product from the production line to the customers' desk keeps the circle of the social and economic life, in work and in continuity. The organizations become successful and unsuccessful upon the basis of their marketing strategy. There are only two functions that keep the organization in work and these are the import and export. The organizations used to invest a huge amount of finance from their revenues in the sector of marketing. Marketing works as an exposure of the product in front of the customers whose requirements are attached with that specific product.

The marketing management also involves an in depth analysis of the customers' requirement, their needs and their desires which they really want to fulfil from the market. Therefore the market, in return, demands for that product from the respective organization who used to produce that item. It is a chain in which the organization, the market demands and the customer requirement are interconnected with each other. All of them are linked in such a way that they are providing benefits to each other, generating their revenues, increasing their performances, offering them new facilities and providing each other new opportunities so that they could become interlinked for a longer lasting time; without any delay.

According to the American Marketing Association, marketing has been defined as, 'Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organizational objectives.' However, another definition is also supposed to be stated as, 'it is a process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating and exchanging products and value with others'. Simply put: Marketing is the delivery of customer satisfaction at a profit.'

The expanded concept of marketing involves all such activities that keep the organizational function in continuation. It has been assumed that the efforts applied in marketing that used to follow the entire strategy of the corporate department. It would proceed in accordance with the practices involved in the ethics and it would effectively work in the service of interests, proving beneficial for the society and organization in combination. The marketing concept also defines the marketing variables (like the product, the price, its promotion along with its distribution among the stake holders) in a combinable works for the complete satisfaction of the customer. In addition to it, the marketing management works for the identification and analysis of the customer requirements (Kotler, 2012). The similar concept of marketing also provide their services in bridging the gaps and establishing a stronger relationship between the production/ manufacturing organization with its valuable customers, for such purposes, it has been claimed that the marketing management must have to be effective in all means. They should create and introduce influential techniques and tactics which could prove beneficial in appealing the customers, clients and consumers. Towards their relevant counter with the purpose to fulfil their respective desires, requirements and demands  

RESEARCH METHODLOGY:

Research Philosophy:

A faith or trust, which is accepted to believe in such a way that the data or information for definite circumstances should be collected, analysed, processed and executed, is referred as a research philosophy (Kruger & Mitchell, 2005). In terms of approaches, there are two major approaches that made a clear realization of the research philosophies; first is the epistemology (which is supposed to be accepted as true) however, the other one is termed as doxology (which is believed as true) ) (Chapman, 2005). Now, there are three dominant perspectives that are associated with the research philosophy. These three points of views are mainly dependent upon the approaches; commonly known as positivism, interpretivism and realism (Castellan, 2010). These perspectives describes how new knowledge emerges out in the society.

Positivism is basically defined as a claim to a purpose which is unbiased in nature and independent from anyone's specific or person point of view. Therefore, if a researcher attempts to have any philosophy based on positivism then it clearly shows that that the researcher have a freedom of space in defining the perspective and the researcher's perspective is not affecting the main purpose or the subject of the overall study. The adaptation of positivism further indicates that the researcher wants to work with natural sciences that are observable in real in study. In other words, positivism led the study towards the quantitative data analysis. In the type of research that has positivism in nature usually have some relationships or correlations between single or multiple variables (Dudovskiy, 2016).

Interpretivism is referred as the opposite of positivism and this obviously led the research towards qualitative data analysis. Interpretivism tends to have some real knowledge or the real experience of human beings to be explained in the study. The interpretivist usually describes the same reality with different other perspectives as it changes from one human being to another (Sociology, 2016).

According to (Gill, 1886), the philosophic realism is defined as, 'the view that entities exist independently of being perceived, or independently of our theories about them.' However, (Van Fraassen, 2013) defines that 'Scientific realism is the view that theories refer to real features of the world. 'Reality' here refers to whatever it is in the universe (i.e., forces, structures, and so on) that causes the phenomena we perceive with our senses.'

In the following study, the philosophy which the researcher has accepted to pursue is more towards interpretivism because the study s leading towards qualitative data analysis.

Research approach:

The study aims to investigate the marketing management including the marketing strategies which the highly renowned coffee company known as, 'Starbucks Coffee Company' has implemented in their stores all around the globe. In other words, the researcher wants to study and wants to make an in depth qualitative analysis of the marketing management whose effective implementation has made the Starbucks a superior company among all the other coffee making and selling companies in the whole world. The Starbucks was not found to be such expanded in the early 10 years when it was established. The business got expanded right after Howard Schultz has joined the team.   

Steps that are necessarily being taken to make any research valid and reliable indicate that the first step desires proper investigation and sufficient amount of right information. Making a collection of data seems very easy but with respect to its technicality it is not a child's play. In terms of research orientation, there are two types. The first one is characterized as Inductive however; the other one is labelled as deductive. Inductive research is the type of data that is implied on interpretivism; it means that the approach is qualitative in nature. While deductive approach use hypothesis and is associated with the quantitative data analysis (Gabriel, 2013).   

The following study is inductive in nature; it would be done by having an in depth qualitative analysis of the marketing management of Starbucks in order to fulfil the demands required for a qualitative data analysis.

Research Design and Justification for the Choice

The research design has been utilized with the purpose to identify the structure of this respective research, which the researcher has used in order to fulfil the requirements of the qualitative data analysis. There have been found these research designs  

' Descriptive Research Design: the respective research design refers towards the description of the situation the researcher has been facing. It usually does not provide accurate solutions .these three methods are considered as the type of descriptive research design:  

' Observational Methods

' Case-Study Methods

' Survey Methods

As it has been mentioned above in the methodology that the following research is following the qualitative approach for the proceedings in the research. Therefore, it has not involved the case studies. The reason behind the drop of case study approach from the research because, the case studies are not use to determine the cause and effect and for accurate predictions.  This study has entailed the case study based analysis of the marketing management in Starbucks Coffee Company.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection

Both of the principles are considered as the mode of data collection. The two main types regarding the mode of data are primary and secondary and the collection of these data depends on the different sources .All the gathered data is interpreted I two ways i.e. quantitative and qualitative method. The sources of data collection are primary sources and secondary sources.

Primary data is collected through the first-hand experience, experiments and observations. Primary data is collected for the first time and possess tendency for the further researches. While secondary data is collected from the past researches, published data, and from the experiments and experiences of past researchers .Data collected for this case study involves secondary data .Data is collected from the journals, reports written for the marketing approach, which the Starbucks has implemented in their stores all around the world. As it is case study, it can take qualitative and quantitative approach for data collection. This study utilize qualitative approach and entails case study based analysis of the Starbucks Coffee Company.

Research Strategy:

In order to figure out proper result from the specific collection of information, the research strategy that has been approached by the researcher is qualitative. The reason behind choosing this approach is that the qualitative research is easy-to-access; can be analysed properly and can be utilized quickly. The qualitative data is mainly dependent upon the data and information available online on the official websites, in the reports and journals as well. It involves the non- statistical data (SAGE, 2010).

Research Methods and Their Justification

The entire research follow the descriptive research design as the observational study methods .Observational study methods involve in depth study of an individual or group . This study has entailed the in-depth case study based analysis of the highly renowned company, famous for its instant coffee drinks and other beverages along with the freshly baked pastries which are served with a wide range of different other food items. As it is an observational study, it would take qualitative approach for data collection. This study has utilized the qualitative approach for the approach

Validity and Reliability of Data

Validity is the most significant feature for the any research study in order to sure appropriate context, sampling and procedures. This study utilize appropriate qualitative research methods, tools for the process of data. Highly authentic and official resources are utilized that invest in the validity of the research. Reliability of the data and study entrails with the consistency of the data. Regarding to this study all collected data is gathered from reliable resources and possess true data however, the data has been collected from the company's official reports.

Ethical Considerations

Ethical consideration regarding ti the research study identifies the Ethics of the research identifies the moral values and code of conduct which the researchers follow in order to provide ethical and good research study. The sources of data gathered are considered to be authentic and legal, that make surety of collection of data through legal means. The researcher make surety to possess the reliable and valid data without any amalgamation and manipulation.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION:

Marketing Management in Starbucks:

Starbucks faced the biggest competition in the sector of coffee drinks and beverages of similar nature as they made their entry in the market. But they manages to stable their position and made them stand in the line of those who owns the market. Now Starbucks made themselves the biggest and other are in competition with them. Their main objective is always supposed to become the most respectful and the most recognized brand in the business of drinks and other drinks.

Referring towards the achievement of goals, the company has mentioned earlier in their profiles. Starbucks made their expansion in terms of locations, that they opened their stores in far reaching areas. They provided opportunities to the countries internationally and to their customers with the purpose that they should come and experience the flavours Starbucks has introduced in the market. Their expansion in the regions outside U.S. provided them the chance to expand their business in the foreign market.  

Starbucks coffee company has made a rapid growth. It has gone from 17 stores within their locality (i.e. Seattle) to a huge number of 25, 0875 stores across the globe. Starbucks is still in the process to introduce and open new stores in the different regions within a single country in its different regions either they are urban, sub urban or rural. They have seen a time, when the Starbucks was found to have a lower turnover in employees but now the circumstances have changed. The employees are getting paid much better as compared to the industry workers. The employees have been given health care facilities and insurance as well.

From a single outlet located in Seattle to such position where there have achieved so much, that now they own a huge thousand number of stores in the whole world. These stores are not only in USA but are located in every region of different countries. They have now established a huge empire and the establishment and introduction of new stores is still in continuation in different other parts of the world.

Howard Schultz earlier got inspired with the Italian tradition in which the people are attached with others through a single drink. This inspired Howard Schultz and he tried to expand his business from Seattle, first to all other parts of USA and outside USA as well (Lingley, 2009).  

The marketing strategy is not supposed to be the common as in Starbucks as compared to the other companies of similar size. In the recent times, the bigger companies used to advertise their products and services by means of bigger billboards on which the ad is supposed to be printed. Some companies used to make their advertisements through posters, brochures, newspapers, magazines, flyers and similar other items of advertisements. Such companies cannot compare their advertisement campaign with the Starbucks.   

Starbucks believe in the advertising based upon the word-of-mouth approach, therefore, it makes a notable financial saving upon the marketing activities. It only requires a percent of revenues (1% = 30 million US Dollars), that amount goes for the marketing purpose on annual basis rather than other companies; which are of same sizes who used to spend a complete budget of 300 million dollars

Starbucks has also owned another platform working with the purpose of advertisements which is known as, 'Starbucks Express.' This is an online website providing an opportunity to the coffee lovers and Starbucks to make orders on online basis. The company not only used to take orders online but also make advanced bookings for their valuable customers. This has provided the customers an ease, that when they reach the store after they have made an advance bookings, the customers has no longer to wait for their order or beverage to come over there4 table. The step has also been taken with the purpose that the online advance bnooki9ng system has reduced the transaction time, and it also had increased and speeded up the company or stores' services. Moreover, Starbucks has also introduced a customer card facility and has also installed automatic espresso machines in the stores. In this way, the customer can swap their cards in the automatic espresso machines and can enjoy the taste and feel of a perfectly brewed coffee. Apart from all such facilities, Starbucks has also introduced a wireless network system all around in the states of Europe and America (around in 1200 locations) (Shahi, Omer, Aufschilager, Schmerling, & Gassner, 2007).

The marketing strategies of Starbucks include a big and a perfect mug spilling out with highly enriched espresso. Although, the espresso costs more than other companies who used to serve coffees but the quality of the espresso justifies its cost. Therefore, it satisfies the customer in terms of quality, aroma, taste and richness as well.

Moreover, their environment gives the customer a soothing experience and a unique atmosphere in their stores. This environment gives a comfortable understanding which ultimately bounds the customers and established a relationship between the coffee, the store environment, and the customer.

Customer Satisfaction is yet another essential element that must be kept in consideration when dealing with the marketing strategy. The customer satisfaction factor ultimately becomes an advertisement itself for the customer. In such sense, one could claim that Starbucks, after given an exceptional experience to their customers binds them with the Starbucks community and with the Starbucks world.

Another successful Marketing strategy that Starbucks has implemented include small and strategic partnership. In this way, they have developed their business and increased their sales by practicing this respective strategy. Referring towards the brand marketing, the company put their belief in the WOM (word-to-mouth) approach. The company utilized the innovative art along with the creative ideas which they had applied in their advertisements (Lehnert & Gore, 2014). The strategy has become successful and made Starbucks, a huge coffee company. Starbucks has developed an individual feature in their marketing.

Current Status:

Starbucks has made themselves a huge coffee retailer in the whole world. Their net revenues increased from 2002 from US$ 3289 million to $2.5 billion till 2008. Starbucks is operating 25, 085 stores in and outside the USA. They are working with joint ventures, and Japan and UK are considered as the largest ventures in terms of business.

While increasing their business, Starbucks also increased their product line. They now have introduced 30 blends in coffee. They also supply the coffee merchandise. Furthermore, Starbucks used to sell not only the coffee drinks but there are teas, ice creams,  espresso, Frappuccino, raw coffee beans, sandwiches, salads, baked pastries and chocolates as well.

Starbucks is also a biggest contributor in terms of charities; they made their funding for the issues like homeless, children, and serious health patients like AIDS. Starbucks is also environment aware. They used to utilize products that are recyclable in nature. Starbucks, as a company proud on their services.  

Starbucks has made a great achievement and is known as 'The Apple in Coffee', all it happens in the time, when there are shortcomings in the market. From a single store to a huge empire of more twenty five thousands stores in every corner of the world, expanding from North to south and from East to West. In this era of modernization and globalization, the Starbucks team responsible for the marketing and advertisements of coffee made it a social drink through the social media marketing.

The social media marketing team used to pay individual attention towards each and every of their customer. The team offers an exceptional customer services at each of their official stores. This extra- ordinary behaviour of the staff and the workers associated with the Starbucks urges the customers to go back again to the store in order to experience not only that Starbucks speciality (i.e. a perfectly brewed coffee) but also the surrounding, the ever- soothing atmosphere which adds more flavours in the coffee, enhancing the richness of it as well.

Starbucks made the simple drink, a highly social activity. Coffee has established the relationships among the people in the society. People likes to meet over coffee, the re- unions are used to arranged over coffee inn cafes, there has found exchange of stories and the swapping of memorable events over coffee. Coffee is used to give an active start up in the morning; giving a living freshness on the face and adds colours in the day.  

    The reliability involved in the business of Starbucks has opened the ways of expansion for Starbucks. There stores for everyone, no discrimination is found over the races and culture in any of the official store. Within just $2.00 or some more price, one could experience and enjoy the exceptional ambiance of the world famous coffee store known as 'Starbucks.' Several other organizations tried their best to copy them but failed to achieve the standard which Starbucks has been maintaining for the last 40 years.

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

Marketing has been defined the process to show your product in the market with such strategy that could appeal and attract the customers towards the product. The marketing must ensure that the customer gets attracted towards the product and ultimately the product become its needs.

Marketing has been defined as a combination of multiple processes that are used to design, create, connect, transfer and deliver the values from the origin to its destination. According to the Corporate Executive Board (CEB), 'the modern buyer completes around 60% of the buying process before engaging the sales rep' Buyers have now acquired more knowledge and information as they have gained the education of the purchasing rules and on online basis as well as they have also learned the company's products by themselves. All of these things become possible because of that respective online platform provided by the companies and organization for their valuable customers. Therefore, the customers and clients become enable enough to get the access of the company's history and the   case studies. The marketing management is also responsible for the development of an effective leadership in perspective of the generation strategy which has helped the teams responsible to fulfil the requirements and reaching up to their quota.

The importance of marketing management could be highlighted and get more focused through the statements like the new products could be introduced through the marketing approach and there could be made more increments in the existing production and in such senses the productivity could made boosted. Moreover, through an appropriate marketing management, the cost of sales and the cost of distribution could be made reduced. The organization can made their entry in the export market and in such means, they could expand their business. Apart from all such importance of marketing, it also has developed the communication and transportation system, within and outside the country. It has raised the capital income and the demands for the products has also increased.

Starbucks faced the biggest competition in the sector of coffee drinks and beverages of similar nature as they made their entry in the market. But they manages to stable their position and made them stand in the line of those who owns the market. Now Starbucks made themselves the biggest and other are in competition with them. Their main objective is always supposed to become the most respectful and the most recognized brand in the business of drinks and other drinks.

The Starbucks Company was founded in the earlier 1971. The first official store of Starbucks was opened in the Seattle's Pike Place Market. The name to the company 'Starbucks' was given as the owners were highly inspired with the first individual Moby Dick of Herman Melville, who, at that time was the leading retailer whose products were supposed to be the best as Moby Dick was famous for their specialty in the brands of coffee. They used to have millions of customers who visited them from all around the world. They used to have stores in Europe, Latin America, Middle East, and North America and in the Pacific Rim as well.  

Howard Schulz is supposed to be the founder and the CEO of this modern Starbucks Coffee Company. When Schultz made his first joining in the company, Starbucks was already established as a known retailer and roaster of whole grounded, high quality coffee beans. A small business trip to Italy gave more fertility to Schultz's mid as he observed the relationship of people with the highly rich in flavour coffee drink, which was supposed to be their traditional drink. Espresso, at that time was the most common drink in Italy, become an element of attraction for Schultz. Therefore, in 1987, when Howard Schultz purchased the Starbucks from their originators. He started selling coffee drinks, tea, along with some food items in association with the products of entertainment with the purpose of doing marketing of his cafes and coffee in the whole region or city.

The data collection Strategy is used to be qualitative in nature. Qualitative data include the data collected from websites, reports, journals, articles, and books. It includes the non- statistical data. There have been found two types of data, i.e. the primary and the secondary.

Primary data is collected through the first-hand experience, experiments and observations. Primary data is collected for the first time and possess tendency for the further researches. While secondary data is collected from the past researches, published data, and from the experiments and experiences of past researchers .Data collected for this case study involves secondary data .Data is collected from the journals, reports written for the marketing approach, which the Starbucks has implemented in their stores all around the world. As it is case study, it can take qualitative and quantitative approach for data collection. This study utilize qualitative approach and entails case study based analysis of the Starbucks Coffee Company.

In order to figure out proper result from the specific collection of information, the research strategy that has been approached by the researcher is qualitative. The reason behind choosing this approach is that the qualitative research is easy-to-access; can be analysed properly and can be utilized quickly. The qualitative data is mainly dependent upon the data and information available online on the official websites, in the reports and journals as well. It involves the non- statistical data

The entire research follow the descriptive research design as the observational study methods .Observational study methods involve in depth study of an individual or group . This study has entailed the in-depth case study based analysis of the highly renowned company, famous for its instant coffee drinks and other beverages along with the freshly baked pastries which are served with a wide range of different other food items. As it is an observational study, it would take qualitative approach for data collection. This study has utilized the qualitative approach for the approach. The following study is inductive in nature; it would be done by having an in depth qualitative analysis of the marketing management of Starbucks in order to fulfil the demands required for a qualitative data analysis.

Starbucks coffee company has made a rapid growth. It has gone from 17 stores within their locality (i.e. Seattle) to a huge number of 25, 0875 stores across the globe. Starbucks is still in the process to introduce and open new stores in the different regions within a single country in its different regions either they are urban, sub urban or rural. They have seen a time, when the Starbucks was found to have a lower turnover in employees but now the circumstances have changed. The employees are getting paid much better as compared to the industry workers. The employees have been given health care facilities and insurance as well.

The marketing strategy is not supposed to be the common as in Starbucks as compared to the other companies of similar size. In the recent times, the bigger companies used to advertise their products and services by means of bigger billboards on which the ad is supposed to be printed. Some companies used to make their advertisements through posters, brochures, newspapers, magazines, flyers and similar other items of advertisements. Such companies cannot compare their advertisement campaign with the Starbucks.   

The marketing strategies of Starbucks include a big and a perfect mug spilling out with highly enriched espresso. Although, the espresso costs more than other companies who used to serve coffees but the quality of the espresso justifies its cost. Therefore, it satisfies the customer in terms of quality, aroma, taste and richness as well.

The social media marketing team used to pay individual attention towards each and every of their customer. The team offers an exceptional customer services at each of their official stores. This extra- ordinary behaviour of the staff and the workers associated with the Starbucks urges the customers to go back again to the store in order to experience not only that Starbucks speciality (i.e. a perfectly brewed coffee) but also the surrounding, the ever- soothing atmosphere which adds more flavours in the coffee, enhancing the richness of it as well.

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