Global mind-set is ability to influence individuals , groups , organizations and systems that are unlike the leaders ; ability to absorb information,tradition and cultural norms from around the world and be able to conceptualize how to make in impact in all environment; ability to adjust to different environment and culture internationally. It is composed of intellectual capital , psychological capital , social capital.
Intellectual capital has 3 important points ; Global business savvy , cosmopolitan outlook , cognitive complexity. Global business savvy ; knowledge of global industry, global competitive business and marketing strategy, how to transact business and manager risk in other countries, supplier optionsa in other parts of the world. Cosmopolitan Outlook ; knowledge of cultures in different parts of the world , geography , history and important persons of several countries , up-to-date knowledge of important world events . Cognitive compelxity ; ability to grasp complex concepts quickly , strong analytical and problem solving skills , ability to understand abstract ideas , ability to take complex issues and explain the main points simply and understandably.
Psychological capital has 3 important points ; passion for diversity , quest for adventure , self-assurance. Passion for diversity ; intereset in exploring other parts of the world , interest in getting to know people from other parts of the world , interest in living in another country interest in variety. Quest for adventure ; Interest in dealing with challenging situations , willingness to take risks , test one'''s abilities , dealing with unpredictable situation. Self-assurance ; Energetic , self-confident , comfortable in uncomfortable .
Social capital has 3 important points ; intercultural empathy , inetrpersonal impact , diplomacy. Intercultural empathy ; ability to work well with people from other parts of the world , emotionally connect to people from other cultures , understand non-verbal expression of people from other cultures,ability to engage people from other parts of the world to work together. Interpersonal impact ; experience in negotiating contracts in other culture , strong networks with people from other cultures and with influential people. Diplomacy ; ease of starting a conversation with a stronger , ability to integrate diverse perspectives , ability to listen to what others have to say , willingness to collaborate.
Societal culture is socially derived , taken for granted assumptions about how to think and act . Organizational culture is totality of beliefs , customs , tradition and values shared by the members of the organization. Ethnocentrism is the fact that one society evaluates the value judgments of another society from its own point of view finds other cultures inferior. Cultural intelligence is defined by the ability to determine those features from a person'''s or group'''s behavior that would be true of all people and all groups, those peculiar to this person or this group, and those that are neither universal or idiosyncratic.
GLOBE Project ( Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness ) ; it is massive and ongoing research program to study the impact of cultural variables on leadership behaviors and organizational effectiveness. This Project has 9 basic cultural dimensions:
1. Power distance : The degree to which social cultures and organizations are hierarchical.
2. Uncertainity avoidance : Extent to a which society , organization , or group relies on social norms , rules and procedures to alleviate the unpredictability of future event.
3. Institutional collectivisim : The degree to which organizational and societal institutional practices encourage and reward collective distribution of resources and collective action.
4. In-group collectivism : The degree to which individuals express pride , loyalty and cohensiveness in their organization or families.
5. Gender egalitarianism : The degree to which a collective minimized gender inequality.
6. Assertiveness : The degree to which individuals are assertive , confortational , and aggressive in their relaitionships with other.
7. Future orientation : The degree to which a collective encourages and rewards future-oriented behaviors such as planning and delaying gratification.
8. Performance orientation : The extent to which a community encourages innovation , high standards , excellence , and performance improvement.
9. Human orientation : The degree to which and organization or society encourages and rewards individuals for being fair , altruistic , friendly , generous , caring and kind to others.
Individualistic culture is think primarily in terms of ''' I ''' and ''' me ''' and place a high value on freedom and personal choice. Collectivist culture is teach people to be ''' we ''' and ''' us ''' oriented and to subordinate personal wishes and goals to the interests of the relevant social unit. High-context culture refers to societies or groups where people have close connections over a long period of time. Decisions and activities focus around personal face-to-face relationships, often around a central person who has authority. For example ; our family is the best example for high context culture. Low context culture refers to societies where people tend to have many connections but of shorter duration or for some specific reason. Low context culture is task-centered. Decisions and activities focus around what needs to be done, division of responsibilities. For example ; a chain supermarket, a cafeteria, a convenience store etc.
Monochronic people prefer to do one thing at a time . They value a certain orderliness and sense of there being an appropriate time and place for everything. They do not value interruptions. They like to concentrate on the job at hand and take time commitments very seriously. Polychronic cultures like to do multiple things at the same time.They can be easily distracted they also tend to manage interruptions well with a willingness to change plans often and easily. People are their main concern (particularly those closely related to them or their function) and they have a tendency to build lifetime relationships. Issues such as promptness are firmly based on the relationship rather than the task and objectives are more like desirable outcomes than must do's. There are basic features that should be universally a leader. These are ; Trustworthy ,foresight , positive , confidence builder , intelligent , win-win problem solver , administrative skilled, excellence oriented , just , plans ahead , dynamic , motivational , decisive , communicative, coordinator, honest , encouraging. Of course, these are the characteristics that every leader should have, but sometimes there are negative attitudes. These are ; Loner , irritable , ruthless , asocial , nonexplicit , dictatorial , noncooperative , egocentric. Stages of the foreign assignment cycle (with OB trouble spots) are (1) selection and training (unrealistic expectations); (2) arrival and adjustment (culture shock); (3) settling in and acculturating (lack of support); and (4) returning home and adjusting (reentry shock). Cross cultural training aims to develop awareness between people where a common cultural framework does not exist in order to promote clear lines of communication and better relationships.Cross cultural training has many benefits to be gained by both participants and businesses. For participants in cross cultural training, some benefits are that it helps ; People Learn About Themselves , encourage confidence , build trust , motivate , develop interpersonal and listening skills , people use common ground , career development. Culture shock is described as the feelings one experiences after leaving their familiar, home culture to live in another cultural or social environment. We can do some things to avoid this situation ; do some research ahead of time , do not be afraid to step outside of your comfort zone , it can be useful to talk to another person who has had a similar experience , spend some time alone , discover the place you live, take a walk in the city, find some interesting shop or caf'' etc. . The shock fades once you begin to learn more about a new culture and its people.
In a conclusion ; The findings about culture can help leaders understand their own cultural biases and preferences.Different cultures have different ideas about what they want from their leaders, and these findings help our leaders adapt their style to be more effective in different cultural settings. The findings can help global leaders communicate more effectively across cultural and geographic boundaries. Information on culture and leadership can be used to build culturally sensitive Web sites, design new employee orientation programs, conduct programs in relocation training, and improve global team effectiveness.
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