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  • Subject area(s): Marketing
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  • Published on: 14th September 2019
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In this chapter, the researcher aimed to provide an overview of the literature that studied and covered freelancing, understanding how a freelancing project can be implemented successfully, the general characteristics needed for freelancers, the impact of applying freelancing on the economy and how can it help in creating jobs, as well as, the impact of the factors related to freelancers and society on the successful application of freelancing.

Identify the number of Arabic and foreign studies which you used in this chapter.

3.2 Previous Studies:

Twenty five studies covered the different aspects of freelancing. These studies were arranged descending from 2015 to 2006. In terms of Arabic studies in relation to this study's subject, researcher was unable to find studies as the subject of the study is considered new and unfamiliar in the Arabic world.

1. Janos Novits (2015)

An Essential Guide to Online Freelancing

This study aims to highlight the freelancing phenomenon from an entrepreneurial perspective. It focuses on understanding the reality of freelancers, what motivates them to freelance, how they manage their self-employment, what challenges they face and to identify the most platforms they use. The data of theoretical part for this study was collected from various literature and published case studies and it was based mainly on the author's experience spent as graphic designer freelancer for a period from 2012 to 2014. The practical part contains of a project that contains an activity that was executed individually as a way of solving the research problem and a report that was written about the project. The research design chosen for this project is explanatory with some extensive features of descriptive studies. Due to the specific nature of the project thesis, only qualitative research methods such as documentary analysis, field research alongside observations and an alternative type of benchmarking was used. The results of the project clearly indicated that online freelancing is new interesting phenomenon with an exponentially increasing trend on a global level which deserves attention and cannot be ignored. It also added that online freelancing is a valid alternative for under-graduate students on the field of business and IT technologies since it provides them with a unique freedom and independence alongside the international environment, variable professional skills and experience. It recommended to study freelancing more extensively from different point of views, to provide more cohesive data on the topic and to promote better the field for students, in the future possibly integrated into entrepreneurial studies.

2. Jonathan Sapsed, et al (2015)

Freelancers in the Creative Digital IT Economy

The study follows a previous study published in 2014, The Brighton Fuse, which developed a robust and rigorous set of data collection and analysis methods to examine the phenomenon of a creative-digital cluster from the bottom-up. This study adopts a mixed method approach of collecting data combining quantitative and qualitative types of data.

The quantitative analysis is based on a survey of freelancers operating in the CDIT Brighton cluster that took place between July and September 2014 and included 500 businesses. The qualitative research consisted of 32 in-depth interviews and 2 focus groups and interviewd 77 entrepreneurs, artistsm academics and stake-holders. The results show that Brighton freelancers were active and generating revenues across a range of CDIT sectors. It also found that freelancers need to take a global view of their business, considering strategic positioning and its competition and marketing implications, organising finance and accounts and day-to-day management of projects that often involve contracting with other freelancers and businesses. The study recommended two governmentled information campaigns, the first to publishcre''dible information guidelines and advice on freelancers' business models, which should be based on research, collated, assessed and adjusted for regional and sectoral variations. Both freelancers and clients could use these in the form of an app, website or print brochure, and would-be freelancers and would-be clients. The second should be a more general impactful public information campaign through various media giving examples of freelance work and their corresponding costs, perhaps compared with other more well-known services.

3. Linn''a Fridh, Jens Wingren (2015)

Palestinian Freelance Journalists- self-censorship, customers and role in society

The aim of the study is to map and analyze the working conditions, possibilities and limitations of Palestinian freelance journalists. By analyzing the answers of respondents the researchers have concluded that the main possibility with the working conditions of Palestinian freelance journalists is their flexibility. As long as they are financially safe (for example from working another job) they can be more straightforward and uncompromising in their journalism. Freelance journalists are however limited by the financial scarcity of the Palestinian media that don't pay them enough and offer lacking support. Feeling excluded from the union is also something that specifically affects the freelance journalists and might make them feel more vulnerable. There is therefore a slight paradox inherent in the situation of the Palestinian freelancer: they have the opportunity to do good and critical journalism, but only if they can support themselves financially in some other way. Another finding of this study is that freelance journalists may alter their implications of professional ideals such as objectivity and neutrality when they work with foreign news desks. Working with this kind of customers also provides a way of expressing oneself with less fear of repercussions from differing factors in Palestinian society that might want to silence dissent.

4. Natasha Beschorner, Siou Chew Kuek, and Junko Narimatsu (2015)

ICT for Jobs in the Pacific Island Countries(PICs)

This study was prepared by the Transport and ICT Global Practice of the World Bank Group. The purpose of this study is to examine the feasibility of leveraging ICT to help generate job opportunities in the PICs. It draws on international experiences in developing the global outsourcing services (GOS) industry'including the emerging concept of online outsourcing (OO)'to explore new and innovative ways to overcome the unique geographic and demographic challenges of the Pacific Island Countries (PICs), and create more inclusive jobs, particularly for youth and women. It analyzes the job creation prospects in this area for Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga (hereafter referred to as the "three countries") as a first phase in a broader review of the Pacific. The study's main focus is on cities and urban areas, given the still low availability of Internet infrastructure and services in rural and remote areas and islands in the Pacific region.

The main findings of the study included advantages for the countries included in the study:  

1- Availability of a small labor pool that is young and qualified for basic voice or nonvoice BPO tasks that is relatively educated, has a high level of English skills, and is comparatively computer literate.

2- Minimum wage costs are comparable to the international wage costs for basic outsourcing tasks.

3- Availability of basic Internet infrastructure that is improving in terms of speed, quality, and cost owing to new and ongoing connectivity initiatives.

4- Availability of at least one international micropayment mechanism in each country, for example, PayPal, Payoneer, Skrill.

5. Siou Chew Kuek, et al (2015)

The Global Opportunity in Online Outsourcing

This study aims to highlight the term of Online Outsourcing and find answers to main questions including the question 'What contribution could OO make in strengthening employment markets, particularly for women and disadvantaged youth who may be lacking in the basic resources or conditions to participate equally in society?'. This study builds on the existing knowledge and research in the field of online outsourcing, microwork, and online freelancing and aims to provide inputs for government and development practitioners who may potentially leverage global opportunities for OO. In addition, the study relies on the inputs from more than 30 OO workers who shared data, insights, and perspectives. To determine its socioeconomic impact, structured interviews were used to gather data and insights from a range of actors in the OO space'OO firms, clients, and workers themselves. This study was commissioned by the World Bank ICT Unit and developed in partnership with Dalberg Global Development Advisors, with input from external project experts and collaborators.

Initial findings suggest that full'time online workers in Kenya, Nigeria, and India earn salaries that are comparable to, or higher than, their peers in traditional work. Although salaries vary across contexts, spending patterns appear to be similar. In focus groups and structured interviews, online workers in Kenya and Nigeria reported that they spent their additional income on rent, food, work expenses (including access to a computer and the Internet), further studies, and supporting other family members. As well as generating additional income, online workers reported that OO allows them to develop skills and progress professionally. Interviews suggest that they develop both technical skills and soft skills.

6. Conor D'Arcy and Laura Gardiner (2014)

Just the job ' or a working compromise? The changing nature of self-employment in the UK

This study was supported by the Resolution Foundation in 2014. Through an analysis of national data sets and a survey, this report presents an investigation into the rise of self-employment. It attempts to answer a number of questions posed by recent trends in the labor market centered on self-employment like: How has self-employment grown recently and what explains the growth in self-employment?. This study discusses a survey of 985 self-employed people, conducted by Ipsos MORI. Fieldwork took place between 28 March and 7 April 2014 and was carried out online.

The study found that for a growing group of older workers, it appears that self-employment has become an alternative or complement to retirement. It also found that a greater share of people who leave unemployment have moved into self-employment since the recession than previously. Self-employment seems to have played differing roles across the country, with no growth in employees since 2008 in the majority of regions while the number of self-employed has risen everywhere. Finally, one in seven workers in the UK are now self-employed. Many of that group are experiencing problems accessing basic services and products. The analysis paints a worrying picture of the security and vulnerability of self-employed people on both a short and long term horizon.

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