Emotion are integral part of our life because they shape the way through which we communicate with each other and the social environment in which they exist. Identifying the polarity of the text has been a major subject of study in the last decades. The researchers have analyzed two main issues: the polarity of the text and the emotions embodied in the text in order to enhance human computer applications. The recent developments of social networking websites allow people to express and share their ideas and emotions with others.
Emotion is considered as the translation of the personal experience affected by a one's interior state and external motives. In fact, emotion are broadly investigated in different fields such as psychology, physiology, sociology, and medicine. The psychologist, Paul Ekmen , determines six primary emotions: joy, sadness, anger, surprise, fear, and disgust. Despite of having subjective aspects, basic, emotions are commonly identifiable. Other emotions are considered as a mixture of these basic emotions.
Several studies have investigated the subject of emotion analysis on the text, particularly in English. Furthermore, few studies have focused on emotion analysis of the text in Arabic language. On Arabic, the focus has been on the sentiment analyses rather the emotion analysis because it is a rich area of research.
Arabic language has a complex morphological system (the way in which words are formed from the root). Therefor a root that consists of three or four consonants can be extended to different parts of speech type like from adjective to verb. This complex derivational system makes it hard to guess the exact meaning of a particular word so we need to take into our consideration the derivational suffixes so that we can get the exact meaning of each word.
Emotion analysis can have various uses in practical life:
Opinion mining: emotion analysis is a practical way to know public opinion toward one issue. For example, it can be used to examine people's reaction against the quality of a product. Therefore, emotion for emotion analysis is a valuable option to examine the public opinion for the industrial companies who are doing market research and for the organizations which wish to extend their online user base.
Health and wellness /forensics: emotion analysis can be usefully used in the field of health and wellness. For instance, it can be used to uncover some emotional disturbances like depression. Also, emotion analysis can be used to improve human health conditions by showing them the most desirable emotion like joy.
Marketing: emotion plays an essential role in decision making. Therefore, selecting particular emotional words is beneficial in advertisements because it makes the massages more attractive for the audiences.
Security: emotion analysis can be useful in security because it can be help to detect the stability of users emotions and therefore avoid the possible hazards and dangerous behaviors.
Author profiling: emotion analysis can be also useful from author profiling perspective. It can be used for determine the age, gender, social states, educational level, and religion of the online users.
Twitter is an online service which allows users all over the world to communicate with each other. Using twitter, users can share their news, opinions, ideas, and thought with their friends locally and globally. Users of twitters can send messages which limited to 140 characters called 'tweets'. The users can optionally restrict their tweets to particular friends or share them with all users. Also, tweets can be shared by the users himself or by other users and this process is called 'Retweeting' what is interesting in twitter is that it allows users to add pictures, videos, and other media to their tweets. This thing can add a kind of aesthetic value to their tweets. Hashtag is another service presented by twitter which formed by adding the prefix '#'. It allows users to share particular feeling, idea, or topic.
Twitter is not only used to connect people all over the world but also is used for entertainment, news, learning business, and government interests. So, twitter becomes like a base where people are motivated to share their ideas and thoughts about products, sports, politics, economics, and different aspects of life. This thing make twitter a good option for emotion analysis.
The social media web sites are widely used in the world. People use this web sites to share and express their opinions, thoughts, and ides, therefore; they contain a lot of information and data that we can make good use of it in different fields. For the purpose of conducting this research, I chose one social media website (twitter) and the data we crawled was based on Arabic tweets. Twitter is an online social network where the users can read and send up to 140 character massages (called tweets). It allows users to communicate with each other and to give their own opinions about various topics around the world.
We collected our data from Twitter. A crawler that was used to collect the tweets was Tweepy API . We also implemented the crawler so that it could fetch other information about each tweet such as its ID and its author ID. The crawler retrieved the tweets written in the Arabic language. 11503 Arabic tweets were collected during the period from 20 August 2016 to 10 October 2016.
We used word search mechanism for collecting tweets. We first put the word and then the crawler retrieves the tweets that contain that word. The words we used are related to the 6 basic emotion (Anger, Fear, Disgust, Joy, Sadness, and Surprise). The table below shows some of the words that we used in our study:
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