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CHAPTER I

Background of the Study

INTRODUCTION

Tourism is accepted as one of the world's fastest-growing industries. In the previous years, the industry marked a contribution of US$7.2 trillion in the world's economy.  This is supported by the fact that tourist arrivals in 2015 grew by 4.4 % worldwide that is a total of 1,184 million in 2015, according to the latest UNWTO World Tourism Barometer published on January 18, 2016 (World Tourism Organization, 2015). Moreover, the World Tourism Organization (WTO) forecasted that the number of people travelling internationally will increase from 613 million in 2014 to 1.6 billion by the year 2020.  The Philippines also experienced the similar phenomenon.  As one of the major industries, tourism contributed a total value of Php 982.4 billion and a 7.8% share to the country's economy in 2014. The industry is the 5th growth driver of the country next to manufacturing, trade, real estate, and agriculture, according to the latest report by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). The positive image of the Philippines as a tourist destination continues to spread further around the world. The country ranked 74th in the 2015 World Economic Forum Tourism Competitiveness report, jumping 20 spots up from its 94th rank in 2011. This was just one of the many notable international accolades received by the country since the 'It's More Fun in the Philippines campaign' was launched. The Tourism Secretary also took the occasion to announce that the DOT will be launching Visit the Philippines Again (VPA) for 2016, taking off from its current Visit the Philippines Year 2015 (VPY 2015) campaign (Gazette PH, 2015).

The relative growth of tourism industry was marked as many individuals are thrilled wanting to explore what a particular destination has to offer.  In turn, various forms of tourism captured the attention of these individuals as they decide to travel.  Among the types of tourism, rural tourism nowadays showed a feasible dynamics which will make the whole industry continue to flourish.

Rural tourism is defined as the 'country experience' which encompasses a wide range of attractions and activities that take place in agricultural or non-urban areas. Its essential characteristics include wide-open spaces, low levels of tourism development, and opportunities for visitors to directly experience agricultural and/or natural environments. This had long been considered a means of achieving economic and social development and regeneration. Specifically, it had been widely promoted as an effective source of income and employment, particularly in peripheral rural areas where traditional agrarian industries were declined. More recently, however, a number of established tourism destinations had also turned to rural tourism in order to diversify more their tourism products and markets and to spread the benefits of tourism away from the coastal resorts into the locality (Tames, 2011).

Among the facets of rural tourism is agri-tourism. Agritourism is a commercial enterprise at a working farm, ranch, or agricultural plant conducted for the enjoyment of visitors that generates supplemental income for the owner. Agritourism is a subset of a larger industry called rural tourism that includes resorts, off-site farmers' markets, non-profit agricultural tours, and other leisure and hospitality businesses that attract visitors to the countryside however; Rural Tourism differs from agritourism in two ways. First, rural tourism enterprises do not necessarily occur on a farm or ranch, or at an agricultural plant, they do not generate supplemental income for the agricultural enterprise (Division of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of California, 2017).

 As the birthing of farm tourism encouraged individuals to venture on it as an enterprise, several components have been identified. It combines the commercial constraints of regional tourism, the nonfinancial features of family businesses, and the inheritance issues of family farms. A theoretical significance of the aforementioned components is established alongside regional tourism geography and economics, family tourism business dynamics, and rural diversification (Buckly, 2015).  

Farm tourism in the Philippines is being developed as a relatively new tourism product with the aim of not only attracting travellers but also helping local farmers diversify and supplement their agricultural income. Although it is still far from being a major contributor to overall tourism receipts, farm tourism aims to supplement the business model of farmers and explore new ways of generating income through tour packages that include planting, harvesting and creating value added products. (Simeon, 2016).

Farm tourism is one kind of tourism that is being pushed through now by the new Department of Tourism Secretary Wanda Corazon Teo (Rappler.com,2016). Act 10816 solidified this thrust as this act provided for the development and promotion of farm tourism in the Philippines. (Refer to Appendix A)

Farm tourism is considered as a vital piece of Filipino culture, thus it can easily be cultivated into an agricultural tourism activity. Some of the benefits of farm tourism includes, first, Economic and Social Benefits Farm tourism offers a pathway to economic development in rural areas. It attracts visitors and generates more employment for the locals. Farm tourism offers a route to pull the strong, mature agricultural sector up and at the same time enhance the tourism sector.

Pampanga being located in an agricultural land, farming is one of its main industry no wonder that there are many farm resorts here. Tourism is a growing industry in the province of Pampanga that somehow it has the potential to venture in farm tourism. There are residents in the province who has a privately owned farm in which some has decided to convert into their lands into farm resorts and offer it to the public wherein they gain profit from it.

 Farm resorts are farms that offer accommodation and dining services, for the purpose of participating in or enjoying interactive on-farm activities and other attractions offered to enrich the tourists' farm life experience. Pampanga has a lot to offer in terms of farm resorts that is why the researchers focused on the potential of farm tourism. The researchers have focused on the 21 DOT accredited farm resorts in Pampanga.

 If Pampanga is known to be the Agricultural Center of the Philippines that produces a large number of country's rice supply and a highly urbanized province that is still capable of offering tourism activities such as heritage tourism, cultural tourism and food tourism then it has a potential in being known in farm tourism however it is indeed a great idea to come up with something new. In this regard the researchers pushed the study on the potential of farm tourism in the province of Pampanga.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Given that farm tourism is one of the country's sunshine industries which can be developed because of the agricultural nature of the economy (Ifex Philippines, 2016), this study determined and showed the potentials of the farm resorts in Pampanga as tourist destinations.  

Farm resorts in Pampanga were assessed alongside the attributes of location- if the farm resort is is accessible, situated in a safe and peaceful location.; facilities- if there is a designated information center, parking lot, multi-purpose hall farm guide, souvenir shops, accommodations and restaurants that will cater to the needs of guests; sanitation; if there are designated wash areas, restrooms and bathrooms are separated and well-maintained for both male and female, and if there is proper garbage disposal

Empirical findings established the basis in which the potentials of farm tourism in Pampanga exist.

Figure 1. Conceptual Framework

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study aimed to determine the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. More specially, the study aimed to answer the following questions:

1. What is the potential of Farm Tourism in Pampanga?

2. What plan of action can be initially proposed to initiate the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

This study aimed to determine the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. It also aimed to provide an initial basis for the province to be known not only in culinary tourism but also in farm tourism. The awareness of a potential will channel into actions which can possibly magnify a collaborative effort supporting the national governments' agenda relative to Republic Act 10816, also known as an Act  Providing for the Development and Promotion of Farm Tourism in the Philippines.

This study would be beneficial to the following:

Province of Pampanga: The outcome of this study could be the basis of initiating farm tourism in the province. Farm tourism then, could help the province in developing its tourism industry and be known not only as a culinary capital of the Philippines but also as farm tourism destination.

Locals of Pampanga: This study would be useful and interesting to the locals of Pampanga especially those who are living near the farms. Once farm tourism is established the growth of each site would help raise the standard of living of the people in the area and it would also give them awareness to prevent the wasteful or harmful overuse of the resources on the said sites.

Travel agencies and Tour operators: This study would be beneficial to the travel agencies and operators for them to create more promotions, packages, tour offerings and market it to tourists. They will earn more by adding something new to their tour packages and know more on nature-based sites in Pampanga that it has a potential of being one of the Tourism destination aside from the usual and already known sites of tourism activities.

Department of Tourism: This would give DOT an insight of the need for the development of nature-based tourism in Pampanga to boost tourists and provide alternative recreation facilities and farm tourism activities for families, students and other clientele. And the thrust of DOT to promote environment-friendly, efficient and sustainable farm practices.

Department of Environment and Natural Resources: This would also give the DENR an insight of the need and benefits of the nature-based tourism site and activities in Pampanga; through the help of farm tourism it can support environmental protection and natural resources conversation. DENR should start looking for ways to boost the local crops and on how to preserve and conserve the farms in Pampanga.

Future Researchers: The ideas presented may be used as reference data in conducting new researches or in testing the validity of other related findings. This study would also serve as their cross-reference that would give them a background or an overview of the potential of farm tourism.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION

This study included the concept of farm tourism in its potential as one of the fastest growing industry. Farm tourism basically has two categories but this study primarily focused on the farm resorts where tourists can engage themselves in the   activities being offered with accommodations.  Although there are many farm resorts in Pampanga, the Department of Tourism's guideline called Minimum Standard Requirement allowed the researches to only encompass 21 farm resorts accredited by DOT. Day tour, which is the other category of farm tourism, was not included in this study.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

The following terms were defined conceptually for better understanding of the study.

Agritourism

- Agritourism describes the act of visiting a working farm or any agricultural, horticultural or agribusiness operation to enjoy, be educated or be involved in activities. Some people become involved in agritourism as a way of supplementing their income. Others desire an opportunity to educate the public and introduce people to farming (Agricultural Marketing Resource Center).

- Farm/ranch recreation refers to activities conducted on private agricultural lands, which might include fee-hunting and fishing, overnight stays, educational activities, etc. This category of tourism is a subset of a larger industry known as agritourism. Agritourism is "a commercial enterprise at a working farm, ranch, or agricultural plant conducted for the enjoyment of visitors that generates supplemental income for the owner." (UC Small Farm Program).

Conservation

- official supervision of rivers, forests, and other natural resources inorder to preserve and protect them through prudent management (Dictionary.com).

Facilities

- designed, built, installed, etc., to serve a specific function affording a convenience or service:transportation facilities; educational facilities; a new research facility (Dictionary.com).

- General: Permanent, semi-permanent, or temporary commercial or industrial property such as a building, plant, or structure, built, established, or installed for the performance of one or more specific activities or functions (Business Dictionary).

Farm Tourism

- Farm tourism, as defined by the law, is the practice of attracting visitors and tourists to farm areas for production, educational, and recreational purposes which involves any agricultural or fishery-based operation or activity and may also provide a venue for outdoor recreation and accessible family outings (Department of Tourism).

Farm/ Farming

- a plot of land devoted to the raising of animals and especially domestic livestock (Merriam Webster, 1828).

- the business of operating a farm (Dictionary.com).

Farm resort

- are farms that offer accommodation and dining services, for the purpose of participating in or enjoying interactive on-farm activities and other attractions offered to enrich the tourists' farm life experience  (Department of Tourism).

Nature Based Tourism

- Responsible travel to natural areas, which conserves the environment and improves the welfare of local people. It is tourism based on the natural attractions of an area (Texas Parks and Wildlife).

Pampanga

- Farming and fishing are the two main industries. Major products include rice, corn, sugarcane, and tilapia. In addition to farming and fishing, the province supports thriving cottage industries that specialize in wood carving, furniture making, guitars and handicrafts. Tourism is a growing industry in the province of Pampanga. Clark Freeport is home to Clark International Airport, designated as the Philippines' future premier gateway. Other developing industries include semiconductor manufacturing for electronics and computers mostly located within the Freeport. Within the Clark Special Economic Zone are well-established hotels and resorts (Department of Tourism).

Peaceful Location

- Farm resorts are located in a remote place wherein guests will have the opportunity to engage themselves and feel the serenity of nature.

Potential

- existing in possibility :  capable of development into actuality <potential benefits> (Merriam Webster, 1828).

- expressing possibility; specifically :  of, relating to, or constituting a verb phrase expressing possibility, liberty, or power by the use of an auxiliary with the infinitive of the verb  (Merriam Webster, 1828).

Tourism

- tourism may defined as the process, activities, and outcomes arising from the relationships and the interactions among tourist, tourism suppliers, host governments, host communities, and surrounding environments that are involved in attracting and hosting of visitors (Goeldner, Tourism, 2009).

Tourists

- a person who travels from place to place for non-work reasons. By United Nations' definition, a tourist is someone who stays for more than one night and less than a year. Business and convention travel is included. This thinking is dominated by balance-of-trade concepts. Military personnel, diplomats, immigrants, and resident students are not tourists  (Goeldner, Tourism, 2009).

Tourist Destination

- ultimate stopping place according to the contract of carriage. Can also be defined as a place offering at least 1,500 rooms to tourist (Goeldner, Tourism, 2009).

Visitor

- one that visits; especially :  one that makes formal visits of inspection (Merriam Webster, 1829).

- someone who visits a person or place (Merriam Webster, 1829).

CHAPTER II

Review of Related Literatures and Studies

Agritourism

Agritourism is one of the many labels used to describe recreational activities offered on farms and in other types of agricultural settings. However, this label is often used interchangeably with many others, such as agricultural tourism, farm tourism, agritainment, and farm visits (Colton & Bissix, 2005). Likewise, agritourism and similar labels have been defined in a variety of ways. These varying definitions and labels cause problems for stakeholder groups. For example, farm visitors are often confused regarding the types of activities being offered; farmers are not reaching their target tourism markets, which may be hampering their ability to increase revenues; and extension faculty experience difficulty in communicating about and researching agricultural tourism (Colton, Bissix, & al., 2005, 2010). There was a need for a better understanding of what people meant when they said 'agritourism,' so farmers could realize the full economic benefit of this activity. To that end, the authors conducted a study to discover the preferences of farmers, local residents (visitors or potential visitors), and extension faculty in North Carolina and Missouri with regard to labels for and definitions of agritourism, and to determine where common ground lies among these groups.

Agritourism has been studied in various ways and contexts. It can be argued, however, that studies have yet to provide a clear and basic understanding of the characteristics that underpin and define agritourism. This paper proposes an original typology for defining agritourism by identifying the key characteristics currently used to define agritourism in the literature and organising them into a transparent and structured framework. For the first time, the agritourism typology clarifies and classifies definitions of agritourism that currently exist in the literature. It therefore offers a comprehensive framework that can be used as a basis for more informed debate and discussion and for future empirical research (Elsevier Ltd., 2009).

 Agritourism has long been recognied as a diversification strategy to reinvigorate rural economies and maintain the farm family way of life. Thus, it is unsurprising that scholarly interest in the phenomenon has developed significantly over the last three decades; covering a variety of research themes, phenomenological approaches, and methodologies, intent on understanding this form of agricultural restructuring in all its forms. However, whilst the importance of farm tourism has been demonstrated in a range of international contexts, coverage remains fragmented, often draws from a narrow case study base and lacks conceptual clarity. This presentation will critically explore a range of key studies on the topic, evaluating both supply and demand-side works on farm tourism, before establishing a future research agenda. The presentation summarises three decades of agritourism research and establishes a research agenda of value to academics and practitioners. Despite an emerging body of work on agritourism, a holistic review does not yet exist. This presentation will offer greater conceptual clarity as well as identifying key research questions worthy of future theoretical and empirical study (Phelan, Phelan, Sue, & Sue, 2006).

Many farmers, in addition to normal farming activity, have already turned to agritourism as a source of additional farm income and opportunities (Privitera, 2000).

The 2012 Wisconsin Agritourism Study was conducted as a partnership between the Wisconsin Agricultural Tourism Association (WATA), the University of Wisconsin'Extension Center for Community and Economic Development, and UW'Extension Cooperative Extension county offices. Based on research needs cited in previous research, the study was designed to provide participating agritourism businesses with information on customer origin, motivations, and preferences to improve marketing. When compared to Wisconsin data from the US Census, Wisconsin's agritourism visitors are older, have higher levels of educational attainment and higher household incomes that the average Wisconsin resident. The three most important amenities for agritourists were on'site restrooms, adequate parking, and convenient location. Respondents found recommendations from friends, personal web searches, and business websites to be the most important tools in planning their visit.Median spending during respondents' last trip involving agritourism was $137.50. Of those respondents who reported spending money during their last agritourism visit, 93.8% spent it on food or drink items produced by an agritourism business (Brown & Hershey, 2012).

Agricultural tourism incorporates visits to farms for the purposes of on-site retail purchases, enjoyment, and education. Long popular in the European Union (EU), agritourism is gaining popularity throughout the United States. Interest has grown as a result of stagnant grain prices, rising farm costs, and growing international competition. For rural areas seeking new economic options, the potential of these operations to generate new sources of income through sales and horizontal linkages to other tourism-based activities has sparked interest beyond the farm gate. This article, based on a survey and a statistical analysis of 300 agritourism operations in Michigan, summarizes factors associated with successful operations (Veeck, Che, & Veeck, 2010).

Agricultural tourism has allowed farmers to reach new consumers, cultivate new revenue streams, educate the public regarding their work, and preserve their way of life. Today, many farmers are going beyond the traditional hayride or pick-your-own orchards to include attractions and amusements. They have transformed conventional agritourism, even prompting a new name, agri-tainment (agricultural entertainment). In the process, the family farm has become a 10 destination itself. The rationale behind their development along with the consumer interest in experiencing such tourism venues is discussed (Mitchell & Turner, 2010).

In addition to producing food and fiber, farms provide other rural amenities to the public. Some of these amenities can be marketed as private goods, whereas others are public goods and do not have a market. One of the marketed amenities is on-farm recreation, also called agritourism, agrotourism, or agritainment. Besides the market goods or services obtained at the farm operations, visitors to farms also receive benefits derived from the scenic beauty generated by the rural landscape. Using data from the 2000 National Survey on Recreation and the Environment, this study explores factors affecting visits by the American population to farms and the economic value of the rural landscape for farm visitors. The number of farm recreation trip visits was estimated to have an own-price elasticity of -0.43 and an income elasticity of 0.24. Location of residence, race, and gender were found to be important determinants of the number of farm trips. The calculated consumer surplus is estimated at $174.82/trip, of which $33.50 is due to the rural landscape  (Carpio, Wohlgenant, & Boonsaeng, 2008).

Agri-tourism has been present in the Philippines since the 1990s, but was not institutionally defined then. In those early days, most agri-tourism farms were either privately owned or managed.

Agritourism is a commercial enterprise on a working farm or ranch conducted for the enjoyment, education, and/or active involvement of the visitor, generating supplemental income for the farm or ranch. Interest in agritourism by visitors and farmers is growing rapidly. Nationwide, the United States Department of Agriculture National Survey on Recreation and the Environment estimated that more than 62 million adults visited farms during a 12-month period between 2001 and 2002. Primary reasons for visiting farms included enjoying rural scenery, learning where food comes from, participating in farm activities, and purchasing agricultural products. The entry begins with a description of agritourism and its many variations throughout rural America. Benefits and challenges of agritourism development are presented as well as a brief history of agritourism. The entry concludes with a discussion of agritourism trends and issues (Chase, 2008).

Agri-tourism has the potential to serve as a means to profitably direct market farm products and services, to serve as an alternative use of farmland, and to supplement farm incomes. Agritourism may also bring economic activity to rural areas through visitor expenditures on goods and services both on-site and at locations nearby the agri-tourism businesses. A primary objective of this study is to provide market information for agri-tourism business owners regarding the visitor demographics and visitors' preferences for amenities and services at agritourism attractions. Another objective is to assess how visitor spending at agri-tourism attractions may impact the state's economy. In order to collect information about visitors' preferences, expenditures, and demographics, on-site visitor surveys were conducted at several 11 agri-tourism attractions across Tennessee during 2005. The attractions offered by the participating businesses included corn mazes, pumpkin patches, on-farm tours, petting zoos, on farm eating establishments or snack bars, on-farm festivals or fairs, on-farm markets, and wineries. A total of 464 visitors responded to the survey. Survey results suggest that most visitors to agri-tourism venues find their visits to be highly enjoyable and that certain amenities and services are of particular importance to their visit. Among the most important services or amenities are freshness of the farm's or business' products, on-site restrooms, adequate parking, learning about how products are grown or made, and easy transportation access. Most visitors are day visitors who come from in-state, with nearly half coming from the local county. Over half of the responding visitors stated they were repeat visitors. School groups are important, in particular, for agri-tourism businesses that include pumpkin patches, corn mazes, or farm tours. Important methods for visitors learning about agri-tourism attractions are word of mouth, brochures, and the newspaper. Because the majority of visitors are from in-state, their expenditures on the visit are primarily on-site. The largest share of expenditures is on purchasing the venue's products and the next large share for agri-tourism businesses that are not wineries are for admission or user fees (Jensen, Lindborg, English, & Menard, 2006).

Few issues in the state of Nebraska ignite debate as fiercely as the future of the Platte River, a tremendously stressed resource. The Platte is pulled between competing water needs for irrigation, hydropower, drinking water and habitat for endangered species. Agriculture is the dominant land use, but the central Platte is becoming increasingly popular for recreational purposes, with some of the world's best birding resources drawing some 74,000 tourists annually. Farmers have not yet tapped into the economic potential associated with these travelers, who are drawn to natural resources available on their land. On-farm tourism may create additional revenue and encourage conservation practices, which would help to revitalize this rural area. This study uses Soft Systems Methodology to explore the potential for increased agritourism along the central Platte River. Through the use of a visitor survey and interviews with farmers and other professional stakeholders, the driving and hindering forces for agritourism development are identified. Findings suggest that that there are significant unmet demands for on-farm birding and bed and breakfast opportunities on the central Platte. Additionally, agritourism is a growing sector in Nebraska, with increasing awareness and burgeoning support. Barriers include farmer awareness and paradigms, time constraints and liability concerns. As this study indicates that agritourism could be a viable option for central Platte farmers, a plan of action recommends steps that should be taken to facilitate the expansion of agritourism. Suggested action items include liability reform, increased support for farmers and further market research on agritourism (Kolm, 2006).

The tourism and agriculture industries are vital components of Arkansas' economy. According to the Arkansas Department of Parks and Tourism, more than 20 million travelers to Arkansas 12 spend in excess of $4 billion annually. The University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture reports that agriculture is the largest industry in Arkansas, accounting for approximately 20% of the Gross State Product. Approximately 48,000 farms in the state combine to generate more than $6.6 billion in annual farm income. Nearly one-half of land in the state is devoted to some form of agricultural production. This article examines the concept of agritourism through descriptions, definitions, examples, and developmental efforts in other states to build agritourism as a viable economic development tool. The review of Indiana, Tennessee, Kentucky and other states demonstrates focused efforts on at least one of the following broad categories: (1) inventory; (2) research; (3) structure; (4) marketing/promotion; (5) education/training; (6) legislation; and (7) funding. In all likelihood, discussions regarding the development of a statewide agritourism industry in Arkansas will revolve around aspects of these categories. The information set forth in this article is meant to provide a context from which producers, state officials, private organizations, citizens, and other relevant stakeholders can initiate a discussion regarding the development of a program to promote an agritourism industry in Arkansas (Pittman, 2006).

Agritourism provides an additional source of revenue for farms that allows them to keep farming and increase the quality of life for their family. Many farms with large wholesale operations that have struggled with low commodity prices have turned to agritourism as a way to keep farming and earn a higher return from direct to consumer marketing. Some have reduced their acreages, growing fewer crops but capturing more consumer dollars. Agritourism allows farmers to capture both the consumer's food dollar as well as some of the money spent on entertainment and recreation each year. Agritourism is a trend that is not likely to go away soon. The growth of wine trails and the wine industry illustrates the potential. Other types of farms are jumping on the agritourism bandwagon and doing very well. As the agritourism offerings expand, the opportunities to attract visitors increases. Collaboration among farmers to organize farm trails, host farm open houses, and other such joint ventures will strengthen the industry and help grow new agritourism attractions to keep visitors coming back for more (Roth & Ocheterski, 2008).

    In this study it states that today, many farmers are going beyond the traditional hayride or pick-your-own orchards to include attractions and amusements. Agricultural tourism has allowed farmers to reach new consumers, cultivate new revenue streams, educate the public regarding their work, and preserve their way of life. It shows here that it is a fast growing industry and it is doing very well, as it increases it also increase the tourist arrivals.

There are numerous benefits from the development of agritourism: it may strengthen local economy, create job opportunities and new businesses; develop and promote training and certification programs to introduce young people to agriculture and environment. Agritourism helps preserve rural lifestyles and landscape and also offers the opportunity to provide "sustainable" or "green" tourism. Organic agriculture is a cultural evolution that finds its origins in a environmentalist culture. Furthermore the focus on these products is due to demand on healthy foods with high quality standard limiting chemical substances usage. It's clear the link of the organic agriculture with agritourism and tourism services. They have a considerable role in the future development of rural areas. The purpose of this paper was to identify and examine those factors that have helped rural communities successfully develop agritourism, in particular organic agritourism and its entrepreneurship opportunities. Several focus groups were conducted with local business persons and leaders about a applicative case of South Italy area.

Based on evidence from nine countries (UK, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Croatia, Slovenia, and Ireland), this special issue analyses the fabrics of farm tourism in Europe. It identifies two main development trends: on one hand, a small scale and dispersed activities, at the other hand a product in response to tourist market demand. A brief overview of existing farm tourism practices in the European rural areas indicated an interesting interface between the forms and dimension of farm tourism embeddedness in local environment and at the same time, the ways and range of internationalization of farm tourism business.

Our nation's rural areas were heavily affected both by sprawl and increased recreational use. Agritourism is rapidly being embraced as a strategy to conserve the family farm, increase revenue, and teach the public about authentic farming life. However, the literature reveals little evidence that the environmental impacts of visitors were being considered by farmers, planners, and tourism professionals. The exploratory study reported here evaluated the awareness of visitor impact problem among farm owners and assessed the types of impacts in five farm destinations in North Carolina. Potential management strategies addressing the impacts in different impact zones were discussed.

In this study it shows that agritourism has long been recognized as a diversification strategy to reinvigorate rural economies and maintain the farm family way of life it also shows that many farmers, in addition to normal farming activity, have already turned to agritourism as a source of additional farm income and opportunities. It includes the benefits in the development of agritourism that it may strengthen local economy, create job opportunities and new businesses; develop and promote training and certification programs to introduce young people to agriculture and environment.

Farm Tourism

According to the Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), the Philippines employs a third of the population under the agriculture sector which is about 12 million workers. On the other hand, roughly a tenth of the country's employed segment of the population works in the tourism industry, according to the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB). It is the responsibility of the state to promote awareness and understanding of the benefits and importance of agriculture, promote environment-friendly and sustainable farm practices, and generate more job opportunities especially in the sector of agriculture. The Department of Agrarian Reform (DAR) had reported problems concerning the conversion of agricultural lands to commercial or residential purposes. There seemed no incentives for farmers or farm owners to pursue having agricultural lands in the country. Tourism, in addition, was also one of the countries' means to promote socioeconomic growth and cultural affirmation. It generated investment and foreign exchange. The combination of two major sectors, agriculture and tourism, could help further boost economic growth and generate additional employment. This was the motivation behind the creation of the Farm Tourism Act of 2014 which established a comprehensive program for the development and promotion of farm tourism in the country.

  Farm tourism also known as agri-tourism referred to the practice of attracting visitors and travelers to farm areas for production, educational and recreational purposes. It involves any agricultural based operation or activity that brings farmers, visitors or tourists who wanted to be educated and be trained on farming as well as to provide a venue for outdoor recreation without necessarily altering the agricultural nature of the land.

The next big thing in Philippine tourism is nearly ripe and will soon be ready for harvest. Farm tourism has started to grab the attention of farm owners and visitors in the last few years. Led by the International School of Sustainable Tourism (ISST), the 4th Farm Tourism Conference and Farm Tourism Market Festival will be held from July 14-16, to help farmers further develop their properties as a sustainable tourism product (Del Mundo, July 1, 2016).

In 1991, the Philippines Department of Tourism (DOT) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) came together and formulated the Philippine Tourism Master Plan (TMP); aimed at developing tourism on an environmentally sustainable basis. In 2002, the Department of Agriculture (DAR) and DOT issued a joint circular that identified 10 agri-tourism sites in the country. With this accreditation, all sites would have to adhere to the minimum standards prescribed by the Department for all operations and maintenance activities; guaranteeing a satisfactory visit for the tourists.

As a tropical country with an abundance of natural resources, biological diversity and a strong cultural heritage, the Philippines is well-positioned for agri-tourism. At present, the Philippines has a total of 32 agri-tourism sites, including 27 protected areas consisting of strawberry and organic vegetable farms in Benguet, as well as pineapple and coffee plantations in Bukidnon. The Philippines also hosts various events, including farmers' field days and agricultural fairs, which are estimated to be attended by 64,000 tourists each year. (See appendix C for 32 agri-tourism sites, and appendix D for 27 protected areas)

Philippines Organic Certification Program Center for International Trade Expositions and Missions (CITEM), one of the branches of the Department of Agriculture, has been working on the establishment of the organic certification with a core group of farmers group (MASIPAG), organic traders and producers (OPTA), the academia (Dr. LinaBriones from UPLB), several other NGOs like PDAP, PHIL-NET, SIBAT, representatives from organic farmers groups, and other government institutions such as the Philippines Coconut Authority and the Department of Agriculture. In their proposal in 2000, their objectives are stated as follows: 'The short-term objective of the project is to set up a national certification system appropriate for the Philippine domestic market. The national certification program is expected to: a) standardize and continuously improve organic production methods in the country; b) unify organic produces and enhance synergy among them (producers and processors, crops and animal producers, etc.); c) strengthen marketing mechanisms and develop consumer confidence, eventually enabling the organic industry to gain 104 recognition both at the national and international market; d) facilitate certification of production systems of local organic producers and processors that are ready for export through collaboration with the internationally recognized certification body bio.inspecta from Switzerland; e) catalyze cooperation projects between government agencies and the organic movement for research, development and extension work in order to make organic producers more competent and competitive locally and internationally. The long-term objective of the project is to gradually raise the standard and the quality of the national certification system, in order to meet, after four years, the requirements for IFOAM accreditation. The achievement of both the short and long term objective is supported through a consultancy arrangement with the Research Instituted of Organic Agriculture (FiBL) and the certification body, Bio.inspecta, both from Switzerland. IFOAM accreditation is aimed on as it seems appropriate for the possible export markets (Japan, China, etc.) and as no national accreditation bodies exist so far.' IFOAM stands for International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movements. Their head office is locateed in Germany and their mission is to coordinate the network of the organic movement in the world, and to represent worldwide movement of organic agriculture and to provide a platform for global exchange and cooperation. They are a democratic federation and a grass-root oriented. Bio.inspecta is a certification and inspection body. In Switzerland, they certifies all Swiss organic farms and inspect 5,000 organic farms and 800 processing companies and traders. FiBL (ForschungsinstitutfrbiologischenLandbau or Research Institute of Organic Agriculture) works as a consulting agency. Obviously this program targets both domestic and international markets. The proposal states that the lack of a Philippine certification system weakens the organic production of the country and hampers the development of the national organic market and lists the specific reasons as -the absence of guaranty systems for organic consumers,-the 105 impossibility for farmers to segregate their organic production. Indeed, lack of certification system forces them to sell their production on the agricultural market without any recognition of the quality and specificity of the products; -the absence of common standards defining what is organic provokes the confusion among producers and consumers. As for the international market, they mention that current exporters of organic products have to depend on foreign certification bodies and it has been making small and medium organic producers difficult or impossible to certify their products in the international market. It turns out that only large and commercial farms can capture the benefit of organic product exports since they can afford obtaining the certification through private certification agencies. However, this situation is against most NGOs' policies, and the Philippine certification program places the main priority on small and medium size farmers and private entrepreneurs although large-scale organic producers can also obtain their service. It can be said that this policy stems from the characteristics of the core members of the certification set up, which is a mixture of different agencies including NGOs. Targeting small and medium producers is a major difference from the certification systems in developed countries. The fact that the need of certification mainly coming from the producer side is also different from the case of developed countries where the motivation originates from consumers' protection relatively more than from producers' side (Environmental Evaluation of Organic Rice: A Case Study in the Philippines).

Benefits of Farming

Farming is considered as a vital piece of Filipino culture, thus it can easily be cultivated into an agricultural tourism activity. Some of the benefits of farm tourism include, first, Economic and Social Benefits Farm tourism offers a pathway to economic development in rural areas. It attracts visitors and generates more employment for the locals. Farm tourism offers a route to pull the strong, mature agricultural sector up and at the same time enhance the tourism sector. The Philippines could create an estimate of 14.6 million new jobs by 2016, according to experts, should the government adopt various reforms geared towards enhancing the business environment, particularly in the sectors of agriculture and tourism. It has been pointed out in different studies that there is a growing need to further develop the countryside to encourage reverse migration and decrease the population in different cities especially in Metro Manila. Spreading the benefits of tourism and agriculture can largely contribute to poverty alleviation. Second, Education Agri-tourism not only benefits the economy and the Filipino society but it also helps in educating the new generation about the importance of the environment in ensuring food security and balanced eco-system. Farm Tourism provides an avenue for technology transfer. Technology transfer is a process where technologies developed by a certain group or person are passed on to farmers. During visits and trips, tourists will be exposed to the technology and techniques being used in agricultural farming. Next is, Health Benefits Farm tourism encourages organic farming. The practice of organic farming is seen to reduce pollution and toxic substances such as pesticides and synthetic fertilizers in the environment which could ensure safer water among farmers and residents. Moreover, organic farming assists the fight against climate change because it avoids chemical fertilizers and pesticides, thus reducing nonrenewable energy use. Lastly, Heritage and Ecological Conservation Agricultural activities have been part of the Filipino culture since time immemorial. Farm tourism activities help the visitors especially the youth to appreciate the beauty of nature as it is and instill how important farming is to the Filipino community. Other Industries that will benefit from Farm Tourism the food and beverage industry along with hospitality sector offering accommodation and transportation facilities will definitely benefit from farm tourism. Hospitality sector is seen to improve as it is vital to have appropriate accommodation arrangements for tourists visiting the Philippines. As many of the farm tourism sites are distributed throughout the country, the arrival of tourists demand for better modes of transportation to bring them to and from their destinations (Phils., 2014).

In this study it states that the combination of two major sectors, agriculture and tourism, could help further boost economic growth and generate additional employment it also shows the benefits of far tourism considered as a vital piece of Filipino culture, thus it can easily be cultivated into an agricultural tourism activity. It shows that farm tourism offers a route to pull the strong, mature agricultural sector up and at the same time enhance the tourism sector that it helps the tourist to appreciate more the nature based tourism.

Tourism has been widely used as a component of conservation interventions which are intended to deliver benefits to local people, thereby contributing to development and creating incentives for conservation. However, a large proportion of total tourist revenue can be lost from the local area as leakage. Nature-based tourism is diverse and little is known about how locally retained revenue varies across different forms of tourism; this is information of great importance to policy makers. This article uses data from tourist interviews and local enterprise surveys to measure the total and locally retained spending from different forms of tourism at Bwindi Impenetrable National Park, Uganda. Whilst total spending increased with higher cost forms of tourism and length of stay, retained spending was predicted only by length of stay. High-cost tourism may therefore be no more effective than other forms of tourism as a tool for generating local benefits from conservation (G.S., 2009).

Tourism Industry had different branches and one of them is Farm Tourism, According to Bureau of Agriculture Statistic (BAS), The Philippines employed a third of the population under the agriculture sector which is about 12million workers. Therefore if BAS had a result of that much workers it means Pampanga has a potential because the study has shown that the said place has a prolonged list of farms, through farm tourism the economic growth of Pampanga will produce employment.Researchers gave an idea to the study, Potential of Farm Tourism in Pampanga, wherein the respondents looked after their recommendations on what are the most important tools a farm must have, a farm resort to be exact, for a tourist to visit. It also helped the researchers to add more recommendation on their study that might help the farms in Pampanga to have some improvement on their amenities and activities and will become one of the lists of farms who will have a potential in promoting the farm tourism in the said place. Researchers also got ideas on what kind of farms other countries have and how do their farms promote the Farm tourism in their country to the tourists.

Farm Resort

Farm resorts are farms that offer accommodation and dining services, for the purpose of participating in or enjoying interactive on-farm activities and other attractions offered to enrich the tourists' farm life experience. It is an activity of engaging one's self in nature. In the province of Pampanga, there has a lot to offer in terms of farm resorts that is why the researchers focused on the potential of farm tourism. The researchers have focused on the 21 DOT accredited farm resorts in Pampanga.

CHAPTER III

Research Methodology & Design

RESEARCH DESIGN

The researchers achieved the aims of this study using a descriptive design. The term descriptive research refers to the type of research question, design, and data analysis that will be applied to a given topic (AECT, 2001). Descriptive research involves gathering data that describe events and then organizes, tabulates, depicts, and describes the data collection (Glass & Hopkins, 1984).

SOURCES OF DATA

The primary data were derived from the answers the respondents had given in questionnaires that were distributed among the tourists of the twenty one DOT accredited farm resorts in Pampanga. In addition, some suggestions were also noted by the tourists regarding the location, facilities and amenities and sanitation.

Different perceptions were created by the respondents which provided a springboard for changes and improvement of farm tourism industry.

Secondary data were then gathered from the different related sources. Internet and library resources have been conducted by the researchers to gather information as to regard to the concept of farm tourism.

 Likewise, interviews were conducted to owners and workers of each farm resorts. Answers from the respondents had strongly supported the study of the researchers. The researchers based their questionnaires and interviews from the minimum standard requirement of the Department of Tourism for accreditation of farm site. Other sources were found by researching related facts and data from the internet and by means of conducting interview with individuals equipped and knowledgeable about the study.

SAMPLING TECHNIQUE

This research study used the Raosoft, which is an online survey tool and a file management of the survey data gathered. There were twenty one DOT accredited farm resorts acquired by the researchers which have been initially interviewed about their monthly or weekly arrival of guests. The sample size were picked through the total number of the tourists arrival of twenty one farm resorts  which has the total population of 17,775 and have come up with the sample size of 400, with corresponding number of respondents per farm and this is done through the use Raosoft.

RESEARCH INSTRUMENT

Research instrument are tools utilized in gathering the data needed for the study.

The researchers used structured questionnaires for the tourist. The survey was designed to acquire necessary information in determining the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. Using the Rules and Regulations to Govern Accreditation of Agri-Tourism/Farm Site, the researchers developed the questionnaires and the instrument was validated.  

After the validation of the questionnaire, it was then floated for pilot testing.  The Cronbach alpha coefficient of 95.97% provided a high scale of reliability of the instrument.

RESPONDENTS OF THE STUDY

The respondents of the study were mainly the tourists of the twenty one DOT accredited farm resort in Pampanga. Questionnaires were floated to the tourists of the twenty one DOT accredited farm resort then. The owners and the workers as well were interviewed. This was to validate the results gathered through the survey questionnaire pertaining to potential of Pampanga in terms of farm tourism, specifically the farm resort's location, facilities/amenities, and sanitation of the place.

RESEARCH LOCALE

This study was based in the province of Pampanga focusing on Farm tourism, specifically the twenty one DOT accredited farm resorts located in the province.

DATA ANALYSIS

In response to the aforementioned research problems the proponents gone through establishing the demographic profile of the respondents alongside their rating on the various aspects in determining the potential of farm tourism relative to farm resorts in Pampanga.  These were location, facilities and amenities, and sanitation.  Further evidences were established through internal and external analysis.  The following tools were applied in this process:

Tabulation

 The process of placing classified data into tabular form is known as tabulation. A table is a symmetric arrangement of statistical data in rows and columns. Rows are horizontal arrangements whereas columns are vertical arrangements. It may be simple, double or complex depending upon the type of classification (EMathZone, 2012).

Pearson Chi-Square

The test is applied when you have two categorical variables from a single population. It is used to determine whether there is a significant association between the two variables.

For example, in an election survey, voters might be classified by gender (male or female) and voting preference (Democrat, Republican, or Independent). We could use a chi-square test for independence to determine whether gender is related to voting preference (Stat Trek, 2017).

SWOT Analysis

Is a useful technique for understanding your Strengths and Weaknesses, and for identifying both the Opportunities open to you and the Threats you face (MindTools). On the first hand, internal analysis was used to determine the industry strengths and weaknesses. On the other hand, external analysis determined the industry opportunities and threats.

CHAPTER IV

Presentation, Analysis and Interpretation

This chapter of the study showed a narrative presentation and discussion of empirical findings. The data gathered based on the result acquired from the respondents are presented, analyzed, and interpreted with the use of frequency and percentage distribution tables, mean scores and test statistics.

Demographic Profile of Respondents

The description of the respondents included the following variables which were measured ' gender; age; farm visited.

Gender

Under demographic profile gender is considered to be one in this study, the researchers included this category because it proves that farm tourism has a potential because it is not gender biased.

Table 1 presented the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to gender. Out of 400 respondents 199 or 49.75% are male, and 201 or 50.25% respondents are female.

This finding was supported by (International Visitors UK, 2009) for the last five years the gender share of UK visitors has been stable with slightly more females (51%) than males (49%). This ratio is similar for the holiday segment, while in the VFR segment there are a greater proportion of females (55%) than males (45%).

Table 1

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Gender

Frequency Percentage

Male 199 49.75

Female 201 50.25

Total 400 100.00

Age

The researchers included age in their study to prove that farm tourism has a potential because the researchers can used the result as a reference that farm tourism is not age biased.

Table 2 showed the frequency and percentage distribution percentage of the age of the respondents. The majority 215 or 53.75% respondents fall on the range of 20 to 29 years old, followed by 92 or 23.00% respondents fall on the range of 20 years old and below, next is 39 or 9.75% respondents fall on the age range of 30 to 39 years old, while 35 or 8.75% respondents fall on the range of 40 to 49 and the least with 19 or 4.75% respondents fall on the range of 50 years old and above. This illustrates that although mostly those in the age range of 20 to 29 years old are the ones who usually visit the Farm Resorts in Pampanga.

The result was supported by (International Visitors UK, 2009) three main age groups account for more than half of all arrivals from the UK, including 20'29 years (21%), 60'69 years (18%) and 30'39 years (16%). Numerically those aged between 20-29 years still form the largest single segment.

Table 2

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age

Frequency Percentage

<20 92 23.00

20 ' 29 215 53.75

30 ' 39 39 9.75

40 ' 49 35 8.75

50> 19 4.75

Total 400 100.00

Farm Resorts Visited

The researchers included this variable to determine the numbers of respondents in every chosen farm resort. Respondents are one of the important references to prove that a tourist destination has a potential.  

Table 3 showed the frequency and the percentage distribution of the respondents based on the farm resort visited of the respondents. With the 21 farm resort surveyed, Lola Corazon with 126 or 31.50% of the respondents dominated the tally score; next to it is Fiona's farm with 90 or 22.50% of the respondents while the rest follows and the least are 3RJ and Orissa with 1 or .25% respondents respectively.

The findings wherein the top three farms are Lola Corazon, Fiona's and ThanThan's was supported by Hogeschool Utrecht (n.d.) to stimulate the tourism, investments are needed in the infrastructure.  Especially facilities are needed in the ports where the arrivals of the tourists are. In the specific tourist locations the water and electricity supply should be sufficient. Of course the accommodations in the places where the tourists want to stay have to be adjusted to the wishes of the different tourists. All these facilities should be developed in a sufficient way (Hogeschool Utrecht, n.d).

Agriculture and tourism plays a major role in the country's economic and cultural development. The combination of two major sectors, agriculture and tourism, could help further boost economic growth and generate additional employment. This is the motivation behind the creation of the Farm Tourism Act of 2014 which will establish a comprehensive program for the development and promotion of farm tourism in the country (Samonte, 2014).

Table 3

 Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Farm Visited

Farm Frequency Percentage

3RJ 1 0.25

Abe's 28 7.00

D'Farm 19 4.75

Diaspora 28 7.00

Dizon's 5 1.25

EB 2 0.50

Facundo 3 0.75

Fiona's 90 22.50

Floral 7 1.75

GintungPakpak 6 1.50

JAS 2 0.50

Jerlen 15 3.75

Lola Corazon 126 31.50

Lumanog 5 1.25

Mula de Leticia 9 2.25

Orchid Garden 9 2.25

Orissa 1 0.25

Prado's 3 0.75

Queen Island 4 1.00

Rosaville 5 1.25

Than Than's 32 8.00

Total 400 100.00

Respondents Rating on the Aspects of Farm Tourism Relative to Farm Resorts

The factors that are included in this study are location, facilities and amenities, and sanitation, wherein the researchers have based the criteria on the minimum standard requirement of the Department of Tourism. The gathered information were from the floated questionnaires given to and answered by the respondents, which are the tourists of 21 accredited farm resorts in Pampanga.

Location

Location has a big influence in proving that farm tourism in Pampanga has a potential because Pampanga is located in central Luzon which is known as the agricultural land. That's why the researchers included location as their reference in proving the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga.

Table 4 showed the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according location.  A mean score of 4.53 reflected the respondent's assessment of the location among various farm resorts was excellent.  To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.66, secondfactor with 4.33 and 4.60 for the third factor.

In the context of ranking which among factors was found excellent, it showed that safety of the location and the least is accessibility of the location.

Location is a factor in promoting any tourist since site selection is the first step in starting a farm when the crop to be grown has already been decided. It also includes the selection of the right geographical location.  (Bareja, site-selection.html, 2011). The three components that were considered in the assessment of location were safety, accessibility, and serenity. According to the Travel & Tourism (T&T) sector has been particularly bruised at a number of levels. Growing concerns around safety and security of destinations, and the process of getting to them, has caused travellers to rethink if, where, when, how and what they travel. (Mendiratta, 2010); accessibility as research emerges that shows the strength of the accessible tourism market, destinations, tour operators, and hotels are right to take notice and make appropriate changes in order to capture this new and important market. (gstcadmin, 2012); And serenity as tourism is today projected as an engine of economic growth and an instrument for eliminating poverty, curbing unemployment problems, opening up new fields of activity and the upliftment of downtrodden sections of society. New opportunities are being tapped to promote eco, adventure. Tourism as a strategy to promote peace by solving the problems of poverty, unemployment, etc. can succeed if effective inter-linkages are established between "tourism initiatives" and "peace", and appropriate action plans are devised accordingly. India has strong community and democratic ethos.

Table 4

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Location

Location Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent Mean

Rating

A1. Farm situated in a safe location. N 0 2 26 78 294 4.66

% 0.00 0.50 6.50 19.50 73.50 Excellent

A2. The place is accessible. N 1 0 63 138 198 4.33

% 0.25 0.00 15.75 34.50 49.50 Very Good

A3. Is in peaceful location. N 1 0 26 104 269 4.60

% 0.25 0.00 6.50 26.00 67.25 Excellent

Total 4.53

Excellent

Facilities and Amenities

This factor is included because the researchers want to prove that farm resort caters the basic need of the tourists/guests.

Overall findings showed that a mean score of 4.28 reflected the respondent's assessment of the facilities and amenities offered among various farm resorts was very good. To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.37, second factor with 4.27, 4.39 for the third factor, fourth factor with 4.19, fifth factor with 4.10, while the sixth factor has 4.37 and last factor with 4.26 (Table 5)

In the context of ranking which among factors was found very good is the dining services of farm resorts while on the other hand, the least is the souvenir shops.

Facilities and amenities offered in a specific farm resorts are another factors that would make the tourists engaged themselves in farm tourism. With these seven components were considered, first is the reception, according to (Thompson, 2016) reception area is where the first impression of your enterprise often starts. It's the physical space whose environment directly reflects your company's values, from the serenity of the atmosphere to the friendliness of your staff; Parking area, a parking lot is best described by the design and how and when it is used. Parking lots come in all shapes and sizes from the gigantic high-rise or subterranean multi-level structures to the flat lots of a small retail strip-center with only a few stores, however, the crime rate of a parking lot can be affected positively or negatively by its' design. (CAM); dining or multi-purpose hall of all types are very common elements. They make great first-phase buildings, they allow you to fundraise from multiple sources, and they allow one building to satisfy many different needs of your community. However, designing these spaces to truly be flexible takes a lot of thought both on your part and your architect's part. (Maclnerney, 2011); Farm guide (Adam, 2004)their aim was to publicize the plight of the family farmer and create a positive image of agriculture for the next generation of urban voters and consumers. The art consisted of large sculptures made from hay bales and other farm crops; fifth is souvenirs, research shows that existing souvenirs has an impact to the guest/tourists. (Collins-Kreiner, 2011); Accommodation, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the supply of accommodation have a direct influence on the overall success and development of tourist destinations. Therefore, in order to ensure that the supply of accommodation contributes effectively to tourism development plans and objectives, it is logical that the development of the accommodation sector should be a fundamental element of the overall destination planning process. (Sharpley, 2000) ; Restaurant, according to (Association, 2013) the success of restaurants is closely tied to travel and tourism. Across all dining segments, about one in every four dollars spent at restaurants comes as a direct result of travel and tourism.

Table 5

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Facilities and Amenities

Facilities and Amenities Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent Mean

Rating

B1. Designated reception/ information center wherein guests can inquire about the farm tour offerings, services or amenities. N 3 1 50 136 210 4.37

% 0.75 0.25 12.50 34.00 52.50 Very Good

B2. Parking area with designated drop-off/loading area is provided for buses and other public and private vehicles. N 1 6 68 135 190 4.27

% 0.25 1.50 17.00 33.75 47.50 Very Good

B3. Dining/ multi-purpose hall, recreational and activity area for guests. Picnic grounds used outdoor fixtures made of indigenous materials in keeping with the farm setting. N 1 4 53 123 219 4.39

% 0.25 1.00 13.25 30.75 54.75 Very Good

B4. Farm guide that accompany the group during the entire conduct of the farm tour. N 5 10 64 143 178 4.19

% 1.25 2.50 16.00 35.75 44.50 Very Good

B5. Existing souvenir shop/ mini trading area to provide guests with a place to purchase farm produced (fresh or processed) and/or negotiate for possible business partnership or transactions. N 7 20 78 117 178 4.10

% 1.75 5.00 19.50 29.25 44.50 Very Good

B6. Accommodation facilities that with the compliance of the minimum standard requirement of the accommodation facility of the Department of Tourism. N 1 5 55 122 217 4.37

% 0.25 1.25 13.75 30.50 54.25 Very Good

B7. Restaurant/s is/are provided that cater services to the dining needs of the guests that are within the premises of the farm resort. N 4 10 73 105 208 4.26

% 1.00 2.50 18.25 26.25 52.00 Very Good

Total 4.28

Very Good

The researchers included sanitation because in any aspect of tourism industry sanitation is very important in proving that tourism has a potential. Because when a tourist is a visiting a tourist destination they have a high expectation in regards with sanitation.

Sanitation

Overall findings illustrated that a mean score of 4.47 reflected the respondent's assessment of the sanitation among various farm resorts was very good. To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.46, second factor with 4.49, third factor with 4.46 and 4.47 for the fourth factor. (Table 6)

In the context of ranking which among factors was found very good, it showed that it is the cleanliness of the restrooms, next is the waste disposal and the least are the designated wash areas and the availability of garbage cans in their surroundings.

Sanitation is an important factor in farm resorts and make a big impact whether a positive or a negative impact. Four components were considered first is the wash areas, Lack of hand washing is problematic, since there are many touch points in restrooms hosting germs and bacteria that can be spread to other areas of the facility if restroom users fail to wash their hands properly. (Dommisse, 2014); next is restrooms, since most workplaces are required to maintain a bathroom for either its customers or employees, it's important that business owners are aware of the consequences of a disgusting restroom and the benefits of a well-maintained bathroom facility. Ask most people how to rate a business and chances are owners will hear all about the service, the food or merchandise and the prices. However, perhaps the strongest reactions have to do with the restroom facilities. (Worldwide Janitor, 2013); garbage cans, every business generates trash and garbage that require attention on a regular basis to maintain cleanliness, safety and health in the workplace or home. Having the proper equipment applies to waste management just as it does to other areas of successful business operations. When a business supplies its employees and customers with easy access to waste containers, overall maintenance of the building is made easier and buildings stay cleaner and neater. It is important to purchase not only the right size cans and bins, but also an adequate amount of such containers. (Clean It Supply, 2010); lastly, waste disposal, according to (Herron, 2015) there are a lot of benefits that the entire world can gain when everyone just practice waste segregation and proper disposal. However, (Obinna, 2015) stated that disposal of refuse without proper supervision often amounts damage to the environment and ultimately to the human body system.

Table 6

Frequency and Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Sanitation

Sanitation Poor Fair Good Very Good Excellent Mean

Rating

C1. Designated wash areas with ample amenities. N 1 3 49 104 243 4.46

% 0.25 0.75 12.25 26.00 60.75 Very Good

C2. Restrooms and Bathrooms that are separated and well-maintained for both male and female. N 1 2 48 98 251 4.49

% 0.25 0.50 12.00 24.50 62.75 Very Good

C3. Available garbage cans in all activity areas. N 1 3 31 142 223 4.46

% 0.25 0.75 7.75 35.50 55.75 Very Good

C4. Garbage/waste disposal adheres to sustainable methods towards environmental protection. N 2 4 33 126 235 4.47

% 0.50 1.00 8.25 31.50 58.75 Very Good

Total 4.47

Very Good

Paragraph synthesis on the 3 attributes' highlight max mean min mean scores per aspect.

Test Statistics:  Pearson Chi-Square Test of Association between Respondents' Profile Variables and Rating on the Aspects of Farm Tourism Relative to Farm Resorts

The findings on table 7 presented that the farms in terms of location, facilities and amenities and sanitation, with the p-value of 0.000 respectively are significant in identifying the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. It showed that the success of one company (farm resort) is depending on the variables offered, whereas the age and gender are not significant.

Table 7

Pearson Chi p-value Interpretation

Gender

  Location 3.9711 0.265 Not Significant

  Facilities and Amenities 1.6169 0.656 Not Significant

  Sanitation 4.0197 0.259 Not Significant

Age

  Location 7.7435 0.805 Not Significant

  Facilities and Amenities 18.0029 0.116 Not Significant

  Sanitation 11.3418 0.500 Not Significant

Farm

  Location 210.14 0.000 Significant

  Facilities and Amenities 388.81 0.000 Significant

  Sanitation 256.74 0.000 Significant

Foregoing discussions further substantiate the industry analysis.  This comprised both internal and external analysis.  As this is relevant to the assessment of the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga, the data collected went through further analysis in order to provide empirical evidences as to the attainment of the current investigations' objectives.

Internal Analysis

The foregoing section presented further analysis alongside the gathered data.  The mean ratings on the aspects were used in order to establish the internal analysis.  Both strengths and weaknesses were identified in order to bring forward possible strategies that can be recommended.

Strengths

These are the beneficial aspects, capabilities and are internal characteristics of each farm resort that gives them an advantage on some factors over others. Also, these are the distinct features wherein which they are able to well-versed in, the results from the empirical findings are as follows:

1. All farm resorts are accessible. As the findings showed guests went to the farm resorts at ease because of the developed highways, cemented roads, and designated signage direct to farm resorts, and others offer shuttles.

2. Farm resorts in Pampanga are situated in safe and peaceful location.

3. All farm resorts offer different kinds of recreational activities within the premises. (See Appendix E)

4. Farm resorts can maintain and sustain their areas with their available disposable waste management system adheres towards environmental protection. As where the farm resorts have their proper signage about recyclable and non-recyclable, they have sufficient trash cans all over the farm resorts, and left over foods of guests will serve as the fertilizer to their crops.

5. Gender and age preference does not affect the number of tourist who can visit the farm resorts.

6. All farm resorts have their space (hectares) to put up the business in which the farm resorts were capable to cater the needs of their guests and to establish the facilities and amenities based on the DOT requirements.

7. Each farm resort has their special features when it comes to services and facilities. (See Appendix F)

8. The employees of farm resorts are hospitable with their guests. As before the guests/visitors enters the farm resort a genuine smile of employees will welcome them and employees will attend to the needs of guests willingly.

Weaknesses

The internal characteristics of each farm resort that puts them at a disadvantage relative to others. These deteriorate influences in the success and prevent growth of each farm resorts. Below are the results from the gathered data from the questionnaires:

1. Some of the visitors find it hard to inquire about farm tour offerings, services, or amenities because some farm resorts are insufficient of actual designation of personnel.

2. Some of the amenities and facilities inside the premises of all farm resorts need to be improved because they have to cater sufficient designated parking area or drop-off/loading area and the dining needs of the guests.

3. Insufficient of farm guide of farm resort to accompany the group.

4. A need for improvement of souvenir shop/s inside the farm resorts.

5. Some farm resorts are only for reservation that results to limited guests.

6. Some farm resorts accept and offer a group tour service.

External Analysis

The external analysis comprised of describing the following attributes - general environment; current expected outlook, economic development, socio-cultural, demographic trends, lifestyle changes, technological developments, political, legal, governmental aspects, and ecological aspects.

General Environment

Pampanga covers a total area of 2,002.20 square kilometres (773.05 sq mi) occupying the south-central section of the Central Luzon region. When Angeles City is included for geographical purposes, the province's area is 2,062.47 square kilometres (796.32 sq mi). The province is bordered by Tarlac to the north, Nueva Ecija to the northeast, Bulacan to the east, the Manila Bay to the central-south, Bataan to the southwest, and Zambales to the northwest.

Geographically within Pampanga, there are 20 municipalities. Two of which are classified as highly urbanized city, San Fernando and Angeles City. Angeles city is even classified as a first class and is governed independently.

Its terrain is flat with one distinct mountain, Mount Arayat and the notable Pampanga River. Among with its municipalities, Porac has the largest land mass with 314 square kilometres (121 sq mi); Candaba comes in second with 176 square kilometres (68 sq mi); followed by Floridablanca with 175 square kilometres (68 sq mi). Santo Tomas, with an area of 21 square kilometres (8.1 sq mi), is the smallest.

The province of Pampanga has two distinct climates, wet  and dry. The wet season normally begins in May and runs through October, while the rest of the year is the dry season. The warmest period of the year occurs between March and April, while the coolest period is from December through February.

Climate data for Pampanga

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Average high ''C (''F) 30.5

(86.9) 31.5

(88.7) 33.1

(91.6) 34.5

(94.1) 34.0

(93.2) 32.6

(90.7) 32.0

(89.6) 31.2

(88.2) 31.4

(88.5) 31.6

(88.9) 31.4

(88.5) 30.5

(86.9) 32.03

(89.65)

Average low ''C (''F) 21.6

(70.9) 21.8

(71.2) 22.9

(73.2) 24.1

(75.4) 25.0

(77) 25.0

(77) 24.6

(76.3) 24.8

(76.6) 24.3

(75.7) 24.0

(75.2) 23.5

(74.3) 22.3

(72.1) 23.66

(74.58)

Average rainy days 5 3 4 5 13 20 22 22 22 17 15 8 156

Source: Storm247 [7]

Tourism industry is growing in the province of Pampanga. Clark Freeport is home to Clark International Airport, designated as the Philippines' future premier gateway. Other developing industries include semiconductor manufacturing for electronics and computers mostly located within the Freeport and within the Clark Special Economic Zone are well-established hotels and resorts (Pampanga, 2017).

Current and Expected Outlook

As of now, the Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute and the Department of Tourism manage in promoting farm tourism in the country. Under the DA, there are 28 accredited farm tourism sites while there are only 5 under the DOT. Executive Orders and Memorandum Circulars may be created to enhance the promotion of the farm tourism in the country but these measures are still not enough to strengthen the farm tourism industry.  Farm tourism sites owners and investors may find it confusing which government body is solely responsible for the accreditation of such sites. There is a strong need to have a single body to manage and coordinate the farm tourism activities in the Philippines. Therefore, the enactment of the Farm Tourism Act of 2014 is earnestly sought. The bill lays down the functions and the organizational structure of the newly created agency, the Philippine Farm Tourism Industry Development Coordinating Council (PFTIDCC), which will be administratively attached to the Department of Tourism (DOT).

Economic Development

Pampanga had remained its agricultural with 53,644 hectares planted with rice, 11,433 hectares planted with corn and 2,622 hectares with vegetables. About 6,536 hectares are devoted to orchards while 34,466 hectares are for fishponds. The Office of the Provincial Agriculturist said the province yielded 47,921 metric tons of rice in 2013.

First, the agricultural landscape of Pampanga is also fast changing in the face of rapid industrialization. The province is set midway between the Subic Bay Metropolitan Area and Metro Manila and there are large tracts of land that can accommodate industrial expansion which requires development of infrastructure and man power.

Second, the combination of two major sectors, agriculture and tourism, could help further boost economic growth and generate additional employment. This is the motivation behind the creation of the Farm Tourism Act of 2014 which will establish a comprehensive program for the development and promotion of farm tourism (tourism.gov.ph, 2009).

Lastly, many economists consider the province's development since the 1980s as remarkable with a fast growing tourism sector and service industry. The Clark Field Zone (CFZ) is a major economic driver particularly for the cities of Angeles and Mabalacat, the surrounding towns like Porac and Magalang, the capital city of San Fernando, as well as Bamban town in Tarlac province that shares a boundary with Mabalacat (Pampanga, 2017).

Socio-Cultural, Demographic Trends, Lifestyle Changes

Farmers' attitudes and desires are influenced by their society's culture. If it is customary in a certain community for farmers to scatter seed and plough it into the soil, people will grow up to believe that that is the only correct way of planting. Even if the benefits of other methods are explained to them, their strongly held attitudes may make it difficult for to them change.

Yet not all of these pressures will come from the farmers' own attitudes and beliefs; some will come from other people. Any society expects its members to behave in certain ways. No one is seen by others as an isolated individual. Each person is seen as occupying a position in society, and each position carries expectations with it (Economic and Social Development Department).

More so, Pampanga is taking centre stage as the country shifts into industrial high gear. With 2,181 square kilometers of mostly rich arable land, the province has always been a net exporter of food products like rice, sugar, vegetables and fruits as well as poultry, livestock and inland fish products.

Despite of the destruction caused by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in 1991 and the continuous threat of lahar over vast swathes of the province, agriculture remains a viable area of opportunity. With ready and accessible markets capable of absorbing production, shifting to high value crops and agricultural production is promising. Vegetable, fruit and cut flower production are some of the potential fields of development.

The old agricultural landscape of Pampanga is also fast changing in the face of rapid industrialization (Islands Accommodations, 2016).

Children, these days, cannot identify crops or plants without seeing their fruits. Alarmed, Ms. Cythnia Tizon, an organic farmer, saw herself as an instrument to expose them in her farm.

Tizon emphasized that farming is very important and it is a very noble profession. Without farmers, no one will feed the world (La''ada, 2015).

Technological Developments

When it comes to technological development, it influences our everyday living. Through this technology contributes to Farm Resort by some reason for example, effortless booking or reservations. Guest can easily search through their mobile devices what farms they would want to go and what amenities, activities the resort has to offer. Guest could also evaluate the service and share their experiences through online and social media.

Political, Legal, Governmental Aspects

The following concerns anchored on the dimensions of political, legal and governmental aspects affect the farm tourism relative to its operations.

First is that, the Department of Tourism in Pampanga creates 'Spring into Wellness through Agriculture,' It aims to educate, promote and showcase products and services in the health and wellness industry by highlighting major trends and great potentials that contribute to the development of the economy.

Another is, Department of Tourism in Pampanga made lectures and expo that  served as a venue for inquiries and sharing of best practices among farm tourism site owners in order to further boost agri-tourism in the region.

Ecological aspects

According to Panlilio, various sectors must have regular meetings in order to meet the concerns of solid wastes in the province. The first meeting called for the creation of a plan of action on the foregoing issues on waste. The DENR, which leads the Technical Working Group (TWG), initialized the Solid Waste Management Board Meeting to determine and create an overview on the proposals to address solid waste management problems and issues in the province.

Ms. Laura Abando of the DENR-Environment Management Board (EMB) gave an overview of the actual situation on the solid waste management in the local government units in the province. The EMB is a government agency, which aims to restore and enhance the environmental situations and promote quality public health, environmental integrity and economic viability through protecting the natural resources.

Heads of various sectors here agreed to pursue sustainable development for a clean and healthy environment that would enhance the Filipino quality way of life (Govph, 2016)

What follows summarizes the identified threats and opportunities in the external analysis.

TABLE 8. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' GENERAL ENVIRONMENT

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Geographically within Pampanga, is classified as a first-class, highly urbanized city.

Intensity

Of

Competition THREAT:

The fast growth of urbanization in Pampanga, may lead to focusing on other aspect of tourism.

The province has two distinct climates, rainy and dry. Market Demand

 and

Opportunities THREAT:

It may affect the willingness of the market to engage in farm tourism.

Supplier

and

Distributors THREAT:

Availability of substitute product and services.

Pampanga is served by Clark International Airport.

Market Demand

And

Opportunities OPPORTUNITY:

Increased number of prospective guests of farm tourism relative to local and foreign tourists.

. Clark Freeport is home to Clark International Airport, designated as the Philippines' future premier gateway

TABLE 9. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' CURRENT AND EXPECTED OUTLOOK

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Currently, the Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Training Institute and the Department of Tourism manage in promoting farm tourism in the country.

Market Demand

And

Opportunities OPPORTUNITY:

Strengthen the farm tourism industry.

There is a strong need to have a single body to manage and coordinate the farm tourism activities in the Philippines.

Other Aspect

of the

Business THREAT:

 Lack of management and coordination of farm tourism activities in the Philippines

TABLE 10. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND   THREATS

The Office of the Provincial Agriculturist said the province yielded 47,921 metric tons of rice in 2013.

Types of Product

and

Services Offered OPPORTUNITY:

Availability of more entities to do business relative.

Supplier

and

Distributor

Many economists consider the province's development since the 1980s as remarkable with a fast growing tourism sector and service industry.

Market Demand

And

Opportunities OPPORTUNITY:

Captures more prospective tourist to engage in what the province is offering in the aspect of farm tourism.

The Clark Field Zone (CFZ) is a major economic driver.

TABLE 11. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' SOCIO-CULTURAL, DEMOGRAPHIC TRENDS, LIFESTYLE CHANGES

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Farmers' attitudes and desires are influenced by their society's culture. Other Aspects

of Business OPPORTUNITY:

Capability of coping up with the wants and needs of the tourists.

Pampanga is taking centre stage as the country shifts into industrial high gear.

Costs of Doing

Business OPPORTUNITY:

Growth of the industry will also mark as potential growth for the company.

The old agricultural landscape of Pampanga is also fast changing in the face of rapid industrialization.

TABLE 12. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Technological Development influences our everyday living.

Other Aspects

of the

Business THREAT:

Influences people to engage more in technology rather than outdoor activities.

Guest can easily search through their mobile devices what farms they want to go and do. Market Demand

And

Opportunity OPPORTUNITY:

Convenient in both parties, easier access for guests and easier promotions for farm resorts.

Cost of Doing

Business

Evaluate the service and share their experiences through online and social media. Other Aspect

Of the

Business OPPORTUNITY:

Improves what is lacking in the business to cater the needs and wants of the guests.

TABLE 13. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' POLITICAL, LEGAL, GOVERNMENTAL ASPECTS

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

The Department of Tourism in Pampanga creates 'Spring into Wellness through Agriculture,'

Market Demand

and

Opportunity OPPORTUNITY:

Helps in promoting the boosting industry of farm tourism.

It aims to educate, promote and showcase products and services in the health and wellness industry.

Department of Tourism in Pampanga made lectures and expo that served as a venue for inquiries and sharing of best practices among farm tourism site owners.

The combination of two major sectors, agriculture and tourism, could help further boost economic growth

Other Aspects

of the

Business OPPORTUNITY:

Enhance the knowledge of farm entrepreneurs.

TABLE 14. OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS ' ECOLOGICAL ASPECTS

KEY POINTS AREAS OF CONCERN OPPORTUNITIES AND THREATS

Various sectors must have regular meetings in order to meet the concerns of solid wastes in the province. Cost of Doing

Business THREAT:

Additional in expenses.

Other Aspects

of the Business OPPORTUNITY:

Effective plans and controls about the concerns of solid wastes.

Aims to restore and enhance the environmental situations and promote quality public health, environmental integrity and economic viability through protecting the natural resources.

OPPORTUNITY:

Strong support of Farm Tourism to the Governmental group.

The Philippines has a lot to offer in terms of farm tourism with its abundant natural resources, biological diversity and cultural heritage that makes farm tourism in the country the next in thing in terms of local tourism. OPPORTUNITY:

Resources are available and possible.

Developing local farm tourism would benefit not just farmers but also related industries OPPORTUNITY:

Increase in economic growth.

Development in the countryside that will generate employment opportunities will stop the influx of people from the provinces OPPORTUNITY:

Job opportunities.

Table 15. LIST OF IDENTIFIED OPPORTUNITIES

Opportunities

Market Demand and Opportunities Increased number of prospective guests of farm tourism relative to local and foreign tourists.

Strengthen the farm tourism industry.

Captures more prospective tourist to engage in what the province is offering in the aspect of farm tourism.

Convenient in both parties, easier access for guests and easier promotions for farm resorts.

Helps in promoting the boosting industry of farm tourism.

Increase in income and employment relative to the locals of the community

Types of Product and Services Offered Availability of more entities to do business relative.

Production and offers better products and services.

Suppliers and  Distributors Availability of more entities to do business relative.

Other Aspects of the Business Capability of coping up with the wants and needs of the tourists.

Improves what is lacking in the business to cater the needs and wants of the guests.

Enhance the knowledge of farm entrepreneurs.

Strong support of Farm Tourism to the Governmental group.

Resources are available and possible.

Increase in economic growth.

Job Opportunities.

Increase in income and employment.

Preserve farms in a much lower cost and easier way.

Widened the farm tourism industry.

Cost of Doing Business Growth of the industry will also mark as potential growth for the company.

Convenient in both parties, easier access for guests and easier promotions for farm resorts.

Table 16. SUMMARY OF IDENTIFIED THREATS

Threats

Intensity of Competition The fast growth of urbanization in Pampanga, may lead to focusing on other aspect of tourism.

Market Demand and Opportunities It may affect the willingness of the market to engage in farm tourism.

Suppliers and  Distributors Availability of substitute product and services.

Other Aspects of the Business Lack of management and coordination of farm tourism activities in the Philippines.

Influences people to engage more in technology rather than outdoor activities.

Cost of Doing Business Additional in expenses.

Increase in expenditures to be able to sustain farm sites.

SWOT Analysis

The table that follows presented the overall results taken from internal and external analysis.  The identified strengths and weaknesses were assessed and paired with the recognized opportunities and threats in order to formulate strategies that can be recommended.

SWOT Matrix

STRENGTHS:

1. All farm resorts are accessible. As the findings showed guests went to the farm resorts at ease because of the developed highways, cemented roads, and designated signage direct to farm resorts.

2. Farm resorts in Pampanga are situated in safe and peaceful location.

3. All farm resorts offer different kinds of recreational activities within the premises.

4. Farm resorts can maintain and sustain their areas with their available disposable waste management system adheres towards environmental protection. As where the farm resorts have their proper signage about recyclable and non-recyclable, they have sufficient trash cans all over the farm resorts, and left over foods of guests will serve as the fertilizer to their crops.

5. Gender and age preference does not affect the number of tourist who can visit the farm resorts.

6. All farm resorts have their space (hectares) to put up the business in which the farm resorts were capable to cater the needs of their guests and to establish the facilities and amenities based on the DOT requirements.

7. Each farm resort has their special features when it comes to services and facilities.

8. The employees of farm resorts are hospitable with their guests. As before the guests/visitors enters the farm resort a genuine smile of employees will welcome them and employees will attend to the needs of guests willingly.

WEAKNESSES:

1. Some of the visitors find it hard to inquire about farm tour offerings, services, or amenities because some farm resorts are insufficient of actual designation of personnel.

2. Some of the amenities and facilities inside the premises of all farm resorts need to be improved because they have to cater sufficient designated parking area or drop-off/loading area and the dining needs of the guests.

3. Insufficient of farm guide of farm resort to accompany the group.

4. A need for improvement of souvenir shop/s inside the farm resorts.

5. Some farm resorts are only for reservation that results to limited guests.

6. Some farm resorts accept and offer a group tour service.

OPPORTUNITIES:

1. Increased number of prospective guests of farm tourism relative to local and foreign tourists.

2. Strengthen the farm tourism industry.

3. Availability of more entities to do business relative.

4. Capability of coping up with the wants and needs of the tourists.

5. Growth of the industry will also mark as potential growth for the company.

6. Convenient in both parties, easier access for guests and easier promotions for farm resorts.

7. Improves what is lacking in the business to cater the needs and wants of the guests.

8. Enhance the knowledge of farm entrepreneurs.

9. Effective plans and controls about the concerns of solid wastes.

10. Strong support of Farm Tourism to the Governmental group

11. Resources are available and possible.

12. Increase in economic growth.

13. Job Opportunities

14. Increase in income and employment.

15. Preserve farms in a much lower cost and easier way

16. Production and offers better products and services.

17. Increase in income and employment relative to the locals of the community

18. Widened the farm tourism industry.

THREATS:

1. The fast growth of urbanization in Pampanga, may lead to focusing on other aspect of tourism.

2. It may affect the willingness of the market to engage in farm tourism

3. Availability of substitute product and services.

4. Lack of management and coordination of farm tourism activities in the Philippines

5. Influences people to engage more in technology rather than outdoor activities.

6. Increase in expenditures.

7. Increase in expenditures to be able to sustain farm sites.

Strategy formulation based on SWOT

The aforementioned SWOT analysis provided basis in which strategies were formulated.  Presented below were the initial strategies that can be considered.

STRENGTHS WEAKNESSES

OPPORTUNITIES SO STRATEGIES WO STRATEGIES

S1,2O1:

Due to farm resorts are all accessible, situated in safe and peaceful location it can increase the number of prospective local and international tourists.

Strategy: Maintain the safeness and improve ease of accessibility, therefore prospective tourists become primary customers.

S4O9,10:

Farm resorts have their available disposable waste management system towards environmental protection that supports the campaign of Governmental group about the concerns of solid wastes.

Strategy: Conduct meetings on how effective plans and controls should be done to properly eliminate solid wastes.

S3O4,7:

 In the long run of business of farm resorts they offer different kinds of recreational activities in which it can cater the needs and wants of the guests.

Strategy: Conduct more appropriate outdoor activities that can cater team buildings, retreats, etc. while farming is still part of the program.

S5,6O8:

Gender and age preferences are not significant to the number of tourist that can visit the farm resort, therefore entrepreneurs knowledge are not limited when it comes to targeting the prospective customers.

Strategy: Conduct marketing plan with limitless preference.

S7O11:

All farm resorts have their space (hectares) to put up the business therefore it shows that Pampanga is rich in soil and resources.

Strategy: Improve and enhance the available land and resources within each farm resorts.

S10O16:

Employees are hospitable, therefore they offer better production and services.

Strategy: Conduct meeting or seminars with the employees pertaining to employee-customer relationship to maintain hospitality among employees.

S9O17:

Some of the farm resort accepts group tour, therefore the higher number of visitor the higher of the employment and manpower needed.

Strategy: Improve group tour services in which employees will increase their income and locals will find job opportunities.

W2,O4:

Some of the amenities and facilities inside the premises of all farm resorts need to be improved to cope up with the needs and wants of the tourists.

Strategy:

Through evaluation the farm resort can determine and improve the amenities and facilities.

W2, O7:

Some farm resorts lacks of improvement to cater the dining needs of the customers.

Strategy: Determine the applicable and appropriate foods so that this will attract the tourist/guests.

W3,O13:

Not all farm resort have farm guide to accompany the group however it can create a Job Opportunities to its locals.

Strategy: Through lack of farm guides, locals or accredited tour guides can apply to the farm resort as long as they will go under the trainings and seminars about tour guiding.

THREATS ST STRATEGIES WT STRATEGIES

S4T1:

DOT and Agri tourism are in campaign concerning environmental protection thus there is a fast growth of urbanization in Pampanga that may lead to focusing on other aspects of tourism.

Strategy: Conduct meetings and seminars focusing on proper use of resources and spaces to control environmental protection and business entities.  

S5T2:

Though age is not significant in the business, millennial are very advance now a days that may affect the willingness to engage in farm tourism.

Strategy: Come up with something interesting and attractive recreational activities that cater the interest of millennial.

S7T4:

Each farm resorts has own special features with their facilities and services thus it results to the lack of management and coordination of farm tourism in the activities.

Strategy: Convention must be conducted about oneness of coordinating and managing activities of farm tourism. W3,4T6:

The insufficient farm guides and improvement of souvenir shops may increase business expenditures.

Strategy: Invest with the needs of the business and proper control of the expenditures.

W1-6T3,7:

Lacking and improvements of the supplies and availability of substitute product and services will cause increase of expenditures to be able to sustain the farm sites.

Strategy: Analyzing and proper cross-cutting of expenditures to allocate equal of budgets to run and sustain farm businesses.

The researchers has shown in the SWOT analysis the connections and relations between the identified strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, threats in this study. With the use of the matrix the researchers were able to combine them and come up with different strategies.  

The finding shows that there is a high potential of farm tourism in Pampanga through assessment done by the researches by the means of answered questionnaires by the tourists of 21 DOT accredited farm resorts, which is based the minimum standard requirement of the Department of Tourism. Also, the internal and external analysis were identified and have come up with the SWOT analysis.

Below is the presentation of the proposed plan of action of the researchers.

Proposed Plan of Action

The researchers have come up with the proposed plan of action, given that there is a potential of farm tourism in Pampanga, and being able to identify the strengths and weaknesses in the internal analysis, and the opportunities and threats in the external analysis and combining each with the use of matrix, researchers have come up in proposing an organization in order to suffice what is lacking in pushing through the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. The purpose of the proposed organization will be discussed below, together with its objective and goals.

Name of the Proposed Organization

REAP ( Relations between Entrepreneurs of Agriculture in Pampanga)

Proposed Institutional Development Plan Framework for Farm Resorts

Owners in Pampanga

Introduction

Farm tourism in the Philippines is being developed by the Department of Tourism as one of the new tourism products. It aims more tourist arrivals and helping the local farmers boost their agricultural income as well. It also aims to help the farmers in finding new ways of generating sustainable income in terms of tour packages that include planting and harvesting.

Pampanga is one of the provinces in Central Luzon which is also known to be the Agricultural Center of the Philippines that is why one of its main industries is farming.

The researchers of this paper ' along with the study of the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga ' came up with a strategic plan and proposed institutional development plan framework, the Relations between Entrepreneurs of Agriculture of Pampanga (REAP).

This paper aims to start an institution the Relations between Entrepreneurs of Agriculture of Pampanga (REAP)  among the farm entrepreneurs of Pampanga with the following concepts: the mission of the institution; the institutional vision, values, and goals; and the strategic and action plans.

Mission:

To be as one and first organization that will promote the industry of farm tourism.

Vision:

REAP's aims to embolden farm owners of Pampanga for the progress and development the industry of farm tourism. Also aims to establish and organization of unified farm owners of Pampanga which aim to promote camaraderie among farm owners and managers.

Institutional Values

INSTITUTIONAL VALUES Core institutional values, for the successful execution of farm resort association (REAP) mission.

- Integrity. We act with integrity to work with Ethical principles of Farm tourism and to work as a whole.

- Respect. We respect the esteem for or a sense of the worth or excellence of a person, the ability and quality of its Farm Resort Responsibility. We act responsibly and accountable with our decisions for the reliability to our group in order to boost Farm Tourism in Pampanga Discovery. Through advanced research we seek ways on how to attract tourist to come and visit farm resorts in Pampanga and creativity and innovation for the benefit of REAP.

- Excellence. We strive for excellence in our aims and efforts as an owners and association.

- Community. We work together for the advancement and progress of our association to be able to be as one in enhancing Farm Resorts in Pampanga

- Cooperation. We have a synchronized decisions and actions to be able to achieve REAP's goals.

Institutional Goals

o Provide enhancement of skills and knowledge of farm entrepreneurs and develop managerial skills.

o Establish plans of proper waste management and controls in using natural resources.

o Provide and invest sufficient designated amenities and facilities that will cater the needs of the guests.

o Initiate locals to render service for the improvement of the farm tourism industry.

o Promote farm tourism as one of the main attraction and activity to offer in Pampanga.

Strategic Plan

In the course of designing REAP; the SWOT analysis was employed with the following factors at hand:

Strengths:

1. There are a lot of potential tourists in farm tourism for it is not age and gender biased, hence, the need of REAP is significant.

2. There are a lot of activities to offer in farm tourism.

3. The objective in promoting farm tourism can be achieved through REAP.

Weaknesses:

1. Lack of promotion of farm tourism in Pampanga.

2. Insufficient skilled workers.

3. Inadequateness of facilities and amenities.

Opportunities:

1. Available government support.

Threats:

1. Inconsistent commitment of the farm entrepreneurs.

2. Inconsistent growing numbers of tourists.

Institutional Development Plan

    The foregoing table depicts the REAP. The defined institutional goals are supported by the foregoing objectives, success indicator, and strategies to be implemented.

GOAL 1 - Provide enhancement of skills and knowledge of farm entrepreneurs and develop managerial skills.

OBJECTIVES 1.1

Empowering team, association and portfolio businesses to pursue strategies to deliver farm entrepreneurs and employees to provide better services.

SUCCESS INDICATOR1.1

Better services were delivered by farm entrepreneurs and employees based on the pursued strategies learned from seminars and conventions. STRATEGY1.1

Conduct seminars and attend conventions among farm entrepreneurs to strongly enhance their skills and individual learning.

OBJECTIVES 1.2

Building a customer and company (farm) culture relationship.

SUCCESS INDICATOR1.2

There is harmonious bond and trust between farm entrepreneurs and their customers. STRATEGY1.2

Disseminate information regarding the association and its objectives specific to programs and its benefits.

GOAL 2 - Establish plans of proper waste management and controls in using natural resources.

OBJECTIVES 2.1

Generating sustainability of supporting environmental protection. SUCCESS INDICATOR 2.1

Longer usage of natural resources.

The group strongly supported the campaign of environmental protection. STRATEGY 2.1

Educate guests on how to properly dispose waste.

Farm owners should hire people with proper knowledge about protecting the environment.

GOAL 3 - Provide and invest sufficient designated amenities and facilities that will cater the needs of the guests.

OBJECTIVES 3.1

Improving amenities and facilities to operate effectively in organizations and guests needs.

SUCCESS INDICATOR 3.1

Long time use (Wear and tear)

Satisfied guests from the improvement shown. STRATEGY 3.1

Enhance the building and amenities by improving and adding.

Regular inspection to maintain enhanced amenities and facilities.

OBJECTIVES 3.2

Evolving Farm Resort business to provide even more value and convenience to customers. SUCCESS INDICATOR 3.2

Good feedbacks from the guests about the service they received.

High satisfaction rates of the guests. STRATEGY 3.2

Improve the services and products offered to the guests.

GOAL 4 - Initiate locals to render service for the improvement of the farm tourism industry.

OBJECTIVES 4.1

Focusing also in Human Resources structure and employee relations matter. That will cover the employee a training and development goals of the institution.

SUCCESS INDICATOR 4.1

There is a well developed goal of the institutions that initiates well trained locals/employees to render service for the improvement of the business. STRATEGY 4.1

Attend and be aware of the employees need and concern to cater better services.

GOAL 5 - Promote farm tourism as one of the main attractions and activities to offer in Pampanga.

OBJECTIVES 5.1

Ensuring the sustainable level of farm owners managing the REAP. SUCCESS INDICATOR 5.1.1

REAP is well-managed and prosperous.

STRATEGY 5.1

Implement regular meetings to talk about the problems that the group is facing.

SUCCESS INDICATOR 5.1.2

The group's goals were achieved by the farm owners managing it.

OBJECTIVES 5.2

Expanding business ideas turning into something that will lead in attracting more guests. SUCCESS INDICATOR 5.2

Creativity and unique ideas leads to attracting more customers. STRATEGY 5.2.1

Attend to the needs of the customer.

STRATEGY 5.2.2

Cope up and be updated with the trends about farm tourism.

Conclusion

Based on the conducted research, unison of interest and ideas is needed to operate well and to improve the managing of business of Farm Tourism so to cope up with the fast changing societies demands. REAP therefore would respond to the call on who has to take the responsibility of addressing the concerns; who would take the stand to guide the farm entrepreneurs on how to appropriately manage the business, in order to see what benefits it is in the group, and who would help them.

   In order to address the concerns aforementioned above, the will and support of the members of the REAP is required to provide enhancement of skills and knowledge of farm entrepreneurs and develop managerial skills; establish plans of proper waste management and controls in using natural resources; provide and invest sufficient designated amenities and facilities that will cater the needs of the guests; initiate locals to render service for the improvement of the farm tourism industry; promote farm tourism as one of the main attraction and activity to offer in Pampanga.

'

Chapter V

Summary of Findings, Conclusions, and Recommendations

This chapter shows the summary of the research work undertaken, the findings, conclusions drawn and the recommendations made as an outgrowth of this study. This study is on the assessment of potential of farm tourism in Pampanga.

Findings

1.) Demographic Profile

The findings showed that the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according to gender. Out of 400 respondents 199 or 49.75% are male, and 201 or 50.25% respondents are female meanwhile, the frequency and percentage distribution percentage of the age of the respondents. The majority 215 or 53.75% respondents fall on the range of 20 to 29 years old, while the least with 19 or 4.75% respondents fall on the range of 50 years old and above. This illustrates that although mostly those in the age range of 20 to 29 years old are the ones who usually visit the Farm Resorts in Pampanga. Thus this proves that farm tourism is not gender and age biased. Addition to that with the 21 farm resort surveyed, Lola Corazon with 126 or 31.50% of the respondents dominated the tally score, next to it is Fiona's farm with 90 or 22.50% of the respondents while the rest follows and the least are 3RJ and Orissa with 1 or .25% respondents respectively.

The finding shows that there is really a potential of farm tourism in Pampanga based on the assessment done by the researches through the use of questionnaires supported by the DOT guidelines and through determining the internal and external analysis of the farm resorts.

2.) Ratings

A2.) Location

Findings showed the frequency and percentage distribution of respondents according location.  A mean score of 4.53 reflected the respondent's assessment of the location among various farm resorts was excellent.  To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.66, second factor with 4.33 and 4.60 for the third factor. In the context of ranking which among factors was found excellent, it showed that safety of the location and the least is accessibility of the location.

    B2.) Facilities

The overall findings showed that a mean score of 4.28 reflected the respondent's assessment of the facilities and amenities offered among various farm resorts was very good. To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.37, second factor with 4.27, 4.39 for the third factor, fourth factor with 4.19, fifth factor with 4.10, while the sixth factor has 4.37 and last factor with 4.26.

C2.) Sanitation

Overall findings illustrated that a mean score of 4.47 reflected the respondent's assessment of the sanitation among various farm resorts was very good. To wit, the first factor was given a mean score of 4.46, second factor with 4.49, third factor with 4.46 and 4.47 for the fourth factor.

3.) Internal analysis

The foregoing section presented further analysis alongside the gathered data from the respondents.

A3.) Strength

Over all findings showed that; all farm resorts are accessible, Farm resorts in Pampanga are situated in safe and peaceful location, All farm resorts offer different kinds of recreational activities within the premises, Farm resorts can maintain and sustain their areas with their available disposable waste management system adheres towards environmental protection, Gender and age preference does not affect the number of tourist who can visit the farm resorts, All farm resorts have their space (hectares) to put up the business in which the farm resorts were capable to cater the needs of their guests and to establish the facilities and amenities based on the DOT requirements, Each farm resort has their special features when it comes to services and facilities, and the employees of farm resorts are hospitable with their guests

B3.) Weakness

The findings showed that; Some of the visitors find it hard to inquire about farm tour offerings, services, or amenities because some farm resorts are insufficient of actual designation of personnel, Some of the amenities and facilities inside the premises of all farm resorts need to be improved because they have to cater sufficient designated parking area or drop-off/loading area and the dining needs of the guests, there is an insufficient of farm guide of farm resort to accompany the group, a need for improvement of souvenir shop/s inside the farm resorts, Some farm resorts are only for reservation that results to limited guests, and only some farm resorts accept and offer a group tour service.

4.) External analysis

A4.) Opportunities

The findings show results from outside sources that there is an; Increased number of prospective guests of farm tourism relative to local and foreign tourists, it can strengthen the farm tourism industry, an availability of more entities to do business relative, capability of coping up with the wants and needs of the tourists, a growth of the industry will also mark as potential growth for the company, a convenient in both parties, easier access for guests and easier promotions for farm resorts, Improves what is lacking in the business to cater the needs and wants of the guests, it can enhance the knowledge of farm entrepreneurs, an effective plans and controls about the concerns of solid wastes, there is a strong support of Farm Tourism to the Governmental group.

Resources are available and possible, it can increase in economic growth, more Job Opportunities, an increase in income and employment, it can preserve farms in a much lower cost and easier way, there is a production and offers better products and services, an increase in income and employment relative to the locals of the community and it can widened the farm tourism industry.

B4.) Threats

The findings show results from outside sources that can affect its potential; the fast growth of urbanization in Pampanga, may lead to focusing on other aspect of tourism, It may affect the willingness of the market to engage in farm tourism, the availability of substitute product and services, there is a lack of management and coordination of farm tourism activities in the Philippines, the influences people to engage more in technology rather than outdoor activities, an increase in expenditures and increase in expenditures to be able to sustain farm sites.

5.) SWOT

    A5.) Strategies

Below are the overall result taken from internal and external analysis.  The identified strengths and weaknesses were assessed and paired with the recognized opportunities and threats in order to formulate strategies that can be recommended.; Maintain the safeness and improve ease of accessibility, therefore prospective tourists become primary customers, Through evaluation the farm resort can determine and improve the amenities and facilities, Conduct meetings on how effective plans and controls should be done to properly eliminate solid wastes, Determine the applicable and appropriate foods so that this will attract the tourist/guests, Conduct more appropriate outdoor activities that can cater team buildings, retreats, etc. while farming is still part of the program, Through lack of farm guides, locals or accredited tour guides can apply to the farm resort as long as they will go under the trainings and seminars about tour guiding, Conduct marketing plan with limitless preference, Improve and enhance the available land and resources within each farm resorts, Conduct meeting or seminars with the employees pertaining to employee-customer relationship to maintain hospitality among employees, Improve group tour services in which employees will increase their income and locals will find job opportunities, Conduct meetings and seminars focusing on proper use of resources and spaces to control environmental protection and business entities, Invest with the needs of the business and proper control of the expenditures, Analyzing and proper cross-cutting of expenditures to allocate equal of budgets to run and sustain farm businesses, Come up with something interesting and attractive recreational activities that cater the interest of millennial, and Convention must be conducted about oneness of coordinating and managing activities of farm tourism.

The researchers were able to conduct an initial proposed plan of action that can establish an organization of unified farm owners of Pampanga which aim to promote camaraderie among farm owners and managers. Also the researchers have come up with the proposed plan of action, given that there is a potential of farm tourism in Pampanga, they have come up in proposing an organization in order to suffice what is lacking in pushing through the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga.

6.) Plan of Action

Research shows that unison of interest and ideas is needed of Farm Tourism owners. REAP as an initial proposed plan of action therefore would respond to the call on who has to take the responsibility of addressing the concerns; who would take the stand to guide the farm entrepreneurs on how to appropriately manage the business, in order to see what benefits it is in the group, and who would help them.

Conclusion

This study was able to establish the following conclusions;

The researchers were capable to assess the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga, because of the high ratings the respondents provided. Majority of the respondents rated their overall experiences as very good in the farm resorts they have visited.

1.) As per survey result, the researchers were able to present  that the farm tourism  industry, specifically in farm resort has the capability to cater the needs of their guests no matter what bracket of age they are in, whether it may be young or old, which shows that there is a huge number of prospective market for the industry.

2.) Also, the researchers discovered that the industry is not limited in catering tourists when it comes to gender, and the willingness of the people to engage themselves in farm tourism is no based on gender, it is therefore not gender biased, which again proves that there is a large number of potential tourists.

3.) Moreover, the researchers discovered that the location of respective farm resorts were placed in a safe location, peaceful and is accessible according to the tourists wherein the overall rating was excellent. Hence, all farm resorts passed the first criteria of the Department of Tourism in building farm resort and is a positive output that tourists can access the farms easily and a bigger opportunity for the farms.

4.) Another aspect that needed to be emphasized is the facilities and amenities, each farm were again able to provide the necessary needs of a farm resort, the overall rating was very good, however the souvenir section has gathered few ratings of poor and fair as well as the farm guides available in each farm. Although they were able to supply the facilities and amenities, there is still a need to enhance and fill what is insufficient especially the farm guides and the souvenir shop to be able to attract more tourists.  

5.) Also, the researchers has showed that each and every farm obediently followed the criteria when it comes to sanitation as it has been rated very good by the tourists, however, there is still a need for improvement to the achieve the rating of excellence.

6.) According to the survey conducted among tourists, it evidently shows that there is potential farm tourism in Pampanga in the aspect of farm resorts. Being able to have numbers of farm resorts in Pampanga and passed and be rated excellent and very good and that it's market is not based on age and gender, are another support for proving the potential of farm tourism in Pampanga. However there is still a room for improvement and in boosting the industry,  wherein this study can be used as a support and reference in doing future studies in other aspects of farm tourism like the day farm.

Recommendation

Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the following are hereby recommended:

1. For the Government and Tourism Offices

Pampanga has already existing resources for farm tourism yet this can still be improved, be sustained and be more developed for the growth of tourism of the province. It is about time for tourism governments and offices in Pampanga to give also focus to the potentials of farm tourism in the Province.  

The government should promote the potentials of farm tourism in Pampanga which it may lead to one of the main tourism activity that can be offered by the province. The tourism administration must support the groups of farm entrepreneurs that can conduct and share best practices on farm tourism from the local and maybe up to international field. The government should also maximize the land area of the Pampanga to cater more possible or potential farm tourism to strongly promote next Pampanga's sunshine industry.

2. For the Department of Tourism

This research had shown that farm tourism has a potential in Pampanga. To introduce farm tourism not only in the said province but also in the Philippines, it is therefore recommended that the Department of Tourism should pay also attention to this matter. Support from the department should be given as well to the farm owners by means of giving those seminars on how to start a farm resort and how to sustain it. DOT should put more effort on getting the interest of the farm entrepreneurs in the province to acquire for accreditation to strong hold its potential and be well-known in the country.

3. For the Farm Resort Owners

3.1 To further improve the designated reception/information centre.  For outstanding guest service, the farm tourism must focus on quality service and visitors needs. The farm resorts should provide sufficient designated information centre where guest can inquire about farm tour offerings, services, or amenities.

3.2 To properly maximize the areas for designated parking area or drop-off/loading area. The farm resorts in Pampanga are accessible still guests are possibly coming in a group that means they bring their own vehicles. To accommodate them well farm resorts should give space for parking areas anyway there are still available spaces. Wider parking space can provide guests at ease in enjoying the farm resorts.

3.3 To further provide farm guides for every farm resorts. For better appreciation and understanding of the offers/services of farm tourism, the owners must invest on producing a farm guide. To less the expense on investing  farm guides, locals of the 'barangays' best suits the job because they already know the premises, still should has to provide programs to enhance livelihood skills; seminars, training, 'How to' sessions and demonstration; provide workshops and lectures on specific barangay and farm tourism  promotion plans and programs.

3.4 To further provide souvenir shop/s inside the farm resorts. These days customers/travellers are very sentimental when it comes to their experience, they look for something to remember thus it results them for buying souvenirs from the place. To provide their needs, farm owners should invest or establish souvenir shops within the premises or at least provide something to offer from the resort. It may look additional to the expenditure but with the proper management of costing and selling the products it will help to increase the income of the business and the interest of guests to the farm resorts.

3.5 To further cater dining areas for the guest within the premises. Farm resorts should have to cater dining areas which will supply the needs and wants of the customers. The farm resorts should best in determining the applicable and trending foods so that it attracts the tourist/guests.

3.6 To further improve amenities and facilities of the farm resorts. Farm owners and managers should plan building new facilities like more rooms for accommodating guests. They should also plan on restoring or renovating their existing amenities and facilities and make sure that it meets the needs and desires of the guests. They should make sure that all can be used long term to enhance the quality of their farm resorts.

3.7 To create other interesting activities in the farm resorts. For the guests to enjoy more their stay at farm resorts, farm owners and managers should add more activities like for example fruit/vegetable picking and planting which when they want to bring home their picked fruits/vegetables they have to pay for it. Animal petting and feeding. They could also add zip lines that take guests across a pond and also rope courses that could bring excitement to the guests.

4. The implementation of proposed plan of action. Through external factors and internal analysis the researchers come up with the SWOT of the study. With the used of EFE matrix, the researches formulated objectives and strategies to carry out potential of Farm Tourism in the province. To sustain and perform equally well in the business a proper implementation of the plan of action is needed.

5. Another study should be conducted. To find out whether the proposed plan was implemented which will be the basis for evaluation and sustainability of farm tourism. Should also give focus on the other type of the farm resort which is the Day Farm.

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