a) Discuss five (5) capabilities of information system (IS) in the business. (10 marks)
' Perform high-speed, high-volume numerical computations.
This meaning is less time use, combine all source data
For example : Microsoft Excel
' Provide fast, accurate communication and collaboration within and among organizations.
This meaning is we can deliver information, right correct details with client.
For Example : Outlook
' Store huge amounts of information in an easy-to-access, yet small space.
This meaning is keep all data from any resources or compilation data.
For Example : CEKAPSERVER
' Allow quick and inexpensive access to vast amounts of information, worldwide.
This meaning is very easy to get data anytime and anywhere.
For example : Google chrome.
' Interpret vast amounts of data quickly and efficiently.
This meaning is summarize all data on time and when needed.
For example : SQL system.
b) Identify four (4) disadvantages of information system in societal effects. (10 marks)
Unemployment and lack of job security ' implementing the information systems can save a great deal of time during the completion of tasks and some labor mechanic works. Most paperwork's can be processed immediately, financial transactions are automatically calculated. As technology improves, tasks that were formerly performed by human employees are now carried out by computer systems.
For example, automated telephone answering systems have replaced live receptionists in many organizations or online and personal assistants can be good example also. Industry experts believe that the internet has made job security a big issue as since technology keeps on changing with each day. This means that one has to be in a constant learning mode, if he or she wishes for their job to be secure.
Dominant culture ' while information technology may have made the world a global village, it has also contributed to one culture dominating another weaker one.
For example it is now argued that US influences how most young teenagers all over the world now act, dress and behave. Languages too have become overshadowed, with English becoming the primary mode of communication for business and everything else.
Security issues ' thieves and hackers get access to identities and corporate saboteurs target sensitive company data. Such data can include vendor information, bank records, intellectual property and personal data on company management. The hackers distribute the information over the Internet, sell it to rival companies or use it to damage the company's image.
For example, several retail chains were targeted recently by hackers who stole customer information from their information systems and distributed Social Security numbers and credit card data over the Internet.
Implementation expenses ' to integrate the information system it require pretty good amount of cost in a case of software, hardware and people. Software, hardware and some other services should be rented, bought and supported. Employees need to be trained with unfamiliar information technology and software.Information systems contribute to the efficient running of organizations. Information systems are showing the exponential growth in each decades. Today's information technology has tremendously improved quality of life. Modern medicine has benefited the most with better information system using the latest information technology. By understanding and learning what advantages and disadvantages it can bring, we have to try, believe and put an effort with our best to make that existing advantage much better and navigate the disadvantages to have a less impact on organizations and society.
a) Discuss how Information Systems plays the roles in Competitive Model.
Organizations can use information systems to fundamentally shift the cost of doing business (Booth, Roberts & Sikes 2011) or reduce the costs of business processes or/and to lower the costs of customers or suppliers, i.e., using online business to consumer & business to business models, e-procurement systems to reduce operating costs.
Organizations can use information systems to develop differentiated features or/and to reduce competitors' differentiation advantages, i.e., using online live chatting systems and social networks to better understand and serve customers; using technology to create informediaries to offer value-added service and improve customers' stickiness to your web site/business(Booth, Roberts, and Sikes 2011); applying advanced and established measures for online operations to offline practices (i.e., more accurate and systematic ways of measuring efficiency and effectiveness of advertising) (Manyika 2009)
Organizations can use information systems to identify and create (or assist in creating) new products and services or/and to develop new/niche markets or/and to radically change business processes via automation (i.e., using digital modelling and simulation of product design to reduce the time and cost to the market (Chui & Fleming 2011). They also can work on new initiatives of establishing pure online businesses/operations. At the same time, the Internet and telecommunications networks provide better capabilities and opportunities for innovation. 'Combinational innovation' and Open innovation are two good examples. There are a large number of component parts on the networks that are very expensive or extremely different before the establishment of the networks, and organizations could combine or recombine components/parts on the networks to create new innovations (Manyika 2009). Meanwhile everyone is connected via personal computers, laptops and other mobile devices through cabled Internet or wireless networks or mobile networks, there are plenty of opportunities to co-create with customers, external partners and internal people
b) Explain one strategy each to new entrants and supplier in managing high competitive.
Cost Leadership. Produce products and/or services at the lowest cost in the industry. Your goal is to increase profits by reducing costs while charging industry-standard prices, or to increase market share by reducing the sales price while retaining profit
For example : WAL MART
Differentiation. Offer different products, services or product features. To implement this strategy, make the company's products significantly different from the competition, improving their competitiveness and value to the public. It requires both good research and development and effective sales and marketing teams.
For example : DELL
Innovation. Introduce new products and services, add new features to existing products and services or develop new ways to produce them
For example : CITI
Customer-orientation. Concentrate on making customers happy. Give promotion to
For example : Amazon.com
a). Discuss two (2) issues related to data privacy and security. (10 marks)
' Electronic Surveillance
Using technology to monitor individuals as they go about their daily routines.
Is conducted by employers, governments, and other institutions.
Surveillance cameras in airports, subways, banks, and other public venues.
' Inexpensive digital sensors are found in laptop webcams, video game sensors, smartphone cameras, utility meters, passports, and ID cards.
' Smartphones create geotags
' Google and Microsoft street view images
' Satellite imaging
' Personal Information in Databases
Personal Data / Record Keepers Such as Credit Reporting Agencies,Banks and Financial Institutions,Utility Companies,Employers,Hospitals,Schools,Government Agencies (IRS, State, City)
Major Concerns about Information You Provide Record Keepers
' Do you know where the records are?
' Are the records accurate?
' Can you change inaccurate data?
' How long will it take to make a change?
' Under what circumstances will personal data be released?
b). Explain four (4) ways to minimize the leaking of data privacy (10 marks)
1. Protect Information
Sensitive information must be protected wherever it is stored sent or used. Do not reveal personal information inadvertently.
For example username id and password Maybank2u keep from other person know
2. Reduce transfer of data
The organization should ban shifting data from one device to another external device. Losing removable media will put the data on the disk under risk.
For example Backup Outlook every week.
3. Restrict download
Any media that may serve as an allegiance to the hackers should be restricted to download. This could reduce the risk of transferring the downloadable media to an external source.
For example Close any media on office hour.
4. Shred files
The organization should shred all the files and folder before disposing a storage equipment. There are application which can retrieve information after formatting.
For example Each company used shred machine to disposing all P&C documents.
5. Ban unencrypted device
The institution should have a ban on the device that are unencrypted. Laptops and other portable devices that are unencrypted are prone to attack.
a. Explain the FOUR (4) ways of information security control in managing threat. (10 marks)
' Physical controls.
Physical protection of computer facilities and resources.
Prevent unauthorized individuals from gaining access to a company's facilities.
For example are Walls Doors Fencing Gates Locks Badges Guards Alarm systems
' Access controls.
Restriction of unauthorized user access to computer resources; use biometrics and passwords controls for user identification.
For Example are
Authentication- to confirm the identity of the person requiring access
Authorization- to determine which actions, rights or privileges the person has, based on verified identity.
For example is Thumbprint
' Information System Auditing
An examination of an information systems, their inputs, outputs and processing.
-Internal Audit : is frequently perform by internal corporate auditors
-External Audit: reviews the finding of internal audit as well as the input, process and output of information systems
' Communication Controls:
To protect the movement of data across networks and include border security controls, authentication and authorization.
o Firewalls: System that enforces access-control policy between two networks.
o Anti-malware Systems (also called antivirus software) are software packages that attempt to identify and eliminate viruses, worms, and other malicious software.
o The logos show three well-known anti-malware companies.
o Clicking on the link will take you to each company's homepage, respectively.
o Whitelisting identifies is a process in which a company the software that it will allow to run and does not try to recognize malware.
o Blacklisting is a process in which a company allows all software to run unless it is on the blacklist
b. Discuss 'Higher level employees + greater access privileges = greater threat (10 marks)
Carelessness with Laptops
This meaning is failure to give sufficient attention to avoiding harm or errors.
For example : No have password on laptop and other person can log on without permission.
Poor Password Selection and Use
This meaning is failure to action or fact of carefully choosing something as being the best or most suitable.
For example Choose a password that other people very easy to access and not updated the password monthly.
Careless Monitoring of Environmental Hazards
This meaning is failure to observe and check to keep from a risk.
For example Change CIMB CLICK password while at the public area.et Shopping mall.
Careless Internet Surfing
Carelessness Using Unmanaged Devices
Carelessness with Discarded Equipment
a. Discuss the importance of knowledge management system. (10 marks)
' A good Knowledge Management system serves as a collective memory.When a process is completed or a document created, it can be saved in a database so no one has to do it over again. Eliminating repeated efforts saves money.
' Sharing information helps highlight best practices that should be repeated and pinpoint mistakes or inefficiencies that should not be. This translates to avoiding potentially costly mistakes.
' With Knowledge Management, the knowledge that one employee has pertaining to processes and practices is not lost if they retire or move on from the company.
' This also applies to "tacit" knowledge, the kind that comes from experience with a client or supplier, like Mr. Brown is our best consultant on "X", but it is better not to ask him during tax season because he is a part-time accountant.
' KM helps connect employees to each other. By sharing and communicating information through a KM system, staff members learn who is an expert on what and how they can collaborate on projects. It also helps with topics that are obscure or extremely complex because knowledge collected in the past will be available to current employees.
' Often times, sharing ideas spurs innovation. Employees work together and use company knowledge to improve existing products or services, as well as creating new ones.
Knowledge management is of utmost importance because it connects the ideas and experiences within a company. Everything the company knows is shared and preserved so that costs are reduced and workflow is optimized. KM is a process that should be encouraged consistently. It is not solely about technology, but a software program is a good place to start.
b. Explain how data redundancy, data isolation and data inconsistency cause threats in managing database. (10 marks)
' Data Redundancy: The same data are stored in multiple location.
This meaning is all data key in two time.
For example : When create new tax invoice and forget to change months of service in system. So, in system have two invoice same months of service.
' Data Isolation: Application cannot access data associated with other applications. Open office and Microsoft.
This meaning is save record in personal pc.
For example Every weekly Abu check the aging summary in SQL System and must be updated in Excel summary. So this situation where Abu save all aging in his PC only. When Ali his colleague want to update payment. He check with SQL,but in this case SQL not final amount.
' Data Inconsistency. This meaning is Various copies of the data do not agree.
For example is Different address, phone no stored, no updated account bank number.
Situation : When supplier A given tax invoice to Vendor for make payment and the payment not received. When recheck again, the supplier change bank account detail on tax invoice without inform client. So the payment pending.
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