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The problem of unemployment is one of the most important problems faced by people in many social and economic aspects. Unemployment is a phenomenon that exists in all human societies in the past and present, and hardly a society of human societies over the ages is free of this phenomenon or problem in one form or another. we need to analyze the results and analyze their effects according to the perspective of the scientific method to determine the size and determine the causes and effects in society, which is considered a serious disease affects the national economy, because it is a waste of national resources, if unemployment is a global problem suffered by developed countries and countries Palestine, specifically in the Gaza Strip and the West bank, suffers from this problem, but in a different way from the rest of the world because of the Israeli occupation since 1948 and its occupation of the rest of the land of Palestine in 1967 and the subsequent occupation of the natural resources of Palestine, Exports and imports - especially after the arrival of the Palestinian National Authority - since they did not exceed 5% of the total labor force in Palestine, but after the coming of the Palestinian Authority in 1994 and Israel's policy of repeated closure, many Palestinian workers lost their jobs. In the context of the Israeli occupation, since the beginning of the 1994, the occupation has resorted to 3% opening the labor markets within the Green Line, to the extent that the unemployment rate at the end of the eighties approached a very low rate, which led many young people to leave This was accompanied by the opening of the labor market in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Gulf States for graduates of universities and higher institutes. This period represented a period of recovery and prosperity for the Palestinian labor market, which lasted almost before the signing of the Oslo Agreement between the Palestine Liberation organization and the Zionist entity in 1994. Following the signing of the Oslo Accords and the Paris economic Protocol in 1994, the Palestinian authority assumed responsibility for the population in the west Bank and Gaza Strip, The Israeli government has introduced a series of complicated procedures for work in Israel, accompanied by long-term closures, as well as the policy of replacing foreign workers rather than Palestinian workers. unemployment rates are constantly increasing (especially after the return of a portion of the Palestinian labor force) in the Arab Gulf of the homeland), and thus constitute a serious concern to the Palestinian people in all its components, which led many civil society institutions and other Palestinian national institutions to carry out their national duty by contributing in one way or another to reduce the serious effects of the phenomenon Unemployment and providing various solutions that contribute directly or indirectly to control them but to no avail so far. The Palestinian economy suffers from a quantitative and qualitative deterioration of the unemployment problem. it is one of the most serious problems in the economic and social situation. the Israeli occupation has played a major role in the spread of this phenomenon for many years through direct and indirect decisions taken by the closure of crossings, which absorb large numbers of labor and prevent the entry of raw materials for manufacturing, which hampered the productive process and this contributed to the increase of unemployment rates, in addition to the losses and damage caused to the agricultural sector by Israeli practices In addition to the Israeli occupation, there are reasons related to the limited economic resources available and the performance of the Palestinian Authority and its response to an economic system based on the private sector and neo-liberal policies.

Definition of unemployment

Unemployment is defined as a term used to refer to individuals who are unemployed.  Unemployment is also defined as a situation in which a person who is unable to find employment is identified as his permanent attempt to seek employment. Another definition of unemployment is that there are individuals in the community who are able to work and have traveled many ways to find a job but have not had a suitable opportunity. unemployment is an issue that affects society negatively because it is spread among young people who are able to work, so it is never used with older people, children, individuals with mental or mental illnesses, or special physical needs that prevent them from doing any kind of the types of work, which constitute obstacles to them; they are classified outside the labor force of the state.  

Unemployment in economic theory

The problem of unemployment is a social phenomenon of a global character suffered by both developed and developing countries.Their percentage and rate of growt varies from country to country due to differences in prevailing economic and social systems. Although economists differed in the definition and explanation of unemployment, economic and social realities and the main feature of economic cycles.

The theory of the subsistence limit: This theory defines the wages paid as a price for the services of the labor component at a minimum level of subsistence (subsistence level) so that the worker cannot have children only to the extent that it ensures the continuation of the supply of work in return for demand. In this case, the criticism of this theory is that the wage of subsistence is relatively different from one society to another depending on their customs and traditions.

The theory of wage balance: The rate of wages depends on the relationship between population and capital. The increase in population, with the stability of wage capital, increases labor supply and thus low wages. Capital increase.

Keynesian theory: Keynes's unemployment is linked to the low level of aggregate demand. The Keynesian concept of unemployment is the result of the difference in the analysis of Keynes's work-function function in classical and neo-classical analysis. Keynes assumes in his general theory that workers refuse to receive any reduction in their cash wages Raising the level of employment, while not objecting to the decline in real wages at the general level of prices with the survival rate of cash payment constant, Keynes concluded that the capitalist economy is the economy of recession and unemployment and market mechanisms cannot restore automatic balance, This policy is aimed at reducing taxes, increasing public spending and stimulating aggregate demand for both consumption and investment. With the outbreak of the

recession in the early 1970s, the Keynesian theory failed to explain the Phelps curve Based on an inverse relationship between inflation and unemployment .

Marxism theory: Karl Marx believes that the value of the commodity is determined by the amount of work required to produce it. It sees that each commodity has two values of use and reciprocity, which applies to work as a commodity. The natural wage is determined by the amount of labor needed to produce the means necessary for the continuity of the working class. That the existence of a number of unemployed prevents wage increases from the minimum enough to survive, the main engine of the structure of the labor market according to the theory of Marxism is the volume of investments, as the increase in demand for employment and unemployment is reduced, that unemployment is a decreasing function of the volume of investments.

Classical and neo-classical theory

Classical theory has several assumptions and their belief in the philosophy of freedom as a cornerstone of economic activity. Freedom of employment , freedom of contract, freedom to engage in any economic activity, as well as full competition in all markets.among the most prominent pioneers of the classic school are Adam Smith, David Ricardo, Robert Malthus, and the most important theories are the theory of value, distribution, population, economic development. Adam Smith considered the work to be a measure of value. The value of a commodity is equal to the amount of work that enables the owner of the commodity to buy or control things, so work is the true measure of the exchange values of all goods.  The wage theory at Smith is based on the fact that the interaction between demand and supply on the market determines wages. the higher the demand for labor and the supply remains constant, the higher the wage rate tends to increase and vice versa, and the wage increase is greater than the subsistence level Increases the population, either by increasing the proportion For marriage or a decline in the mortality rate, the wage rate in the developed society is determined by bargaining between the worker and the employer (capitalist(.

In the face of competition, it is possible to overcome the contradictions of extensive reproduction because of the trend of wages to increase with the productivity of the labor component. "If technological progress is neutral and has been so continuously, production has remained the same, In fact, the labor force can find productive employment opportunities, even if we assume that the population will tend to increase continuously, because the accumulation rate will continue at a certain pace, and the profit rate will remain constant over the long term. With the rise in enta Rosa Luxemburg sees that the crisis in the capitalist system is due to the lack of aggregate demand resulting from the decline in real wages and treatment. It sees not the export of surplus abroad, but by working to increase the share .

Types of unemployment in the Palestinian society

Unemployment in Palestinian society can be limited to the following types

1- Friction unemployment: this is caused by the continuous mobility of workers between regions and profession resulting from changes in the national economy. Qualified unemployed workers have the right to enroll Available jobs. They occur as a result of the lack of complete information for all seekers of opportunities work and business owners.

2- Structural unemployment: this unemployment is partial, meaning that it is limited to a productive or industrial sector and does not represent a general state of unemployment in the economy.

3- Exaggerated unemployment: it means the presence of  individuals who are able and willing to work, but they do not Find work, and this type is one of the most interesting species in the sector Gaza and the West Bank.

4- -Compulsory unemployment: it is not a choice for the human being, but imposed on it or plagued by it, it may be caused by learning a profession and then hardened its market to change the environment or the evolution of time. he may need a machine and the tools needed for his profession but he does not find money to buy what he wants, he may know the trade but lacks the capital of the trade.

5- Unemployment is optional: unemployment is estimated to work and there is no impediment to it and affects to live without work with the existence of jobs in the community, such as the claim of trust and dedication to worship and also beggars for Islam forbade that, as the companions talked to the Messenger of God  a man who was fasting fast and the male and i think the people that it is better than them, and the Messenger of God said you were enough food and drink, they said all of us said all the better than him.

6- Seasonal unemployment: it occurs because of seasonal changes in economic activity due to climatic conditions or cyclical changes. in other words, there is a range of work and production that is produced in certain seasons, such as olive and citrus harvest in the Gaza Strip and the West Bank. workers working in the production of agricultural crops and after the end of crops are not working.

7- Periodic unemployment: it occurs because of the nature of economic activity, which periodically (recession, stagnation) and creates a decline in demand for labor, a temporary disappearance by restoring economic activity For vitality and prosperity.

8- Partial unemployment: exists when the work or production of individuals is less than what they can actually perform or produce.

9- Unconscious unemployment: it occurs when an employee performs below the level of his qualifications or the performance of a group to do what can be done and mastered a smaller number of them. there are those who believe that the appointment of some people in jobs that do not benefit from productivity, and this type of unemployment is one of the most for example, the work done by five individuals is assigned to ten. This leads to the creation of fictitious opportunities that are not real, which can cause dependence and waste economic resources in society, because the basis of employment must be the right person the right place.

Reasons for unemployment in Palestine

1-The dependency of the Palestinian economy on the Israeli economy: The Palestinian economy has suffered from the absolute dependence of the Israeli economy, which was reflected on the overall economic activities in Palestine, and their effects were evident during the Al-Aqsa Intifada, especially the absorption of the Israeli labor market for a large number of Palestinian labor, of the closure of the Israeli labor market during the intifada .

2-Absence of proper development planning for the Palestinian economy: this contributed directly to the growing phenomenon of unemployment. The Palestinian economy suffers from a clear imbalance in development planning and its lack of economic institutions capable of playing this vital role in the economic process. And the lack of qualification, training and directing of labor to the economic sectors that suffer from scarcity of qualified and trained workers, and the apparent disproportion between the industrial establishments and GS-based industries, which can accommodate local employment.

3-The weakness of the Palestinian economic structure has made it unable to absorb the increase in the growth of the Palestinian labor force. Thus, the difference between the ability of the Palestinian economy to absorb employment and the increase in the growth of Palestinian labor continued to increase unemployment .

4-The direct effects of the closure of the crossings: the most difficult of which is the difficulty of access to raw materials, the marketing problems experienced by the industrial and commercial sectors under the siege and closure, and the difficulties related to the inability of many workers to reach their places of work

5-Absence of the legal authority (legal protection) for investments and administrative, political and financial corruption in the organs of the Palestinian Authority .

6-Arab factor: Arab employment policies for Palestinian labor, especially after the Second Gulf War in 1991, resulting in the deportation of large numbers of Palestinians from the Arab Gulf countries, which was an important market for Palestinian labor, which returned to the homeland and become a burden on the market Palestinian labor, in addition to the procedures and controls established by these countries regarding the absorption of these workers, which limited and hindered the ability to benefit from the Arab labor markets in absorbing part of the Palestinian labor force.

7-International factor: especially with respect to the policies of the world bank and the International Monetary Fund, and the extent to which they relate to the requirements of donor countries for the economic support of the Palestinian Authority. And that these requirements did not contribute to the increase in the creation of new jobs did not lead to a reduction in the rate of unemployment, and international assistance was not planned to work to address unemployment at the root of.

The effects of unemployment in Palestine

The effects of unemployment the fact that unemployment is an important problem in contemporary society, there are many negative effects on individuals and society in general and the most important.

1-The security impact of unemployment

Unemployment leads to the loss of many of the basic livelihood, which leads them to seek alternative means to provide for the needs of crime, especially the organization. The high unemployment rate usually causes growth in the world of crime, especially smuggling, forgery and drug trafficking, which affects the stability of the society and its security situation.

2-Political implications

Given the impact of unemployment on society and the economy, it necessarily affects politics to weaken the position of ruling parties versus others. Unemployment can also fuel riots and attempts to overthrow governments in some cases.

3-The economic impact of unemployment

The fact that economies generally depend on the total output of individuals, unemployment negatively affects the economic growth and GDP of the country, except that it leads to a reduction in wages because the supply is much larger than demand, which makes workers forced to accept lower wages for fear of not finding a better job.

4-The social impact of unemployment

Unemployment causes many families to lose their jobs, causing high rates of family disputes and divorce (according to a US statistical survey on divorce and unemployment rates between 1960 and 2005) and family and community breakdowns in general. This social disintegration, in turn, leads to a further trend towards the criminal world and increases the seriousness of the security impact of unemployment. In addition, it is known that unemployment is an important cause of external migration, especially the migration of scientific and technical skills.

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