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...CEO

From: HR Manager

Date:

Subject: Leadership and Management

    Dialog Axiata PLC | Annual Report 2017

Introduction to the Company

    Dialog Telekom PLC operates Sri Lanka's largest and fastest growing telecommunication network - Dialog GSM. Dialog Telekom is one of the largest companies listed under the Colombo Stock Exchange. It is a subsidiary of the Axiata Group Berhad. The telecom company operates 2G, 3G and 3.5G mobile services, supporting the current trends in mobile internet and multimedia services, as well as international roaming. Due to Dialog the Sri Lankan mobile industry has achieved new heights and has come at par with the developed world. Dialog Telekom accounts for more than 50% of Sri Lankan mobile phone subscribers. Along with the mobile telecommunication business Dialog Telekom operates a wide collection of international telecommunication services including retail and wholesale universal voice and data services.

Our Vision

To be the undisputed leader in the provision of multi-sensory connectivity resulting always, in the empowerment and enrichment of Sri Lankan lives and enterprises.

Our Mission

To lead in the provision of technology enabled connectivity touching multiple human senses and faculties, through committed adherence to customer-driven, responsive and flexible business processes, and through the delivery of quality service and leading edge technology unparalleled by any other, spurred by an empowered set of dedicated individuals who are driven by an irrepressible desire to work as one towards a common goal in the truest sense of team spirit.

Dialog Values

Service from the Heart

Create the Future

Champions of Change

Exceptional Performance

Uncompromising Integrity

Responsible Leadership

One Team

MANGEMENT STRUCTURE

0Regarding the structure of the company, Dialog Telekom Ltd. has got a Hybrid structure which is a combination of Matrix structure as well as Modular structure. As in each Strategic Business Unit (SBU) work independently and every function of each SBU has communication linkages with one another. Top down as well as bottom up communication is available and it uses worldwide resources and technologies.

The Company's business and operations are managed under the supervision of the Board of Directors comprising of 5 non-executive directors and one executive director. The Board has the power to appoint executive directors including the CEO. Divisional structure can be identified in company level but performances of the divisions are measured through different strategic committees. ( HYPERLINK "https://www.dialog.lk/corporate-information" https://www.dialog.lk/corporate-information)

Some Organizational Structure of dialog

1. Functional Structure

2. Multi-Divisional structure

3. Geographical Structure

Organizational structure of Dialog

Dialog Axiata has lots of structure but now these 3 Structure are what we going to see is

1. Multi-Divisional Structure: -Organized in a Broad Division those are further divided and named as SBU (Strategic Business Unit) that means for broadband they will be a section or division and for IDD their will be a separate division the main thing is because of multi divisional structure If there is anything wrong it can be diagnose easily and can also increase coordination due to Divisional Goals.

2. Functional Structure: -In Interior Dialog Axiata is been classified as per function because of grouped as function employers or staffs will get specialized to the job these departments are referred to as Silos (Vertically Disconnected) that means Disconnected Department, when it is function to different types as Marketing Department and so only the department head can only communicate with the other functions department head so only the head department can only communicate. so dialog Axiata Staffs will know about their career path that means career path clarity and the duplication of work won���t be done because all the staffs will be specialized because they are doing the same work constantly.  

3. Geographical Structure: -whereas dialog has divided their system or services according to a region or city or country, their broadband is been divided into Country wise.

The difference between Manager and Leader

Leadership��is a quality of influencing people, so that the objectives are attained willingly and enthusiastically. It is not exactly same as management, as leadership is one of the major element of management.��Management��is a discipline of managing things in the best possible manner. It is the art or skill of getting the work done through and with others.��It can be found in all the fields, like education, hospitality, sports, offices etc. One of the major difference between leadership and management, is management is for formal and organized group of people only, whereas leadership is for both formal and informal groups.��The main��difference between leaders and managers��is that��leaders��have people follow them while��managers��have people who work for them. A successful business owner needs to be both a strong leader and manager��to get their team on board to follow them towards their vision of success.

Managers: manager is the one who plan, organize, control and coordinate the activity of others with having an authority over others.

Leaders: leader is the one who influence for achieving a shared goal together, leader mostly will not have an authority leader is one among the group

ROLES

Leaders

Ability to develop a vision

Motivating others

Passion

Common goal

To guide

Managers

Ability to organize resources

Coordinate

Tasks

Reach a goal

Timely

Cost effective manner

Comparison Chart

BASIS FOR COMPARISON

LEADER

MANAGER

Meaning

A leader is a person who influences his subordinates to achieve a specified goal.

A manager is a person who manages the organization and is responsible for planning, direction, coordination and control

Approach

Sets Direction

Plans details

Attribute

Foresightedness

Mind

Subordinate

Followers

Employees

Style

Transformational

Transactional

Decision

Facilitates decision

Makes decision

Aim

Growth and development.

Attainment of the required result.

Focus

People

Process and Procedure

Risk

Leader minimizes risks.

Manager takes risks.

Change

Leaders promotes change.

Mangers react to change.

Conflict

Uses conflict as an asset

Avoid conflict

People

Aligns people

Organizes people

Strives

For effectiveness

For efficiency

Management theories are implemented to help increase organizational productivity and service quality. Not many managers use a singular theory or concept when implementing strategies in the workplace: They commonly use a combination of a number of theories, depending on the workplace, purpose and workforce. Contingency theory, chaos theory and systems theory are popular management theories. Theory X and Y, which addresses management strategies for workforce motivation, is also implemented to help increase worker productivity.

 HYPERLINK "http://iedunote.com/how-leadership-works-in-an-organization" Leadership��styles refer to a leader���s behavior towards group members. Behavior pattern is that the leader reflects his role as a leader is described as style

Leadership Roles

Inspire Trust:����Be the credible leader others choose to follow���one with both character and competence.��

Create Vision:����Clearly define where your team is going and how they are going to get there.�� ����

Execute Strategy:��Consistently achieve results with and through others using disciplined

processes.�� ����

Coach Potential:����Unleash the ability of each person on your team to improve performance, solve problems, and grow their careers.�� ����

Leadership Theories

Contingency approaches: approaches that seek to delineate the characteristics of situations and followers and examine the leadership styles that can be used effectively. In the case of dialog Axiata mainly higher level managers or leaders behaviour will vary when they dealing with some employees eg: manager or a leader will treat their team or close people differently also they will treat other people in a different manner also they will speak in different way to a superordinate which can include people like CEO, Senior Managers, Board of Directors and they will speak in a different way to subordinates which can include people like janitors, sales person etc.

Fiedler���s contingency model: a model designed to diagnose whether a leader is task-oriented or relationship-oriented and match leader style to the situation

Trait Theory- The��trait theory��of��leadership��is an early assumption that��leaders��are born and due to this belief, those that possess the correct qualities and��traits��are better suited to��leadership. This��theory��often identifies behavioral characteristics that are common in leaders. Here it focusses on the leaders��� individual characteristics which make them distinct and unique from others. A good should have some qualities like creativity, tolerance, initiative, a strong desire, and ability to influence. These things make followers believe in leader, when it comes to dialog Axiata they will obviously look into these qualities when they especially choose leaders for some projects and for some team works. CITATION iEd07 \l 1033  (iEduNote team, 2007)

X and Y theory: Douglas McGregor (1966) classified attitudes or belief systems, which he called assumptions, as Theory X and Theory Y. Those with Theory X attitudes believe that employees dislike work and must be closely supervised in order to carry out tasks. Theory Y attitudes believe that employees like to work and do not need to be closely supervised in order to carry out tasks. In the case of Dialog Axiata they will definitely like to have people in the y category as their employees because it can help the company in multiple ways. They can include y category people by recruiting at the expected quality or company can do some training or can influence about this matter for their existing employees so they can be in y category in future. (McGregor,1966).

managerial grid:��This model originally identified five different��leadership��styles based on the concern for people and the concern for production. The optimal��leadership��style in this model is based on Theory Y.

Behavioral Leadership: These theories��are developed��scientifically by��behavior-focused studies of a�� HYPERLINK "http://iedunote.com/leaders-are-born-managers-are-made" leader���s behavior in a conditioned situation that one can have a specific response to specific motivations. This behavior-focused approach provides real marketing potential.

    Behavioral Leadership Theories are developed by scientifically studying the behaviors of leaders and effects of them on the workforce and environment. CITATION iEd07 \l 1033  (iEduNote team, 2007)

Leadership Styles

Autocratic Leadership-Autocratic leadership, also known as authoritarian leadership, is a��leadership��style categorized by individual control over all decisions and little input from group members. Autocratic leaders��typically make choices based on their ideas and judgments and rarely accept advice from followers. This kind of leadership style will be useful for dialog Axiata when their bunch of inexperienced people to handle with.

Democratic or Participative Leadership- This is a type of��leadership��style in which members of the group take a more participative��role in the decision-making process. This type of��leadership��can apply to any organization. This style of leadership will be effective for dialog Axiata when there are people with high creativity and talent.

Free-Rein or Laisse-Faire Leadership- This is a style in which��leaders��are hands-off and allow group members to make the decisions. Mangers set objectives and employees are��free��to do whatever is appropriate to accomplish those objectives. This kind of leadership will be good for dialog Axiata when there are experienced people who know what to. do and how to do exactly. CITATION iEd07 \l 1033  (iEduNote team, 2007)

Mostly X and Y people are employed in dialog and they have been practiced with democratic   leadership style. A suggestion box scheme and companywide surveys are held periodically to get the opinions of the employees.

Management roles can be divided in to 3 categories as follows

Roles

Category

Roles

Interpersonal

Figurehead
Leader
Liaison

Informational

Monitor
Disseminator
Spokesperson

Decisional

Entrepreneur
Disturbance Handler
Resource Allocator
Negotiator

Management Theories

Managers with Theory Y attitudes tend to have a positive, optimistic view of employees, and display a more participative leadership style, based on internal motivation and rewards (Tietjen and Myers, 1998). In 1966, when McGregor published his Theory X and Theory Y, most managers had Theory X attitudes (Tietjen & Myers, 1998). More recently, the focus changed from management to leadership, leading to a change from a Theory X attitude to a Theory Y attitude, as more managers started to use a more participative leadership style (Tietjen & Myers, 1998).

Blake and Mouton- what this means is how the concern for people is and how the concern for production is and this include 5 different types of leadership styles. Usually managers are more concerned about the task and on the other hand leaders are more concern about the people. In the case of dialog Axiata, it should look in to both people and task because if they focus one thing more than the other it might create huge blunder. Dialog Axiata is however equally maintaining it which is a very hard thing to do nowadays. CITATION iEd07 \l 1033  (iEduNote team, 2007)

Abraham Maslow���s Hierarchy of Needs-what Abraham Maslow mean here is a satisfied need of an employee in not a motivator what they want is basic need to be fulfilled if that happens only they can be motivated and they can move ahead. If Dialog Axiata wants to motivate their employees, they can do so many things but end of the day they want be able to know how many are motivated for that dialog should customize its motivating activities by knowing what employees actually need and should be able to fulfil those needs. If this doesn���t happen mostly employees want be really motivated this can sometimes result to increase in employee turnover.

     

As we discuss about the Dialog plc they practice the above theories:

Democratic Leadership Styles

Psychologically close leadership

Ideal Management Style  

Tasks get done

People are happy

Conclusion on how Leaders and Managers Impact on Dialog (pvt) ltd

Research and resultant theory on how organizations evolve and adapt to a changing environment suggests that the mix of skills required for effective leadership may change over time. The skills required by an entrepreneurial manager to build a new organization are not identical to the skills required by the chief executive of a large, established organization.

Bringing to execution a leadership succession plan crafted and implemented over several years, it gave the Board of Dialog Axiata PLC great pride to announce the appointment of Director/Group Chief Executive Officer with effect from 01 January 2017.

���Sri Lanka���s mobile industry at large has made towards the advancement of Mobile Telecommunications in the Asian region.��� Dialog has enriched with senior leadership experience from across the Asian region. transformed from humble beginnings as the fourth entrant to Sri Lankan mobile sector in 1995 to becoming Sri Lanka���s largest converged telecommunications services provider. CITATION dia16 \p 6 \l 1033  (dialog annual report, 2016, p. 6)

As we discussed as dialog is multinational telecommunication company they can improve their management, leadership and technology so they will be the leaders in Sri Lankan market.

Future recommendations for dialog (pvt) ltd

To gain competitive advantage company has to use some tactics. To implement these tactics or strategies, the company should pose unique resources; which can be tangible or intangible (Porter & Millar, How Information Gives You Competitive Advantage, 1985). Competitive advantage can be gained through using these resources efficiently and effectively (Faulkner & Bowman, 1995).

    

Since the current product lines of dialog have real growth potential they can expand their activities just to increase their profits. Not only that, but also they can follow a vertical growth strategy and take the benefits of the value chain convergence.

Dialog Axiata can continue its current value added services without any changes since they add profits to the company.Dialog Axiata should stabilize the company which they couldn���t able to do because of major acquisitions and innovations they have done in past years. Therefore, this is the time to get back the internal employee moral by stabilizing the company as it was before.  

According to the current situation of Dialog Axiata the recommendation is first stabilizing the company. Because of heavy work, and the significant changes it had past few years the work force of the Dialog Axiata now in a tough condition. Therefor it is highly recommended that dialog must first give them their breathing space since employees are the boundary line between the organization and customers. If the employees are confused and not satisfied it highly effect on customer satisfaction. After sometime they can move on to growth strategy and can reach to its potential.  

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