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This study will increase the awareness of women development within the Metropolitan Police Department (MPD). It will highlight the participation of women through the development initiatives.  This study will be beneficial to future learners and researchers in as far as women development and empowerment are concerned.

Based on this, the MPD would be able to draft effective policies and empowerment programmes that will benefit the women and the department. Nelson (1998) indicated that women struggle with competition since men have defined it. Thus, as women enter the workforce, they have to learn to play 'men's rules' which govern most business operations. Understandably, women have felt ill-prepared and uncomfortable because they neither know the rules nor the language

2.2 Literature review

The City Manager of Ekurhuleni Dr Imogen Mashazi has pledged to empower female members of the Ekurhuleni Metro Police Department and Disaster Emergency Management Services to further their studies so that they can occupy senior positions in the department (Cox, 2017).

Salt Lake City Police Lieutenant Robin Heiden says: 'You have women who are small part of law enforcement who are coming together to support each other.' It was that desire to provide support that inspired a handful of officers, sergeants and lieutenants to get together in 2009 and create Utah Women in Law Enforcement. Salt Lake County Sheriff Rosie Rivera says: 'What we do is try to enhance their careers so they will become good leaders and what we actually need in law enforcement ' good, qualified, confident leaders to make those tough decisions.' Sheriff Rivera is one of the founding members of this organisation. Utah Women in Law Enforcement offers participation in firearm training sessions, promotional training conferences and leadership training. Rivera says: 'They teach you from the very beginning. What are the things you need to be doing to gain these qualities - instead of just trying to tell that you have these qualities? Substance behind becoming a police leader' (Good4utah.com, 2017).

Sergeant Melody Gray with the Unified Police says women make up just a small portion of law enforcement - in fact the latest numbers indicate about 13 percent. She says early in her career the approach to promotion - at times - was not very friendly. 'When I started in law enforcement it almost seemed to be this competition. Maybe only one of us gets to succeed. Fighting with each other almost' (Good4utah.com, 2017).

She believes Utah Women in Law Enforcement and similar groups across the nation have changed that attitude. 'This is different it is so different it's about coming together and supporting one another and helping one another to be successful' (Good4utah.com, 2017).

Brand South Africa (South African Government News Agency, 2017) stated that their needs to be an increase investment in women development and empowerment which is crucial for the economy of South Africa as well as encouraging much needed investment.  They further stated that the development of women is extremely important in South Africa to remain a competitor in the world economy.

Metropolitan Police Department need to run various diversity or gender workshops to address the perception that sadly still exist nowhere only men still performs certain functions.  There should be a definite push from Chief of Metropolitan Police to Senior Management to ensure that all female staff gains the necessary exposure which is necessary for the overall development.  Exposure could include interventions such as affording acting as well as job shadowing opportunities to female staff only as well as allocating mentor to females in lower managerial positions.  A certain portion of Training and Development budget must be set aside for female staff only in as far as the allocations of bursaries as well as further training opportunities is concerned.

Metropolitan Police Department can ensure that women are well developed and empowered in women's work, both paid and unpaid, it is critical to the survival and security of poor households and an important route through which house-holds escape poverty. Moreover, paid employment is critical to women's empowerment.  In settings where women's mobility is restricted, increased employment opportunities can improve women's mobility and enable women to seek and access reproductive health care.  It can also expose them to new ideas and knowledge and broaden the community with which they engage (Global Urban Development Magazine, 2017).

Empowerment of women involves awareness raising, building self-confidence, expanding choices and increasing access to, and control over resources. The important instruments of empowerment include information and networking activities, often entailing a process through which women acquire knowledge, skills and a willingness to critically analyse their situation and take appropriate action to change the status quo in society. Empowerment involves practical measures to enhance women's participation in decision-making and in governance processes, and generally to uplift their status through literacy, education, training and raising awareness. Other actions include poverty reduction programmes, that themselves involve income-generating activities and enhancing access to job opportunities (Wandia Seaforth, 2008).

Promoting gender equality is smart economics, and the right thing to do, we cannot transform our world unless the place of women within it is transformed. Gender equality is an important right and a powerful driver for growth, development and stability (Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy, 2016). Metropolitan Police Department needs to advance gender equality and women's empowerment in many ways. At a minimum, women should benefit along with men from their work; they also help shift norms, legal frameworks and policies towards equality wherever opportunities arise. Change for gender equality requires a commitment from all of our leaders. Gender equality is about equal opportunities, rights and responsibilities for women and men, girls and boys. It does not mean that women and men are the same. Gender inequality is a result of unequal power distribution between women and men, worsened by ongoing discrimination, weaknesses in laws, policies and institutions, and social relations that normalise inequality (Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy, 2016).

Empowering women is one of the best ways to promote economic growth and to achieve peace and security (Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy, 2016).

Women's participation in decision-making, leadership and peace-building is important as a right in itself. Women also bring particular perspectives, priorities and strengths resulting from their life experiences, which are often different from men's. This means they are likely to make different decisions, with women leaders responding more strongly to women's policy priorities. Private sector businesses that have female leaders tend to deliver stronger financial performance. Women can and do play a key role in conflict prevention, peace negotiations and peace building, but too often are excluded from these efforts. In our work in situations of conflict and fragility, it is important that we ensure women participate, recognising women can be powerful agents for change. Building gender equality into reconstruction efforts can help to ensure more lasting peace (Gender equality and women's empowerment strategy, 2016).

This research will focus on the cause and what needs to be done to assist women at Metropolitan Police department and impact on future development programmes.

 Gender equality is a moral imperative whether you're in government, business, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) or research institutions. Gender bias is still deeply inserted in cultures, economies, political and social institutions around the world. Women face unacceptable levels of discrimination and abuse, which is not only wrong, but also, prevents them from playing a full part in society, organizations and decision-making. More organizations need to understand and address internal imbalances and proactively seek to do so in delivering their business. Not just victims, women have been and can be central actors in pathways to sustainability and green transformation (Commission on Gender Equality, 1998:13).  Inequality in empowerment, gender terms, has been, and is still most commonly viewed as arising from inherent differences between men and women in strength endurance, drive and ambition (Butler, 1999: 373).  The Constitution of Republic of South Africa, 1996 (Act 108 of 1996), specifically Equality section 9 (3 and 4), stipulates that no person should be unfairly discriminated against on various grounds, including gender.  

Women are key managers of natural resources and powerful agents of change. Women are not just victims; they have been and can be central actors in pathways to sustainability and green transformation. Women are more vulnerable to environmental degradation and climate change but also have different perspectives, concerns and ideas for change. Until these are taken on board, with women empowered to play a full part in decision-making at all levels, environmental sustainability will remain a distant goal.

Yet women's empowerment must not mean simply adding to their burdens of responsibilities or building expectations of women as 'sustainability saviours'. Diane Elson, an adviser to UN Women, argues in her contribution that 'the disproportionate responsibility that women bear for carrying out unpaid work is an important constraint on their capacity to realise their rights.  Both women and men need time to care for their families and communities, and time free from such care.' (Gender Equality and Sustainable development', 2014)

This leads us to the third reason for integrating women's empowerment into sustainable development, and it reaches deeper down to the underlying causes of both issues: in most societies and economies, women's unpaid work and nature's services are not accounted for and therefore not valued properly in our economic, political or social systems.

Julie Nelson argues that 'Women and nature are largely invisible in mainstream economics. One would search in vain in the core models of economics for any inkling of where the materials used in production came from, or where the waste goes... for a discussion of where people come from, or where they go when they are broken or used up. When considered at all, women and nature are treated as passive 'resources'.' (J Hawley, 2016)

Parallels between the treatment of women and nature are no coincidence, but have an ancient history in mythology and religion, with powerful concepts such as 'Mother Earth'. Nelson and others argue that this encourages unhelpful perceptions of women and nature as endlessly (re)productive and nurturing. (J Hawley, 2016)

She argues: 'They are assumed to possess an infinite capacity for self-maintenance and self-regeneration' (J Hawley, 2016). So, in a world where we measure wellbeing and progress by GDP and economic growth, the goods and services that women and nature provide remain unaccounted for.

Diane Elson, Vandana Shiva and other contributors argue that we need a transformation in our economic thinking and new definitions of progress. Across politics, business and the media, we need to create a system based on different values, with equality and sustainability at its core.  Gender Equality and Sustainable development', 2014

Time to talk: What has to change for women at work?

The collective voice of women, speaking up about their experiences in the workplace, has never been stronger. There is a new fearlessness and urgency to address the challenges women face, including, but not limited to, the possibility of discrimination and harassment, and the slow progress in bridging the gender gap (Gender Pay Gap Reporting).

According to Price Water House Coopers; their 2018 survey of 3,627 professional women from around the world tells this story of determination, hope and frustration. But it also gives a clear indication of three key essential elements that business leaders must focus on to advance gender equality and help women's career advancement as they lead their enterprises into the 21st century. (Price Water House Coopers; 2018).

Strategic support

Women need proactive networks of leaders and peers who will develop, promote and champion them at home and in the workplace. Women don't need men to back away. They need dedicated sponsors and role models of both genders. Lack of support from male colleagues will stall progress. This blend of workplace and personal support will also work to underpin the self-advocacy women need to advance (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Life, family care and work

Women need employers to rethink their approach to balancing work, life, parenthood and family care and provide organisational solutions that work. There is a move to redesign maternity and paternity leaves and re-entry programmes, but this should be expanded and best practices must be communicated broadly. Flexibility alone is not the issue: people don't take care furloughs precisely because they believe it will hurt their careers. Employers must recognise that everyone is making flexibility demands.

Achieving gender parity throughout the workplace is one of the most critical challenges that business leaders face today. The quality of women's talent and leadership is vitally important to business; the skills and experience they bring, including experience gained outside of the workplace, and has proven to be essential in strategic decision-making and in ethical, sustainable enterprise (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

According to the World Economic Forum's (WEF) 2017 Global Gender Gap report, which measures the participation gap, the remuneration gap and the advancement gap, women lag men by 58% overall and are further behind in developing countries. This is a systemic issue that cannot be attributed to individual circumstances; it is endemic to organisational structures, cultures and practices. WEF concluded that at the current rate of change, we won't see gender equality in the global workforce for at least another five generations. It's not surprising that women in our survey report low levels of trust in what their employers say about valuing and promoting women, when they see what companies actually do.

The work/life balance and its effect on career progression present women with a complex conundrum. Our survey respondents want to succeed and rise up the corporate ladder, but they want jobs they enjoy and better options for managing the demands of work and home life. Organisations need to break away from historical behaviours and embrace a holistic approach to diversity, which means addressing these three essential areas ' transparency and trust, strategic support and life and family care options ' simultaneously in order to produce the kind of healthy ecosystem that gives greater satisfaction and fulfilment for women and in turn will lead to greater success for their employers. We would argue that when the problems are defined in an open and transparent way, and the prerequisites for success as described here are identified and in place, women of all generations and their employers, working together, can come up with the right solutions to address issues of gender equality in the workplace and empower female advancement. So, as women progress in their careers, can organisations rise to the occasion? Global Gender Gap report, 2014.

Transparency and trust

A two-way street

According to Price Water House Coopers the employer provides consistent, accurate, accessible information about career progression and pay scales; they conduct open conversations with employees on where they stand and what is expected of them to advance. This outcry for greater clarity is a sign of the times. In the 2018 Edelman Trust Barometer, nearly seven out of 10 respondents say that building trust is the number one job for CEOs.5 Although in PwC's 21st CEO Survey 53% of business leaders said being transparent about their diversity and inclusion programmes is a way to build trust with their employees and 44% said it was important in building trust with their customers, the message is not universal and it is not strong enough (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

'Women need to prove they deserve a promotion; men are promoted because they believe in their potential.' Purchasing professional in agriculture, Brazil

This can put women at a disadvantage and reinforces stereotypes and bias in managers. Too often organisations will not challenge this. 'Human resources have got a really important role to play here to bring this information to light and be sure that people are equipped with what they need,' said Karina Govindji, Global Head of Diversity & Inclusion at Vodafone, which has mandated bias-awareness training for its senior leadership. In one video, a woman manager discusses how a returning colleague who has had a baby won't want to travel. Most people do not spot this as bias. The lesson: don't make assumptions. Yes, we want women to self-advocate more. But inclusiveness must also be ingrained within the capabilities of people managers, so they are more instinctively attuned to identify the best talent for an opportunity, be that people who shout loudest, or people with capabilities, potential and their heads down.

Organisations must factor implicit bias into decisions related to promotions. It is poor practice, for example, to have all-male promotion panels. The onus is on organisations, not just women, to take responsibility for taking down the barriers to progress. As Carol Stubbings, Global Leader of PwC's People and Organisation practice put it, 'Never let your ambition outweigh your ability. But women quite often underestimate their ability, so they don't fulfil their ambition. It's important having mentoring and good female leadership programmes to constantly tell these people that they are really good, they are really valued, they've got a great skill set that will take them far in the organisation.' Human resource departments should explicitly set new parameters and systematically check that there are uniform criteria by which the organisation can assess employees, and that employees know what the criteria are. Can your talent articulate what 'high performance' looks like? Is the leader overseeing career development also the leader assessing performance reviews? Answering these questions will go a long way toward building trust (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

It is so encouraging to see such high levels of female confidence and ambition. Employers must focus on creating an environment where women ' and men ' can have open and unambiguous conversations on performance and progression benchmarks. But greater transparency must also go hand in hand with efforts to mitigate unconscious biases and stereotyping that could impact career progression. This will support a workplace culture where all talent can fulfil their potential. 'Sharmila Karve, Global Diversity & Inclusion Leader, PwC

Strategic support

Women won't succeed without formal and informal support networks. To support and reinforce a woman's self-belief and self-advocacy there needs to be a blend of workplace and personal relationships and support. In the workplace, the critical issue is finding the right mix of push and pull to help women simultaneously realise their personal and professional ambitions. Providing this level of support might seem complex, but it can be done. Men have had it for years (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Think of this strategic support structure as a series of circles. In the middle is the individual woman: an ambitious skilled professional who needs the confidence to put her forward to achieve her career and personal aspirations. Fundamental to this is the support she gets from the circles around her: her workplace and personal support networks. In the workplace, she not only needs a manager who will help develop her talent and advocate on her behalf, but a series of informal and formal support people and programmes. She needs role models of both genders to look up to and learn from, mentors who help her navigate the path to success and sponsors who can push her to the next level: a network of advocates either in informal or formal groups with whom she can share experiences and seek advice (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

In the world outside of work, the third circle, she needs a supportive network, from parents to partner and friends to peers that reinforce her career ambitions and work/life decisions. For example, women might need to enlist family members and other people to take on more home life or caregiving responsibilities in order to allow her to be successful at work. Interestingly, 84% of the women in our survey in a relationship identified as being part of a dual-career couple and 80% of the women in the survey said they have support from their family and/or partner in their career ambitions (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Speaking up for yourself ' ask and you might get

Women tend to expect to be approached for a promotion or shy away from roles for which they don't feel they meet all the criteria. Creating dialogue between women and their employers to discuss aspirations, performance and needs is a critical element of career success.  Self-promoting is frequently highlighted by women as outside their comfort zone.  However, there is positive news.  Women are becoming more proactive in negotiating for themselves and they are seeing results.  At least half of the women in our study are opening up discussions with their employers and proactively pursuing and negotiating for raises, promotions and the career enhancing experiences so critical to advancement. And we observed a strong positive correlation for women who negotiate for a career enhancing action and getting what they ask for.  They are receiving opportunities at greater frequency than those who don't negotiate (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Women can't count on success and fulfilment unless men help them. This is not an admission of weakness; it is simply a matter of math: there are many more men in positions of power than women and more women who need sponsorship than women alone can support. If men abrogate their responsibilities to help the women junior to them, then the gender gap will persist and the old boys' network will prevail. As part of this, business leaders also have to recognise harassment and bullying are unacceptable in the workplace. One-third of women in the survey said they had experienced verbal abuse bullying and one in four experienced sexual innuendos/harassment in the past two years. Employers should actively work to change the culture where these actions can happen (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Getting to know employees, understanding what they need to succeed and helping them secure that support are musts for sustaining a talent pipeline. These require investment of time and energy, but they are too important to overlook because they are a key part of what helps networks mobilise for women (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

Trust and the myth of flexible working hours

According to PwC's report, much has been made of the trend towards more flexible working arrangements to help women juggle the complexities of family life and work. It's now possible in many parts of the world for women and men to share parental leave; some companies pay for childcare at home so women can work next to their babies; others give childcare vouchers and cr''ches are more common in the workplace. However, women, and particularly minority women, remain sceptical about how serious their employers are when they say flexibility won't hurt their progress.  Many fear opting for something that helps their work/life balance, which 95% said was important to them, will end up damaging their careers. This fear is magnified in Asia. The majority of our respondents from China (97%), India (96%) and Singapore (93%) who mirrored the global response that work/life balance and flexibility is important to them, also said it is not available in practice and, further, people who work flexibly (reduced hours or job sharing) are regarded as less committed to the organisation. In China and India, 61% and 54% of employees, respectively, report their organisations do not value flexible working as a way of working effectively.

Flexibility at work is no longer either a nice-to-have initiative or an optional perk mostly used by women. The common stereotypes around flexibility and importance of face-time are now a fad. There's an ability to influence the what, how and where to work for employees should be a core people priority and embedded in the business strategy. We need to de-parent, de-gender, and de-age the perception around flexible working. It is critical that we encourage candid conversation about work and family, especially among men, and at the leadership level.' Shveta Verma, Senior Director, Diversity & Inclusion Programme, PwC India

Overall, women ranked lack of flexibility and work/life balance as a top-three reason for wanting to leave their current employer, just behind pay and a lack of opportunities for career progression. The combined forces of market demand, technology advancements, and the growing gig economy, have allowed flexibility to become an essential and critical aspect of career support for women in particular, but also for male employees. Organisations will have to address the disconnect between employee values and perceptions and the kinds of flexible programmes on offer. It is fundamental we see employers drive cultural shifts, whereby their people become valued and rewarded for their performance over their presence (Price Water House Coopers 2018).

2.3 Definition of terms

' Woman ' is a human female being. The term woman is usually referred for an adult

' Man ' is an adult male person.

' Employer ' a person or a business that employs one or more people, especially for salary or wages

' Employee ' an individual who works part time or full time under a contract of employment whether verbal or oral and has recognised rights and duties

' Management ' is a multi-purpose organ that manages a business and manages managers and manages worker and work

' Organisation ' is an entity comprising multiple people, such as an institution or an association, that has a collective goal and is linked to an external environment

' Department - specialized functional area within an organization or a division, such as accounting, marketing, planning

' Uniform members - uniform is a type of clothing worn by members of an organization while participating in that organization's activity. For some organizations, such as police, it may be illegal for non-members to wear the uniform.

' Civilians - a person who is not on active duty with a military, naval, police, or firefighting organization.

' Empowerment

' Development

2.4 Conclusion

PwC research shows that only 54% of women see role models like them in senior management, not surprising given the fact that women are so often under-represented in leadership positions, but an indication that more needs to be done to boost mentorship and sponsorship for women.  

There are attempts to change this. Unilever, for example, identifies women with leadership potential, sends them on a specially designed training programme and specifically targets confidence building in their daily work. The company is close to gender parity in management ranks, up from 38% in 2010 (Price Water House Cooper 2018).

An accountability mentoring or sponsorship system where the mentor/sponsor is measured on the progress the mentee makes to give the mentor/sponsor both accountability and an incentive to be involved. Managers must commit to putting all potential candidates on opportunity lists when it comes to the next promotion, stretch-assignment or profile opportunity. This will prevent the reliance on 'system one' instincts and mitigate any potential unconscious bias in the decision-making.  All promotion discussions would start with a spotlight reminder on how to raise awareness of unconscious bias and how to militate against it, and assess real-time KPIs to reflect on whether promotion outcomes are representative of promotion pool demographics (Price Water House Cooper 2018).

The next chapter will briefly discuss the research methodology and results. The researcher used qualitative and also as selected individuals as they have first-hand knowledge and experience in women development and empowerment.

'

Chapter 3 ' Research Methodology and Results

3.1 Introduction

The research design is the overall plan for collecting and analysing data (Polit & Hungler, 1997:467; De Vos, 1998:123). The proposed research will be conducted by means of interviewing individuals who form part of the sample. The researcher will make use of purposive or judgement sampling as only employees with first-hand knowledge and experience will be interviewed to obtain their opinions and inputs relating to women empowerment and development within the MPD. The research method is a strategy of enquiry, which moves from the underlying assumptions to research design and data collection (Myers, 2002). Empowerment is fundamentally context-specific and it is shaped by socio-economic, cultural, and political conditions of the country (Malhotra & Schuler, 2005). Empowerment and agency are highly cultural concepts, which relate to a system of norms, values and beliefs of a society (Samman & Santos, 2009).

3.1 Research design/paradigm

Research design refers to the researcher's overall plan for obtaining answers for the research problem. It is associated with the structural framework of the study and concerns the planning of the implementation of the study in order to reach the set goals (Burns & Grove, 2001:223; De Vos, 1998:77). The research design also provides the guidelines and instructions to be followed when addressing the research problem (Mouton, 1996:107; Polit & Hungler, 1997:445).

3.2 Research approach (Quantitative/Qualitative)

The researcher will make use of a qualitative approach as selected individuals with first-hand knowledge and experience of managing women's development and empowerment will be interviewed. Qualitative research is description-based. Qualitative researchers observe and interview people. They observe people or events and analyse the observations through qualitative methods. They look for trends, just as quantitative researchers do with statistics, but they don't use numbers to find them (e Notes, 2017).

The approach adopted by qualitative researchers tends to be inductive which means that they develop a theory or look for a pattern of meaning on the basis of the data that they have collected. The approach to data collection and analysis is methodical, but allows for greater flexibility than in quantitative research (Alzheimer Europe, 2017).

3.3 Unit of analysis

The unit of analysis in the proposed research will be senior employees from various sections of the MPD, City of Cape Town. These are: The Head Resource Planning and Administration, Departmental Support Services Manager, Deputy Police Chief: Central Operations, Human Resource Business Partner: Safety and Security, General Administration: Administrative Officer 3 and Senior Superintendent: Civilian Affairs at the City of Cape Town MPD.

3.4 Identification of variables

Sharma (2014:71) is of the opinion that variables are qualities, properties, or characteristics of a person, things, or situations that change. This research will focus on certain qualities, characteristics, things and situations related to women empowerment in the City of Cape Town MPD.

Independent and dependent variables are two variables which are interrelated and mainly observed in correlational, interventional, pre-experimental, and experimental research studies. An independent variable is an activity that is manipulated or varied by the researcher to create the effect on the dependent variable. A dependent variable is the outcome or response due to the effect of the independent variables, which the researcher wants to predict or explain (Sharma, 2014: 71)

3.5 Target group/population

This research will be focusing on women empowerment and development of women in the City of Cape Town MPD with emphasis on uniform members. In this study the population is metropolitan police women of all races, age groups, educational status, who requested empowerment and development from 2001 to 2017.

3.6 Sample and sample type

The researcher will make use purposive or judgement sampling as only employees with first-hand knowledge and experience will be interviewed to obtain their opinions and inputs relating to women empowerment and development of women within the department.

As the researcher will make use of purposive sampling, the sample which will be utilised in the proposed research will consist of six individuals representing different disciplines within the MPD who have experience in the managing of women empowerment.

These persons are all managers of their respective sections and will be able to give useful and informative inputs.

The sample members will be as follows:

a) Head: Resource Planning and Administration

b) Departmental Support Services Manager

c) Deputy Police Chief

d) Human Resource Business Partner

e) General Administration: Administrative Officer 3

f) Senior Superintendent

3.7 Data collection method(s)

One-on-one interviews will be conducted with the aid of an interview schedule (Annexure A). Each individual will form part of the sample to collect data. As mentioned previously, only individuals with extensive knowledge, understanding and experience relating to women empowerment and development will be part of the study. The internet will be used to collect data from previous research, articles as well as manuals.

3.8 Data analysis

The data collected through the interviews will be analysed by looking for trends and patterns that reappear in responses. The basis for analysis of data will be the notes made by the researcher during the interviews. The data analysis will be utilised as it has the potential to lead to the creation of theories which could in turn lead to the improvement of policies relating to women empowerment and the development of women at Metropolitan Police Department (Burns & Grove, 2001:225).

3.9 Measures to ensure reliability and validity

Validity is defined as a measure of truth or falsity of the data obtained through using the research instrument. It is divided into internal and external validity of the measuring instrument (Burns & Grove, 2001:226).  Polit et al (2001:308) define validity as 'the degree to which an instrument measures what it is supposed to measure'.  In this study validity refers to the lack of women empowerment and development within the metropolitan police. Reliability is the degree of consistency with which the instrument measures an attribute (Polit & Hungler, 1997:255). There is also a relationship between reliability and validity. Reliability, validity and trustworthiness will be facilitated by means of triangulating information gained from the interviews with relevant information in the literature.

3.10 Ethical guidelines

The proposed research will be conducted in accordance with the ethical procedures and guidelines attached to the department involved. Permission to conduct the proposed research has been obtained from the Head: Resource Planning and Administration involved in the study.

Questions contained in the interviews have been approved by the above mentioned Head: Resource Planning and Administration. All participants will be assured of the confidentiality of their participation and the handling of the information after the interviews.

3.11 Data presentation

Historically, Metropolitan Police department is not an environment where females count themselves in terms of a logical carrier. Metro Police is different from any department as it is a police environment. It is not an environment where females can be recognised, but that has changed a lot over the past 20 to 25 years. So that being the case even over the period of 20 years one would think it's a long time but it's not because the evolutionary process where females become involved in Law Enforcement takes much longer than 20 years for them to actually work themselves into a confidence space where can they take up more senior positions in the department like Metro Police. So even if it started many years ago, if you look at Metro Police department currently how it looks like, how many females do we have in the department? It's not a bad spread if you look at the lower levels in now days because we have mainly considered an effort of bringing in females but if you look at our supervisory and management positions then you will see a discrepancy in terms of the number of females in those positions. So that would be a legacy thing which is attached to how they actually prepare themselves into the senior ranks.

This is something that has a huge gap at Metropolitan Police department, but once again there is more than one factor that impacts this. First of all we are part of a bigger corporate organisation with its own policies and guidelines. The City of Cape Town has its own empowerment programmes, its own gender directorate programmes and we can get together to that and participate, but Metropolitan Police is very unique we will have to put in place certain programmes to try and cater specifically for Women in Metropolitan Police department. Metro police realised that we have females in the organisations but they are not going into the ranking positions because of the number of the issues, one is that they don't have the necessary skill. Secondly, they might not have the qualifications and don't have the necessary experience. The dilemma at that time is that it didn't come off the ground as far as was intended to was because of the departments roles and responsibilities where does that logically fit running that programme of women empowerment because we have our Training academy, the feeling was that role should reside with them. Normally a function like that would reside with HR component and any of the within the City of Cape Town. Metro police doesn't have a lot of initiatives other than what a City offers in general to females. There are three things that women need to look at in terms of development, skills, qualification and experience. The department also realised that when promotional opportunities becomes available some of our females either did not meet the experience part of it, skills, qualification or competencies part of it.

Many of women at Metropolitan Police Department have been advanced on the basis of obtaining qualification, if they didn't get the promotional opportunity. As a result, 21 uniform females received bursaries in 2016 in order to complete their studies towards Road Traffic and Municipal Police Management, 20 women in 2017 and currently 8 in 2018. Most of these women joined Metropolitan Police Department with only Matric at hand.

Empowerment means moving from enforced powerlessness to a position of power. Education is an essential means of empowering women with the knowledge, skills and self-confidence necessary to fully participate in the development process. Sustainable development is only possible when women and men enjoy equal opportunities to reach their potential. Women at Metropolitan police experience multiple and intersecting inequalities. Structural barriers in the economic, social, political and environmental spheres produce and reinforce these inequalities. Obstacles to women's empowerment, and violence against women, are barriers to sustainable development and the achievement of human rights, gender equality, justice and peace.  Across much of the department, women are still far less to be appointed as senior managers.

Women are significantly under-represented in decision-making at all levels.

While the financial benefits of educating women are similar to those of educating men, recent findings suggest the social benefits are greater.

Women have the potential to change their own financial status and that of their communities and countries in which they live yet usually women's financially contributions are unrecognized, their work undervalued and their promise undernourished.  Unequal opportunities between women and men hamper women's ability to lift themselves from poverty and secure improved options to improve their lives. Education is the most powerful instrument for changing women's position in the department.

Women constitute less than 50% of the department's population which ought to place them as pacesetters in education.  Sadly, in some departments, women education is neglected due to cultural beliefs.  Women are seen as only relevant in the kitchen and for breeding purpose. History has proven that 'if you educate a man, you educate an individual, but if you educate a woman, you educate a nation'. Educating a woman brings about self-esteem and confidence. It also promotes active participation in her people.  Women need to be more involved in educational policy decision making process.  It takes a collective effort of the department in creating equal opportunities for education, and increasing the enrolment of the women in the Metropolitan Police department. On the long run, an educated woman will actively play a better role in directing her junior staff members through life's journey.

GENDER DISCRIMINATION: It is one of the major factors which influence women empowerment of our Metropolitan Police department. Metropolitan Police department is considered as a male dominated society where women are considered as second grade employees. On the other hand the ratio between male and female has been reduced to a great extent due to destruction of female foetus. The traditional belief of male child is the successor of the family is an asset and the female child is meant for other family and is a liability. This mentality affects the women empowerment situation in our country and especially within our Metropolitan Police department.

FAMILY RESPONSIBILITY:  Most of family responsibility lies with women. It is considered that every good and bad of a family depend on the female member only. From early in the morning to late in the night it's the work of the female members to take care of each and every members of the family.  More is the family member more is the responsibility with women only. Hence in a joint family the women have no free time even to share her views with other family members. This responsibility should be shared equally by male members of the family in order to make free of women from house hold responsibility.

ABILITY TO BEAR RISK:  There is a wrong notion that women are emotionally weak so that they are not able to bear any type of risk like men in the Metropolitan Police department. Female members in the family are not competent enough to bear the risk of the family and the male members sometimes overrule them.

AMBITION FOR ACHIEVEMENT: There is general feeling that women less ambitious. This character makes them to be dependent to male in the Metropolitan Police department. Women are less ambitious in life than men and have no aim and objective in life. Whether rural or urban, rich or poor, educated or uneducated it is a general feeling that women have no definite aim and ambition in life and they are less conscious for achievement in life.

SOCIAL STATUS: City of Cape Town society has been divided into different segments on the basis of caste, religion, economic status, culture, family background etc. On the basis of this social status, women suffer a lot due to social discrimination. It is a major factor for which women empowerment is necessary in our Metropolitan Police department.

ATROCITIES ON WOMEN: Different forms of atrocities on women like rape, molestation, kicked out, subdued, humiliated, exploitation, use of force, dowry demand, are some of the women atrocities in our society for which the women have to suffer a lot. In metropolitan area this atrocity is proportionately more than in rural areas. As women have no courage to face these types of atrocities it is necessary to empower them so that they can face this with courage.

NECESSITY OF WOMEN EMPOWERMENT: Women empowerment in Metropolitan Police Department is just remaining a slogan and its necessity arises due to the following grounds.

DECISION MAKING POWER:  Male dominated society in India deprives women to make or suggest any decision. It is a general feeling that women are not good decision makers. Till today in traditional society there is a strong belief that all the decisions of women are counter- productive. Hence in family, street, village, and in local community the women cannot take any type of independent decision. It is desirable that women should be empowered to take independent decision.

FREEDOM OF MOVEMENT:  There are various reasons which deprive women to move freely. Lack of mobility is one of the reason for which empowerment of women is necessary. A woman is not safe to move freely particularly in the night time. Hence it is suggested that women empowerment is necessary in India in order to enable women to move without any fear like men even in night also.

 ACCESS TO EDUCATION:  Though education is a fundamental right in India most of the women are deprived of that facility right even after seventy years of independence. There is clear line of demarcation between a boy child and a girl child for access of education. Traditional civilization has a belief that more education to girl child will create problem in future. But without education it is impossible for women upliftment. Hence women empowerment is necessary.

ACCESS TO EMPLOYMENT: The recent data reflects that the majority of women are in administrative jobs, few are in police environment, and few in teaching profession. It indicates the employability of women in general index. It seems to be difficulty for women to be in a night shift or any type of adverse working situation.

MEDIA EXPOSER:  Due to male dominated society it is not possible for women to be exposing in public media. A woman is not able to put forth her ideas and intention in public media. If it happens it is not acceptable to the society.

DOMESTIC VIOLENCE: With the growth and development of social living standard domestic violence is a regular feature in each and every family now. Irrespective of educated or uneducated, rich or poor, urban or rural, on the occasion of domestic violence, woman is the worst sufferer. This situation can be reversed if women will be empowered and can look after her in the society.

The department needs to pay attention on more on how to advance, develop and equip women within the department.

'

Chapter 4 ' Conclusions and recommendations

4.1 Introduction

This study comes back here to the three basics for success. If the foundations of transparency and trust are established and women have strong support networks that mobilise for them, then the necessary two-way conversations about caregiving, family and broader life commitments will be easier to hold and more productive. Personal fulfilment and job satisfaction are at the top of the agenda for women at Metropolitan Police Department, but women also want to achieve more conventional measures of success: reward and recognition commensurate with their talent and contribution. Women are looking for ways to make every aspect of their employment work for them. Fear of speaking up is diminishing. But there is still a fear of bias and backlash, and there is evidence that this fear is justified. Metropolitan Police department has identified the interdependent elements of an ecosystem that have to be in place and in balance for women to succeed. In too many departments, one or the other of these elements are either afterthoughts or absent. Women say they are not getting what they need. This message is too important to ignore if women are to achieve personal and career fulfilment and departments are to succeed.  Equality can't remain a work in progress; it must become work for progress.

4.2 Conclusion

Metropolitan Police department won't achieve gender parity in leadership if they don't all press for progress; to do this in a sustainable way they must target women's advancement throughout their careers. That is why this year's survey focused on women aged 28 to 40, because it is at this stage we start to see female representation gaps at work widen, and the challenges of combining personal and career priorities increase. There are a lot of positives to be taken from this year's study; most women are confident in their ability to fulfil their career aspirations, they feel confident in their ability to lead and are actively seeking career advancement opportunities. Women are confident, ambitious and ready for what's next and they are also more proactive in pursuing their goals. They are negotiating for raises, promotions and the career-enhancing experiences so critical for advancement and it is working. This study shows that women who speak up and negotiate are getting what they ask for. The other takeaway is that there is still a huge amount of work that needs to be done. Trust is a big issue for the women in our study, as is concern over what they see as the motherhood and flexibility penalty. They want to see more transparency about practical issues like performance, career success and progress.

4.3 Recommendations

This report would like to recommend that the department end all forms of discrimination against women.  Ensure women's full and effective participation and equal opportunities for leadership at all levels of appointments and decision-making in the department. Undertake reforms to give women equal rights to economic resources, as well as access to mentorship and control over the department and other forms of City of Cape Town in accordance with national laws.  Adopt and strengthen sound policies and enforceable legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women at all levels.  Enhance the use of enabling technology, in particular information and communications technology, to promote the empowerment of women. Laws and policies need to be urgently reviewed, amended or abolished as a first step towards achieving substantive gender equality, complemented by measures to change discriminatory social norms and practices.  Eliminate all forms of violence against all women in the department. This is also central to eliminating poverty and realizing sustainable development, peace and security, and human rights. This can be achieved through legal reforms, policies and protection measures, community mobilization and engagement of religious and community leaders, as well as those affected. For democratic accountability and legitimacy, women's full involvement is key in implementing the new development agenda. Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. Women have the right to live free of discrimination and violence, and to control and decide freely on matters related to their sexuality, including sexual and reproductive health. For this, they need access to essential information, education and service. This is essential for their economic security and status, for decent work, sustainable livelihoods and to ensure an adequate standard of living.  Enhance the use of enabling technologies, in particular information communication technologies (ICTs), to promote women's empowerment. Access to quality infrastructure and technology is the key to improving women's formal employment and entrepreneurship opportunities and to reducing unpaid care work. Adopt and strengthen policies and legislation for the promotion of gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls at all levels. National legislation must guarantee equal rights, aligned with international standards

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