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  • Subject area(s): Philosophy
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  • Published on: 21st September 2019
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Life is a holy right, the dignity of God to the human being in this world, no one can relinquish this right or abandon it, it is considered a crime of "murder of the soul", and it is even considered the most heinous crimes. All religions have agreed that life is a gift from God. But human life may go through difficult circumstances when it is suffering from a disease or dilemma that may lead to a state of helplessness or despair of healing, accompanied by severe pain unbearable. In spite of the development of the astonishing science that enabled man to control the material, this advantage could not control the soul, because it is the command of God, so does man have the right to ask for death? And does he also have the right to end the life of a hopeless person? All of these questions prompt us to study what is known as euthanasia by explaining its definition, methods and then the position of religions and the law of murder motivated by pity.

In the beginning we will Defined the euthanasia or what is called "mercy killing" is defined in accordance with the laws and religions: ending the torment of a patient who cannot be cured by means of painless medical methods. It also put an end to the life of a patient with an incurable disease. The euthanasia or mercy killing is the contemporary medical term, which means facilitating the death of the sick person who is not able to recover at the request of his doctor. And several laws that have been taken into consideration that euthanasia is performed in some cases of illness. This reality raised the question of euthanasia, which has become one of the controversial issues in the world in terms of legitimacy and try to justify morally, religiously and legally. The euthanasia is a Greek term origin, meaning good death, easy death or decent death, and the latter is not new. The peoples and primitive tribes practiced it. For example, they were killing people who suffered from paralysis, because it obstructs the tribe in its movements or burying the owners of weak bodily structures. So that they will not hinder them in wars. And some of them believes that the source of the idea of euthanasia is taken from veterinary medical (animals that do not produce should kill). Others believe that it is taken from the bastions of Nazism and racism, Where the Nazi thought adopted that a child born with congenital malformations would be disposed of them in order to find a healthy progeny free of disease. The idea of euthanasia is attributed in medical to the English philosopher Bacon. In "a Concise History of Euthanasia: Life, Death, God, and Medicine" Bacon says " make a kind of scruple and religion to stay with the patient after he is given up, when they should have worked more assiduously, to mitigate the pains and torments of diseases ... and when, all hope of recovery is gone, to help make a fair and easy passage from life" (Dowbiggin,2007:23) . In" Plato Republic Oxford World's classics " Plato says "Every citizen of a well-regulated community is assigned a single job which he has to do, and that no one has the time to spend his life ill and doctoring himself ….. If his body is not up to surviving, he gets rid of his troubles by dying"(Plato:1993). The proponents of Nazi philosophy also called for the elimination of the sick and vulnerable with physical or mental disabilities, considered to be germs that mess with society.

However, today with the existence of heavenly religions, the situation has changed. The issue of life and death is a matter of Godliness and not a human issue related to human beings. The first case: the coma in its fourth highest degree, in which the patient is in the case of artificial respiration due to advanced coma with severe brain damage. The second case: the diseases that cause painful pain, such as cancer, especially when it spread throughout the body. The third case: chronic lung inflammation, which prevents the patient from breathing only by machines (artificial respiration), to the cases of difficult and intractable and there is no hope of healing. There is a difference between clinical death and this type of case where clinical death or brain death is a state of brain stop work and all the tissues have stopped working and therefore the life of the person connected to pipes and artificial respiration and there are some religious references allow to withdraw devices for patient.

There are several methods of euthanasia: first method: effective or direct killing, such as giving the patient a lethal dose of a drug prepared for it, which is in the form of: voluntary or optional condition and based on a pre-written will of the patient, and the involuntary state when the patient is unconscious, then the doctor will evaluates the patient's condition. The second method: It is one of the most criminal methods and take two sides it is considered a murder on the one hand and incitement to suicide and helping to suicide, such as shooting in the head, or jumping from a high place. Third Method: indirect killing, by giving the patient drugs to calm the pain and over time these drugs have complications in the frustration of breathing and inhibition of the work of the heart muscle, and ultimately death. The fourth method is the ineffective killing. This is done by refusing to treat the patient or stopping the necessary treatment such as life-saving devices, stopping the working of the machine, reducing the amount of oxygen, or giving the patient special drugs in stages that lead to heart failure.

Religions' Attitude of "Euthanasia": all heavenly religions agree that the killing of a human being, whether a patient who is hopeless cured or old, is not a decision that is legally available to the doctor, the patient's family or the patient himself. It is not an individual decision (that is, those who do not want life to kill him), because the life of the human being must be safeguarded, and he must preserve his body and not throw himself to destruction. But this does not prevent the existence of explanations when some conclude that this religion or that allows one form or another form of euthanasia.

The position of the law on "euthanasia" in Arab legislation considers that the case of euthanasia or murder is a crime of special crimes, which has its features, and is punishable by a reduced sentence under the legal text it deals with. However, In European and American legislation, the situation is sometimes different. Denmark has allowed patients with an incurable disease to decide to stop treatment. Since 1992, Denmark has allowed the Danes to prepare a testamentary medical in case of incurable diseases or serious accidents. Australia also approved euthanasia in 1999, and three countries in the world have passed a law authorizing euthanasia in the most intractable cases: the Netherlands (2001), Belgium (2002) and Luxembourg. Based on the statistics for 2012, the Netherlands use euthanasia and kills double the number of population as in Belgium. Whereas, in Luxembourg is the lowest rate of euthanasia, 14 people who was suffering from illness was killed through euthanasia between 2011 and 2012(Waterfield,2013).

In conclusion, the conflict in the case of euthanasia is found between the religions, the law and the doctors, each of them see the subject from his point of view, religion is deprived because God has forbidden the killing of the soul. Otherwise, the law could be with or against euthanasia, it depends on some cases and some countries. Moreover, doctors have a different point of view of what they see, when the patient suffers from a disease that is difficult to treat they agree to use euthanasia in order to redeem him from the pain he suffered. Human being should keep himself from harm, and care about himself. All heavenly religions prevent euthanasia and deny it, but it may be permissible in certain matters. Stella Young writes that "The killing of a disabled person is not 'compassionate'. It is not 'euthanasia'. It is murder" Many people stand against euthanasia and fighting against it and still fighting against it

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