Paste your text in her3.2. THE SINGULARITY OF GOD.
This concept is strictly monotheistic and Unitarian. The profession of Muslim's faith comes from two statements. They are 'Your God is one God and Muhammad is God's messenger'. 'According to Islam, God is the only one creator of the Universe and HE alone is to be worshiped. This is the Islamic concept of Divine Unity, of God's oneness or His uniqueness.'
3.2.1. MEANING OF TAUHID.
'Tauhid is derived from wuhdahu or wahid which means that God is one without a second, without any co- eternal entity , of complete supremacy, unrivalled, unopposed, unequalled and unchallenged'. He is omnipotent, and his authority and sovereignty are not to be questioned. He is always the same, contradicted internally and externally, absolute in all respects. 'The concept of all of any king of duality is the pure and simple oneness of the transcendental experience'. The unity of God is the unity of infiniteness. In the Quran we read the nature of tauhid in these words, He is Allah, the one. Allah, the eternally besought of all! He begeth not nor was begotten, and this is none comparable unto Him.' The divine reality of God is always a creative unity in Islam. The holy Quran is the important exponent of tauhid. The two great gifts intellect and emotions are given to man by God. The true combination of these two qualities helps him to live a perfect life in accordance with the desire of tauhid which man should achieve. 'Tauhid means that man should take God as his only creator, Master, Sustainer, Benefactor, the first and the last resort. It means that man should fear, love and obey God alone, work, live and die for Him, for His approval.' To know God one has to know himself and the tauhid enables man to know himself.
3.2.2. ONENESS OF GOD.
'Allah is first and before everything else One and it is the Oneness of God that lies at the center of both the Quranic concept of God and Islamic spirituality.' To be a Muslim is not to accept Divine oneness in the theological sense but also in the metaphysical truth. The knowledge of this oneness is the highest science and its realization is the supreme goal of human life. 'According to the traditional teachings of Islam, in fact, the greatest sin that man can commit is the denial of this Divine Oneness or of accepting or partner for God.' The Divine Oneness implies not only transcendence but also immanence. 'The first shahadah itself is the most powerful way to pointing to God's transcendence and the well-known Islamic motto Allahu Akbar, usually translated 'God is Great' means in reality that God is greater than whatever is asserted and affirmed about Him.' It is not only to experience God as beyond all things but also to see His 'signs' in all things, to see God everywhere. That is why the Prophet taught that the highest form of tauhid is to see God before, in, and after all things.
3.2.3. UNIVERSALITY OF TAUHID.
'The belief in tauhid is not a kind of faith in an abstract idea or notion, an abstruse metaphysical entity, but a living faith in the reality which is all preserving, the Creator out of naught, the Mighty, the Fashioner, the Shaper and yet in His supreme transcendence He is anonymous, He is beyond what is ascribed to Him.' They believe in the living personal God and worship the true reality who is called as Allah and they embrace and cling on to all His messages conveyed by scripture and prophets. The belief in the universality of divine unity is an integral part of Islamic faith. Tauhid explains that God has no caste, community or race. All human beings are His subjects. His law is universal and those who disobey His commands will be punished. The doctrine of tauhid teaches that the worship of God is not enough but the primary thing is to obey the commandments of God as well as not to do what is not allowed to do.
3.2.4. TAUHID AS THE GUIDING PRINCIPLE OF LIFE.
Every human being is divided on the basis of racial, nations, ethnic, and tribal groupings. On the religious realm man's loyalty was claimed by number of gods and deities. The conviction and faith is in this ultimate unity is what is called tauhid in the language of Islam. When the Islam appeared in the world, it effectively protested against the idolatry, because the Islamic religion is a monotheistic religion and tauhid could answer to man's deepest craving and aspirations. 'It is significant to note that tauhid is not considered by the prophet as an exclusive asset of Islam but held to be the heritage which belongs to mankind as a whole and a lost principle which needs to be restored.' The idea of tauhid is intimately associated with universal perspective. In earlier the Islam was very active and dynamic. 'According to Quran tauhid has a collective reference. The Quranic revelation is oriented towards human collectivity and considers tauhid as the only authentic foundation of it.'
3.3. PROOFS FOR GOD'S EXISTENCE BY ISLAMIC PHILOSOPHERS.
There are many Islamic philosophers who give proofs for God's existence. And here I would like to mention about two great Islamic philosophers, Al-Farabi and Muhammad Iqbal who give philosophical arguments on the existence of God.
Abu Nasr Al-Farabi was born at Wasif near Farab in 870 A.D. He was the first Turkish philosopher. He is called the second Aristotle because he believed in Aristotle's logic. His life history was written by some of his disciples and it is mainly divided into two periods. Later he died in 950 A.D.
The ontological argument of Al-Farabi is the most ultimate and universal concept of 'being'. He says that the concept of 'Being' cannot be defined in a simpler thought elements. For him being exists in it and its non-existence is unthinkable. 'According to Al-Farabi, that which is in actuality is perfect and that which is in potentiality is imperfect. God alone is pure actuality. There is one being alone whose essence is His very existence and that is God.' Potentiality is the capability to exist whereas actuality is that which exist in fact.
In his metaphysical view he could not give definite answer about God. He writes, 'God is knowable and unknowable, evident and hidden and the best knowledge of Him is to know that He is something that mind cannot thoroughly know. God is infinitely perfect and His infinite Perfection bewilders our mind.' For him the knowledge of God is the object of all philosophy.
3.3.2. MUHAMMAD IQBAL
Muhammad Iqbal was born at Sialkot I February, 1873. Though he was not a politician, he took an active part in political activities. He also wrote many poems and prose. He was an Indian as well as Muslim. 'Iqbal not only aroused the Indo-Muslim community into active restlessness but gave its members a sense of direction based on their own heritage.' Muhammad Iqbal died on April 21, 1938.
'Iqbals conception of God is that Gid is Immanent and transcendent, personal and infinite and as such He is peerless and unique, the Perfect Individuality.' He attributes personality and individuality to God. According to him, 'personality does not imply external relations and finitude in which sense it becomes inapplicable to God.' Iqbal's doctrine of God is pantheistic.
He also gave way to the cosmological, teleological and ontological proofs for the existence of God. The cosmological argument makes a move from finite to infinite by negating the finite. Here he tries to explain the notion of the true infinite. 'The teleological argument fails because it yields a finite external designer-like a human mechanician. It is based on a false analogy between the human artificer or architect and the phenomena of nature.' The ontological argument involves a transition from the logical to the real.
The third chapter was mainly dealing with the philosophical implications of God in Islam. I was just trying to bring out the philosophical concept of God through this chapter. Here it mainly speaks of Tauhid, which means the unity of God. The monotheistic view of God in Islam shows the oneness and greatness of the God in their religion. They firmly believe in their God, Allah. The Oneness and Singularity of God is described here in order to mention the unity as well as the transcendence of God.
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