Deductive And Inductive Teaching
Researchers made lots of research about deductive and inductive teaching which one is better .The purpose is how to provide permanent learning on students .Which way is more useful on students . Which teaching approach apply which characteristic students .What is the differences between deductive teaching and inductive teaching ?
Deductive teaching is a traditional form of teaching and deductive teaching still have used in our country.Deductive teaching is a teacher centered method.Students were ignoredby teachers. Teachers just write rules on the board and they want to practicein test . Students just apply these formula , so students dont know grammatical rules exactly . Benefit of this method , teachers are time saving in the lesson and they get to the point of the lesson easily .But students dont learn this way so this method doesnt work in education system .Many students dont develop cognitive acquisition enough . Because teachers give rules and students dont think about it just apply .On the other hand ??f teachers give rules , students encourage in the classroom .Teachers give rules but students forget rules after a short time . Because students dont discovery rule by self .Deductive approach is a boring way for the teaching grammar that deductive approach is a teacher centered method and students dont talk in the classroom .Explict teaching of grammar rules attention paid to language forms . But absence of communicative practice ,which is an immediate need for new immigrants .Teachers apply this method for the crowded classroom bucause that classrooms every students cant talk in a lesson. Time is inadequate . In such cases teachers must apply this method .Deductive method does not require much preparetion on the part of the teaches . Some lazy teachers choose this way . They avoid lots of preparetion .This method causes students involment and struggle .Young learners may be not able to understand this grammatical concept . You have to give grammatical rules in a context .Deductive approach confirm many learners expectations about classroom learning particulary for those who have an analytical style . The deductive approach goes straightforwardly to the pointand can, therefore, be time-saving. A number of rule aspects can be moresimply and clearly explained than elicited from examples.A number of direct practice/application examples are immediately given.The deductive approach respects the intelligence andmaturity of many adult learners in particular and acknowledges the role of cognitive processes in language acquisition. It confirms many learners' expectations about classroomlearning particularly for those who have an analytical style. Beginning the lesson with a grammar presentation may beoff-putting for some learners, especially younger ones.. Younger learners may not able to understand the concepts orencounter grammar terminology given. Grammar explanation encourages a teacher-fronted,transmission-style classroom, so ??t will hinder learnerinvolvement and interaction immediately. The explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of presentation. The deductive approach encourages the belief that learning alanguage is simply a case of knowing the rule.
Deductive teaching is a grammar-translation method .This method emphasizes only reading and writing .Also this method ignoring the speaking and pronunciation.Teachers apply four kind of activities to students .For example ; rule explanation , translation , doing worksheet and self study grammar .Deductive approach ; teachers explain the rules of English tense directly .This approach can be diffucult for some learners .Teacher's explanation dont attract some students . Because you just explain the rules and lesson is so boring . You can not blame students .Students deal with other things and you give a lesson unnecessary.Teacher explanation rarely remembered by the learners ,compared to other form of demostiration.
Deductive teaching has a metal??nguistic rule . These formula are 3-P approach.These are Presentation-Practice 'Production. The rule is presented ,then practiced in drill typed exercises.A text is read that includes a targeted grammatical pattern.A rule is presented about the pattern .The rule is practiced in different types of exercises.The rule is presented .Exercises are done to practice it .The targeted pattern is used in texts to be read or listeded to.Learners may engage in meaningful activities at the end of any of these types of deductive grammar rule presentation.
Methods for teaching grammar vary among teachers and schools. The deductive technique is preferable for elementary and ESL (English as second language) students because this method emphasizes rules and teacher-led instruction which helps students establish a strong foundation in grammar basics. As students progress through school, they can focus more on applying grammar through writing, a more inductive approach espoused my many educators. Balanced grammar instruction works best because it addresses more learning styles.In deductive (rule-driven, top-down) teaching the teacher introduces and explains the concept and the rules relating to it. Then the teacher lets students to practice the new concept.Reading deductively ;grammar and diffucult vocabulary are explained in advance .A vocabulary list is provided .The students are briefed on the content of the text .The text can be modified , adopted and not autentic.
The other topic is teacher how to give students grammmer intruction (rules) . Grammar rules should be true and the rules should show clearly what limits are on the use of a given form .The rules need to be clear .The rules ought to be simple .The rules ought to be relevant .The grammar presentation should be illustrated with examples.Deductive ??nstructional approaches activities ; you can apply all class .These are directing , ??nstructing, demonstrating , explaining and illustrating , questioning and discussing ,consolidating ,evaluating pupils responses and summarizing. A deductive approach to teaching language starts by giving learners rules, then examples, then practice. It is a teacher-centred approach to presenting new content. This is compared with an inductive approach, which starts with examples and asks learners to find rules, and hence is more learner-centred.The form and use of the third conditional is explained to learners, then they have a gap-fill exercise to complete, then prepare their own examples.In the classroom; the deductive approach may be suitable with lower level learners who need a clear base from which to begin with a new language item, or with learners who are accustomed to a more traditional approach and so who lack the training to find rules themselves.
Deductive reasoning happens when a researcher works from the more general information to the more specific. Sometimes this is called the 'top-down' approach because the researcher starts at the top with a very broad spectrum of information and they work their way down to a specific conclusion. For instance, a researcher might begin with a theory about his or her topic of interest. From there, he or she would narrow that down into more specific hypotheses that can be tested. The hypotheses are then narrowed down even further when observations are collected to test the hypotheses. This ultimately leads the researcher to be able to test the hypotheses with specific data, leading to a confirmation (or not) of the original theory and arriving at a conclusion.
Inductive teaching strarts with some examples from which a rule is inferred . In grammar teaching teachers present examples at the beginning then generalizing rules from the given samples . Inductive grammar learning is commonly happen for a native speakers of English .They can produce a grammatically correct utterance but they do not know the rules underlie it .Inductive approach is often correlated with direct method .In direct method the rules of the language are supposedly acquired out of the exprience of the understanding and repeating examples which have been systematically graded for diffuculty and put into a clear context . Inductive teaching ; learners are trained to be familiar with the rule discovery ; this could enhance learning autonomy and self reliance .Learner's greater degree of cognitive depth is exploited .The learners are more active in the learning process , rather than being simply passive recipients . In this activity , they will be motivated .The aproach involves learners pattern recognition and problemsolving abilities inwhich particular learners are interested in this challenge .If the problem solving activity is done collaboratively , learners get an opportunity for extra language practice . On the other hand , there is disadvantages in inductive learning . These are ; the approach is time and energy consuming as it leads learners to have the appropriate concept of the rule .The concept given implicity may lead the learners to have the wrong concept of the rule taught . The approach can place emphasis on theachers in planing a lesson . Inductive approach encourages the teacher to design data or materials tought carefully and systematically. The approach may frustrate the learners with their personal learning style , or their past learning exprience would prefer simply to be told the rules .
Inductive learning is a student centered method .Inductive learning relies on the students ability to notice the pattern emerging within the examples the ??nstructor presents.Inductive learning is in contrast to deductive learning , which is a more teacher focused strategy . Using the deductive approach explains how it is used , then requires students to practice using it trough quizzes or drills.The method is widely criticized due to its robotic nature and inadequate focus on meaning .It is , however, a useful method in teaching diffucult concepts or helping students prapare for standardized tests with a similar format .
Individual learner preferences and differences may be an important factor to consider in measuring learning from deductive and inductive instruction. Erlam (2003) believes that individual learner differences may have played a role in the results she obtained, as there was great variability within the deductive group. As Ellis (2008b) suggests, results favoring deductive or inductive FFI may 'in part depend on learner's preferred learning style' (p. 882). Individual differences also seem to have played a role in Hwu and Sun (2012): inductive and deductive teaching did not affect learning performance, but 'memory for text' language aptitude, considered as an individual difference, correlated withgain scores (induction treatment leading to better scores in delayed post-tests for students with good textual memory)
On the other hand ; inductive approach is totally opposite to deductive approach.Inductive learning is a rule discovery path for learning a language . Inductive learning is a bottom up approach to learn language .Learners study examples and from the examples get tge understanding of the grammar rules .They do not need to meet the rule before doing the examples . The inductive approach seems to be the way one's first language is acquired. Induction, or learning through experience, can be seen as the natural way to learning, such as Direct Method. As for Direct Method, it was designed to challenge the unnatural and intellectual procedures of Grammar Translation. The basic belief behind the Direct Method was that our first language is acquired through the process of developing both language and the real world. While teaching through Direct Method, for example, the teacher is about to teach the grammar of 'present continuous', and students are about to possess the input which is repeating examples for many times. When the teacher teaches I-am-walking , students should repeat both the sentence and actions after the teacher again and again. It could make students obtain the cognition of the grammar rule and create a generative situation. Teaching grammar inductively has favorable implications for communicative competence, which involves a selection of the right grammatical terms to that of the appropriate setting. Learners need to also know how to use language in context. Although the inductive approach is generally accepted to be more beneficial to students it can sometimes take a little longer. Many more traditional classrooms rely heavily on the deductive approach and so bringing in a more radical inductive approach can sometimes be difficult both in terms of getting the students to think for themselves and work out the rules as well as persuading the management that this is the best approach in the long run.
There is some inductive instruction . These are ; Learners discover language structures/patterns through interacting with the target language. Can be motivating/requires investment. May or may not include explicit rules. Often criticized for taking too much time.Learners may develop inaccurate rules or understanding of the language structures. It's necessarily a slow method of learning, because you have to assimilate and understand a number of general rules and learn to apply them to specific conditions. It also requires a skilled teacher to present the information in a way that students of varying abilities can understand. The students work with examples of various grammar rules and attempt to work out the underlying concept for themselves. It's then explained at the end of the lesson.Inductive teaching of grammar instills in the students the confidence to extend and apply their knowledge, but there are exceptions to all rules, and these can cause confusion. For example, the spelling rule that 'I comes before E, except after C' is an inductive principle based on numerous examples-believe, receive and relieve, deceive, for instance.Inductive grammar teaching demonstrates the structure in a suitable context. The teacher then asks questions to lead the student to discover the meaning and use of the structure.
So, to teach the difference between present simple and present continuous, you could give the student (for example) a little text in which someone talks about their job and talks about what they do on a typical day and what they are doing today, this week, at the moment. The teacher then asks questions using the appropriate tenses and the student discovers the rule for themselves. Present continuous for ongong actions, now, at the moment; present simple for habitual, usually, always true, etc. In deductive grammar teaching, the teacher first explains the rule. The students then do exercises applying the rule.
The teacher explains that we use the present simple for .We use the present continuous for ... The present continuous is formed with the correct from of 'be' plus the gerund.it is a good idea to begin with an inductive exercise. However, at some point, the student will want you to explain the rule (this usually helps them to confirm their understanding of it) and will certainly need you to set out how to form the structure. In the inductive method, the teacher induces the learners to realize grammar rules without any form of explicit explanation. It is believed that the rules will become evident if the students are given enough appropriate examples. It is believed the inductive method is more effective in that students discover the grammar rules themselves while engaged in language use. This is especially true with grammatical regularities which are easily perceived, understood and applied. In practice, the distinction between the deductive method and inductive method is not always apparent. Perhaps a blend between the two is indeed more appropriate. Again, learner variables and instructional variables need to be considered when teachers decide whether to use a deductive method or an inductive method or a combination of both.
Research findings into the relative benefits of deductive and inductive methods have been inconclusive. Short term gains for deductive learning have been found, and there is some evidence to suggest that some kinds of language items are better 'given than 'discovered'. Moreover, when sur??veyed, most learners tend to prefer deductive presentations of grammar. Nevertheless, once exposed to inductive approaches, there is often less resistance as the learners see the benefits of solving language problems themselves. Finally, the autonomy argument is not easily dismissed: the capacity to discern patterns and regularities in naturally occurring input would seem to be an invaluable tool for self-directed learning, and one, therefore, hat might usefully be developed in the classroom.
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