Education In The Republic Of The Congo
The history of education is strongly marked by ties around several issues. Among them, the issue of quality in education and the improvement of the teaching-learning process. This quest for the improvement of education and its adaptation leads the major investigators of education still digging, spading everywhere where could be an addition to integrate.
Each year and each time, the needs in education and quality of the education process and learning increase. Therefore, techniques are increasingly improved for upgrade to respond to the law of supply and demand. Thus, with a view to breaking down the boundaries, barriers and limits of access to education, the experts of the sciences of education have integrated the 'information and communication technologies (ICT)' in Education. The ICT are a set of powerful tools providing access to immeasurable resources that can help to improve both teaching and learning. Ranging from 'Personal Digital Assistant (PDA)' to Design Computers (DC), nowadays they also know the integration of the Interactive Blackboards (IBB) fitted with an advanced technology of last generation.
The integration of ICT in education should be understood as "a new concept" of this last decade that is progressively and significantly growing up. It has some conditions and constraints for its implementation: policies, procedures and resources. As the truth varies according to time and space, the integration and implementation of ICT know many disparities in the different areas of the globe. If in developed countries the implementation is done in great strides, in sub Saharan African developing countries the process remains still an almost utopia, due to the lack of efficient policies and resources allocated for a real integration. Therefore, it is noted an infinite number of disparities from one country to another.
However, we have to recognize that there are some countries that have made some exploits. For example the Republic of Cameroon in the central African sub region has already started to implement the use of ICT in the whole education system. But those countries remain a small part of the large number of the African developing countries among which the Republic of Congo. The major reasons for these shortcomings are both administrative and technical. The use of the ICT in education in sub Saharan African developing countries faces many challenges, as in the Republic of Congo. Questions then arise and challenge the attention of educators.
1.1 General background
The Republic of the Congo is a country located in the heart of the African continent, in the sub region of Central Africa. It is limited to the North by the Republic of Cameroon and the Central African Republic, to the East by the Democratic Republic of Congo, to South by Angola and to the West by Gabon. Straddling the equator, the Congo offers a tropical climate and bathes on the shore of the Atlantic Ocean on a coastline of 170 km in its southern part, which houses its economic capital: Pointe-Noire.
The Republic of Congo has a mixture economy of forestry and an industrial sector based largely on petroleum extraction and support services. Petroleum has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy, providing a major share of government revenues and exports. Nowadays the country is increasingly converting natural gas to electricity rather than burning it, greatly improving energy prospects.
The Republic of Congo extends over an area of 342,000 km2 with a population of 4,492,689 inhabitants within which the adult literacy rate is 92.1% (World statistics, 2013). All of the Congolese population is made up of 52 ethnic groups scattered across 12 departments (regions) that use commonly two national languages LINGALA and KITUBA, while the official language is FRENCH. Also, the country offers a historic-cultural diversity dating back several centuries. A forest country rich in natural mineral resources, the Republic of the Congo has an economy essentially dependent of the oil holding for four decades.
The Republic of Congo has a total of 3114 public primary and secondary schools, 183 literacy centers for non-formal education and one public University comprising 11 faculties and schools (MEPSA, 2005). Its educational system takes form 3, 6, 7, 3 integrating three years for pre-school, 6 years of primary school, 4 junior secondary years, 3 years of senior secondary (high school) and 3 years for the first degree.
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