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Essay: Petroleum Geology of Turkey

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  • Published: 23 October 2015*
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In this study, the petroleum geology of Turkey will be researched and Raman oil field will be considered as research area. The aim is to understand geological structure of the area. The first step is about history of the field and location on the map. Local geology will be discussed and source and reservoir rock types will be explained. In conclusion part, the results from the field will be discussed.

In Turkey, petroleum exploration processes have been taken place onshore for years, but lately there is an interest in offshore fields. However, the main focus is south-east of Turkey above the Syria and Iraq. The national oil company TPAO (Turkish Petroleum Anonym Organisation) has been working on South-East in Turkey and they have found oil in 1940 in Batman City and the name of well is Raman-1. After 10 years from Raman, Garzan was found, but in 1954 the petroleum laws were changed and political issues have not been solved until now. Before political conjecture in Turkey, investments had been increased after foreign investments entering to the country. Then, the production passed 70.000 boepd. Currently TPAO has started to investigate on its own and they have been considering offshore and onshore as a whole. They have raised their investments and opened to the world and became an international company. TPAO’s main focus is still south east of Turkey and East of Turkey as it seen on Fig. 1.

Fig.1 Tectonic sketch map of SE Turkey and NE Syria

1 Hydrocarbon Occurrence in SE Turkey

North East Syria and South East Turkey belong to the folded belt element of the Persian Gulf basin structurally. There are elongated faults are extending SE into North Iraq and south-west Iran, where plenty of world’s biggest oilfields take place. However, there is a significant difference between the sizes of fields such as; Turkey has the smallest part of the field, but Syria has the largest part of it and medium belongs to Iraq. Regardless the points of size of area, all petroleum are commercially valuable for entire district.

2 Geology

The southeast of Turkey was a shelf geographic area in the Mesozoic time (Righi and Cortesini, 1964). This region is distinguished from Anatolian plateau, which is the central Turkey on the Northwest. In this region, Palaeozoic rocks has taken place with two main sedimentary cycles (Righi and Cortesini, 1964). Cambrian to Devonian is the first one and Carboniferous to Permian is the second one (Righi and Cortesini, 1964). These cycles are regional transgression of the Arabian plateau and this is unstable shelf righi and Cortesini, 1964).
In the South-East of Turkey, the massive and extensive late Jurassic early Cretaceous uplift led to the relocation of some of sedimentary cover, especially to the North of the Diyarbakir-Mardin swell. The area is limited pre Cretaceous reservoir and source rock distribution, and plentiful opportunity for oil reservoir in pre-Cretaceous strata to escape. In contrast, north-west of the Syria was affected less than Turkey by the Jurassic and pre-Cretaceous movements and the result is pre-Upper Jurassic part is more done and lesser flushed in this section of the basin.

2.2 Fossil Content and Commercial Parts

The organic live in the south east of Turkey was discovered and some fossils (brachiopods, trilobites and graptolites) are found indicate marine environment.
All the commercial hydrocarbons are trapped to Upper Cretaceous carbonates & Palaeocene carbonates. Hydrocarbon has come across in sediments range from Eocene to Devonian. In breached surface structures are oil indicators which have been obtained folded belt areas.

2.3 Source Rocks

In the southeast of Turkey, three source rock types are located; Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary. Paleozoic; this types of sediments are suitable for hydrocarbon sourcing in the SE Turkey. Mesozoic roks; oil is formed in the Mesozoic rocks in Hazro anticline and it was impregnated oil in Permian sandstone. Tertiary; this is upper point of Germav shale. Hence, this part has the potential to be a source rock.

2.3.1 Paleozoic
Their viable area makes them suitable to be a source rock and commercially they indicate oil around it. These rocks have survived in southeast of Turkey and have been exposed early-Cretaceous uplift and late Jurassic. Therefore, the prospects are poor in this region.
2.3.2 Mesozoic
Mesozoic type rocks are captured to the Upper Cretaceous part and environment made potential of being a source rock limited. However, upper Cretaceous part has been mainly affected by shelf carbonate environment and it has accumulation potential in basinal sediments. Organic material has been gathered in Mesozoic rocks and these are marine shales indicate oil bearing zones.

2.4 Reservoir Rocks
2.4.1 Paleozoic Rocks
These are generally clastic. During the Cambro Devonian sosink, Handof and Bedenian, sandstone with high porosity is taken place. This area has sandstone beds with impregnated oil on the anticline. This means this area is potential oil field.
2.4.2 Mesozoic Rocks
A lot of oil in the southeast of Turkey. However, production depends on porosity and permeability, which have been provided by the secondary porosity such as fracturing, dolomitisation and bleaching. Specifically, an important field for Mesozoic reservoir rock is in Raman limestone oil accumulation area and it has grown in Campanian early Maastrichtian of the reefal facies. In the meantime, the gravity of the crude oil was 13.4 API to 25 API is to heavy.
2.4.3 Tertiary
In Sinan areaoil has been produced from the Palaeocene. This is unique district for Tertiary accumulation in the southeast of Turkey. Oil prospects are limited in this region.

2.5 Conclusions and Discussions

The oil potential of Turkey is located in the southeast and oil had produced until 1970 in Raman. The geology of the region is viable to be accumulated and sourced. The faulting system gives good opportunity to oil to move and be trapped. Clastics and carbonates are seen together. Three type of ages (Paleozoic, Mesozoic and Tertiary) were observed and hydrocarbon was generated and accumulated in these ages. Some political issues has stopped foreign investments. They should consider the policy and open the region to the foreign investors. It is obvious the national oil company is not capable to control field.e…

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