The nursing profession demands that the nurse in the process of care has to interact with the patients, the medical fraternity and the health care workers constantly. Hence, “Nurse-Patient Interaction” is the pulse of the nursing practice. This interaction is not just conversation. It is a complex process that involves nurse perception, understanding of the patient emotions and utilization of the perceptions to manage patient situations towards the goal of effective patient care (Bar-On, 2006).
The idea of multiple intelligences is important because it allows for educators to identify differing strengths and weaknesses in students and also contradicts the idea that intelligence can be measured through intelligent quotient (IQ) score (Gardner, 2011). Traditionally the intelligent quotient (IQ) score, a measure of cognitive skills and mental abilities, was used alone or together with grades and college entrance tests as the prime measure of one’s intelligence and as a predictor of the likelihood of academic and career success including job performance (Bar-On, Maree, & Elias,2007).
Emotional intelligence is beginning to receive more attention since other factors are likely to contribute to overall academic achievement. Perhaps if emotional intelligence becomes integrated into the definition of general intelligence, it may be a better predictor of academic success, especially with the adult learner. This is significant because it redefines how educators view and explain intelligence (Colston, 2008).
The role of emotional intelligence in effective teaching can be developed and enhanced through the use of an assessment instrument as a new evaluation and learning process for teachers. This involves a formative learning process for the qualities associated with excellent teaching characteristics and behaviors for use with teacher evaluation processes and teacher preparation programs (Cherie, 2012).
Educational success or achievement of individuals does not solely depend on their intelligence quotient, but is also related to sensational and social skills of EI. Having the needed motive, the ability to remain expectant, obeying commands and controlling stimuli, skill of asking others for help and expression of emotional and educational needs are among such social skills. Therefore, EI is important in terms of educational issues (Samari and Tahmasebi ,2007).
Academic achievement shares a significant place in almost all aspects of human life as in science, technology and agriculture. It has assumed enormous importance in view of its practical value. It helps in shaping the career of individual and planning for future education. Generally students are being selected or differentiated in the school on the basis of their academic achievement. Past achievement is one of the best indicators of future accomplishment. Academic achievement is useful in evaluating the results if instructions serve as a measure of educational progress in predicting educational success. A good academic record of students is an index of an effective educational system ( Dhull, ,2013).
Academic achievement in a nursing program may be highly related to cognitive ability, but clinical and professional success is often unpredictable. Most students are selected into nursing programs based on history of academic successes, yet each possesses a unique emotional make-up that reflects personal life experience, coping skills, and core values and beliefs. To be able to practice nursing, the student should have the ability to understand the views and needs of a wide variety of people, remain sensitive and empathic to patient concerns, be able to keep personal emotional reactions in perspective, handle stress, and promote social responsibility’all concepts encompassed within the framework of emotional intelligence (Rochester, Kilstoff, & Scott, 2005).
Academic achievement is the proven ability to achieve any level of accomplishment in college studies as measured by an academic semester end or year-end Grade Point Average (GPA). This term is considered interchangeable with ‘academic success’ (Olson, 2008). Grade Point Average (GPA) is a measured of student’s academic achievement at a college or university; or it is a measure of how well student is doing in his/her academic studies. The academic grading scale goes from”A+”to ”F”, with corresponding grade points ranging from the highest ”4.00”to the lowest ”0.00”.aStudent’s Grade Point Average GPA, is mathematical calculation that indicates where an average of the grades falls on the scale (Thompson Rivers University, 2010).
there are many studies that reported that , academic achievement without emotional intelligence does not indicate future success and absence of emotional intelligence also indicate the week personality and ability to build relations at working place as well in schools and it is highly important for quality education(Preeti, 2013 ; Dhull, 2013 ).
Significance of the study
Due to the nursing shortage, more recent researches have focused on identifying students most likely to persist in nursing. Some students may struggle academically, yet exhibit exceptional nursing skills in the clinical setting. Lastly, some students have successfully completed the program, obtained licensure, but found themselves to be not well suited within the nursing profession and ultimately exit it in search of a new occupation.
So, the pool of potential nursing applicants is growing in its heterogeneity. An increasing number of applicants are considered non-traditional students, characterized by increased age, additional work and family demands, and possibly previous degree obtainment. Where students may be admitted based on meeting minimal academic admission criteria and are at high risk for not completing the program. This indicates a need for more research on non-academic variables and is a point of interest for this study.
Thus, it is important to discover the efficiencies and the talent of the students to work on their development. Since the focus of the curriculum is on the mental aspect or knowledge, neglected the psychological qualities of students. So the educational system needs to develop to keep pace with the developments and changes that have taken place in our time.
Successful students have been identified as those who maintain a satisfactory grade point average (GPA) during nursing school. Many studies have been done nationally and internationally focused on emotional intelligence and students’ academic achievement such as the causal relationships between academic achievement and emotional intelligence, problem solving style and hemisphericity dominance for university students that done by said, (2009). Where the results reveled a significant positive effect of the three independent variables on students` academic achievement and the variable which has the major effect on academic achievement was emotional intelligence.
The purpose of this study is to help the researchers and educators to understand the role of non-academic variable (emotional intelligence) to predict academic achievement of adult learners. Hopefully, the finding and recommendations of this study may encourage nursing educators to evaluate nursing education curriculum to place more of an emphasis on the development of emotional intelligence of undergraduate students.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Academic achievements in a medical program may be highly associated with intellectual ability, but medical and expert achievements is often unpredictable. Most students are selected into medical applications depending on history of educational successes, yet each possesses a unique emotional make-up that reflects individual lifestyle encounter, dealing abilities, and core values and beliefs. To be able to use medical, the school student should have the chance to perspective the views and needs of a large number of people, remain sensitive and empathic to individual concerns, be able to keep individual emotional responses in perspective, handle pressure, and enhance public liability all ideas encompassed within the structure of emotional intellect. (Kolachina, 2014).
Emotions are central in individual lives. They act as a significant component in public connection of individual and have an part for individual action prediction. They also affect their reaction as well as the way they understand exterior atmosphere. As it performs an look at our everyday life influencing decisions, thinking and interest, associated with the wellbeing of people and their total well-being. Scientists have also indicated that emotions are associated with the body defense mechanisms. Experimental outcomes show that folks who typically review experiencing adverse emotions are at higher risk of disease than those who typically review beneficial emotions. Furthermore, those who a more adverse affective design (negative emotional state) have a weaker immune response than those with a more beneficial affective design (positive emotional state). The latest book has also indicated that folks who frequently encounter beneficial emotions live longer and healthier lives. ( Dolan,2014).
A common perspective is that emotions are inside us, and then, we express them or let them out. As feelings has a neurobiological condition in response to a public scenario and thus represents the interface between the individual and the outside globe. It is how larger societal procedures are personally and relationally experienced. Adapting to feelings is thus an important source of contextual details and meaning and a way by which new encounter is constructed, not only in terminology, but also in the body. (Samman & Martin , 2015).
Konar & Chakraborty (2015) described feelings as the emotional condition of the individual mind and thoughts.Apparently, the procedure of arousal of feelings has an excellent resemblance with its manifestation as facial, vocal, and bodily gestures.
Mayer ( 2014) also described feelings As an feelings emerges, it entails coordinated changes in physiology, motor readiness, actions, knowledge, and subjective encounter that emerges from an evaluation of the self or scenario. .For example, as a individual becomes happy, she may encounter reduced blood pressure level and higher motor readiness to strategy others; she also may smile, think happy thoughts, and experience great inside. These emotional responses emerge in response to recognized or actual alterations in the person’s atmosphere.
Intelligence described as those standardized actions that tap thinking, considering, or the chance to acquire new information or those standardized actions that reflect what has been learned in a particular sector. ( Das , 2015).
Cismaru & Chiochina( 2014) put some definitions for common understandings of intellect they described it as:
1. The ability to understand or comprehend or to deal with new or trying situations; the skilled use of purpose.
2. The ability to apply information to manipulate one’s atmosphere or to think abstractly as calculated by objective criteria or assessments .
3. Scholarly definitions of what they call ‘general intelligence’ consist of of it as the
ability to understand and fix issues or to fashion products that are valued in one or more social setting.
Gardner’s Idea of Multiple Intelligences
Gardner (1983, 1993) has suggested more encompassing techniques to knowing intellect that intellect is a unitary common ability that cuts across all domains of proficiency, and he brought to lifestyle a theory that proposes that there are multiple intelligences.
Specifically, Gardner (1983) redefined the build of intellect to encompass the chance to fix issues or to make products that are valued within one or more social settings, highlighting that intellect cannot be looked at apart from the uses to which it is put and the of the social contexts.
More recently, Gardner (1999) further refined the meaning to conceptualize intellect as “a biopsychological possibility to procedure details that can be activated in a social setting to fix issues or make products that are of value in a lifestyle suggesting that intelligences are potentials to be activated, depending on social principles, opportunities in the lifestyle, and individual decisionsand established the significance of ‘intrapersonal’ and’interpersonal’ intellect and described social intellect as the chance to comprehend other people and to operate cooperatively with them, while intrapersonal intellect contains the chance to build a truthful kind of yourself and to use this to operate efficiently in daily lifestyle.( Schawbel,2014)
Mayer (2014) also described Intelligence As: amental ability (or setof mental abilities) that permit the recognition, learning, memory for, and chance to purpose about a particular way of details, such as spoken details.
Gardner (1983) in his theory on multiple intelligences argued that conventional IQ assessments evaluate linguistic, logical-mathematical, and sometimes spatial intelligences. He distinguishes people on the basis of seven different types of intellect. According to him linguistic intellect is the chance to comprehend words and how these are combined to build terminology. Logical-mathematical intellect represents the chance to see patterns, purchase, and sensible chains of thinking. The musical intellect represents individuals’ ability to discern pitch, melody, tone, rhythm, and other qualities of musical symbolism. Spatial intellect is the chance to perfectly understand and think with regards to the visual qualities of the globe and its measurements (Gardner and Hatch, 1989).
The bodily-kinesthetic intellect describes the chance to management one’s bodily motions and the chance to handle objects skilfully. Intrapersonal intellect represents the chance to access and perspective the components of one’ own inner self such as feelings, responses, and aspirations. Interpersonal intellect is the chance to notice and then make distinctions among other people such as the chance to interpret their emotions, temperaments, motivations, and intentions. Gardner (1983) emphasized that intelligences of everyone is expected to older as they older physiologically. Finally, he highlighted the significance of the interaction between the individual and the lifestyle in shaping individual actions. ( Macnamara,2015).
The connection between Emotions and Intelligence:
Earlier emotions and intellect were regarded two contradictory ideas. Emotions are often referred as disorganized interruptions of mental activity and other folks who expressed emotions were viewed adversely these everyone was regarded mentally ill and often suggested therapy to suppress their emotions. Some researchers accepted that emotions may information one’s considering and actions and may direct one’s interest towards fixing issues. (Sehrawat, & Sharma, 2014).
Emotion and intellect combine to build emotional intellect as one’s emotions do not make one smarter, but they may impact one’s considering .When one understands one’s own emotions correctly, interprets the sentiments of others perfectly, or uses this details to improve one’s considering in such scenario one will be more brilliant. The ideas of “Emotion” and “intelligence” are congruous and act in harmony with one another as instead of interfering with rational believed, intense emotional situations actually stimulate intellect by assisting people prioritize thoughts so emotions link sensible thoughts rather than disrupting them. (McKenna, & Webb, 2013).
It is very important to nursing employees and health expert teachers to perspective the idea of Emotional Intelligence (EI) and be aware of the study and theoretical constructs upon which it relies as medical is a stressful occupation and medical placements expose students at an early stage in their research to the realities of working as a health care expert. Student nursing employees need to build up the chance to management their emotions and channel their emotions constructively as an inability to self-regulate emotions often leads to an surge in pressure. (Humpel and Caputi, 2010).
Emotional Intelligence (EI): is about the ability to people or categories torecognize, evaluate, and handle their own emotions and emotions of others while planning their own actions (also intuitive and creative) towards decisions and objectives; assuming also that such a ability can be improved by smart systems and devices that can capture, recognize, interpret, and procedure individual emotions. (Minsky, 2015).
Attabi and Dumouchel (2013) also described Emotional intellect as an emerging discipline that deals with modeling, recognition and management of individual emotions and has been highlighted as an important theoretical and realistic build. It has the possibility to enable people deal better and encounter less pressure thus contributing to a proper and stable workforce.
Siegling, Nielsen, & Petrides (2014) mentioned that EI is an umbrella idea comprising three distinct components, viz., evaluation and appearance of emotions, management of emotions and utilization of emotional details in considering and acting.
Emotional intellect (EI) described as the chance to recognize one’s own and other’s emotions, to discriminate between different feelings and label them appropriately, and to use emotional details to assist considering and actions. (Goleman, 2014).
Emotional Intelligence theories:
Sternberg (1985) agreed with Thorndike’s findings and claim that public intellect is not only distinct from academic abilities but is also a fundamental element of what makes people do well in their lifestyle. Sternberg (1996) argued that traditional IQ assessments evaluate only the analytical part of intellect. According to Marlow (1986) public intellect is the chance to comprehend other people and public communications and to use this information to enjoy and information others to mutually satisfying outcomes.Cantor and Kihlstrom (1987) define public intellect as possessing information of public norms, and having the chance to get along well with others. The word ’emotional intelligence’ was first introduced to English terminology readers in a dissertation by Payne (1986).
Even though Gardner (1983) did not use the phrase emotional intellect, his ideas of intrapersonal and social intelligences offered a foundation for later designs of emotional intellect. The core of intrapersonal intellect is the ability to know one’s own emotions, while the core of social intellect is the ability to comprehend other individuals’ emotions and intentions.( Fiori& Antonakis, 2012).
Since 1990, Peter Salovey and John D. Mayer have been the leading researchers on EI. In the influential article ‘Emotional intellect,’Salovey and Mayer described EI as ‘the subset of public intellect that contains the chance to keep track of one’s own and others’ feelings and emotions, to discriminate among them and to use this details to assist one’s considering and actions. Mayer and Salovey (1997) later refined their meaning into the ‘four branch’ design, which contains four abilities:
‘ Ability to understand feelings in self and others (e.g., correctly determining a recognized emotional appearance as fear and perfectly read facial expressions).
‘ Ability to use feelings to accomplish intellectual pursuits like considering and troubleshooting (e.g., knowing how to capitalize on a happy mood swing to engage in a creative process, anticipating another person’s emotional reaction and using that information to modify one’s own behavior).
‘ Ability to comprehend emotional details (e.g. learning two emotions can blend into a third feelings and must connection between sadness and loss).
‘ Ability to handle feelings in self and others represents the conscious management of emotions both in yourself and in others. (e.g. detaching from fear declares that interfere with one’s functioning). ( Mckenna, (2013).
The book of the book by Goleman (1995), ‘Emotional Intelligence’, made popular the notion of viewing the encounter and appearance of emotions as a sector of intellect. And popularized the idea that achievements in daily lifestyle does not depend solely on a higher IQ score being “emotionally intelligent” is important. This influential book of presented many important correlates of emotional intellect and somewhat expanded the build to consist of a variety of particular public and interaction abilities influenced by the knowing and appearance of emotions. Goleman (1995) described EI as the ability to recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for monitoring ourselves, and for handling emotions in ourselves and in our connections. (Malouff, Schutte & Thorsteinsson, 2014).
Goleman outlined four measurements of emotional intelligence: knowing and handling one’s emotions, self-motivation, concern toward others, and public deftness.Knowing and handling one’s emotions represents observing yourself and the sentiments felt as well as appropriate handling of feelings. Self-motivation is described as the channelling of emotions in the pursuit of an objective, delaying gratification, and stifling impulses. Empathy is the admiration of the differences in people and the sensitivity to others’ feelings and concerns. Social deftness is the chance to handle emotions in others. (Malouff, Schutte & Thorsteinsson, 2014).
Goleman in his second book Working with Emotional Intelligence translated his earlier findings into a formula for achievement at work. Goleman in this book systematically researched the scientific data and suggested the significance of the skills people required to work at work. Goleman (1998b) combined these abilities into three categories: Minds, technical abilities, and abilities demonstrating emotional intellect. According to Goleman, emotional intelligence-based abilities, which consist of self-confidence, concern, effect, and constant improvement, the need to get outcomes, and teamwork as a set of individual abilities that are based more on the working of a different section of the brain than pure intellectual ability or technical skill. (Maul, 2012).
In (2009) Barrett et al. suggest that EI, generally, seems to build up as we older. So it would appear sensible that focusing on its improve would be achievable. Although there appears to be not a lot of consensus ‘as to whether EI is an individual ability, no cognitive skill, ability or proficiency, regardless of the theoretical structure used, researchers do believe the fact that EI embraces emotional awareness with regards to self and others, expert efficiency and emotional management.
In (2010) Takeuchi et al.’s focus on the connection between regional gray matter morphology and EI, they concurred that ’emotional Intelligence is the chance to keep track of one’s own and others’ emotions and the chance to use the gathered details to assist one’s considering and action. EI is viewed as very important to public interaction making.’EI is said to be a evaluate of an individual’s emotional ability, and therefore, certain tools are required to evaluate this particular ability.
Since 2010, we have seen evidence of the maturing of the field through the book of meta-analyses on emotional intellect (e.g. John & Newman, 2010; Kong, 2014; O’Boyle et al., 2011). Although these were not all highly supportive, they do show the field has now matured to the purpose where there are now sufficient scientific research available to settle the debate on the nature and value of emotional intellect on scientific grounds. Indeed, scientific research on emotional intellect has also started to enter the top mainstream journals within the fields of management, business psychology, and business actions. Prior to this, it was rare to see any mention of emotional intellect in the top journals in these fields, and it was usually theoretical articles only.
The latest focus on emotional intellect has firmly established that the build is a type of intellectual ability applied to the emotions sector. IQ is also a intellectual ability, but EI differs from it in that it is particularly the chance to deal with feelings. This should quell the earlier critics somewhat. For example, in another latest article, Ybarra, Kross, and Sanchez-Burks (2014), in contrast to critics such as Antonakis (in Antonakis et al., 2009), expressed enthusiasm about the future of emotional intellect, offered well-established principles of emotional processing can be incorporated into actions of EI so as to improve their predictive validity. (MacCann, John, Newman, & Roberts, 2014).
The Scope of Emotional Intelligence
(Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2009)
Emotional Intelligence (EI; upper box) is closely associated with two other scientific concepts: intellect and feelings. Intelligence and feelings have consensual meanings for most psychologists. For example, intelligences (box to right) include abilities to comprehend information; emotions (box to left) are coordinated responses to the surroundings. EI is the chance to purpose about emotions as well as the chance to use emotions and emotional details to assist thinking. Specific-Ability techniques to El (upper box, bulleted items) research such matters as how well a individual identifies emotions in encounters or how well a person understands emotional meanings. (Mayer, Roberts & Barsade, 2009).
Models of Emotional Intelligence (EI):
Currently, According to Mathews (2015). there are three main designs of EI:
1. Ability model
2. Mixed design (usually subsumed under feature EI)
3. Trait model
Different types of EI have led to the growth of various instruments for the evaluation of the build. While some of these actions may overlap, most researchers believe the fact that they tap different constructs.
1. Ability model:
Salovey and Mayer’s conception of EI strives to define EI within the confines of the standard criteria for a new intellect. Their initial purpose of EI was revised to “The chance to understand feelings, integrate feelings to accomplish believed, comprehend emotions and to management emotions to enhance individual growth.” However, after pursuing further research, their purpose of EI evolved into “the chance to purpose about emotions, and of emotions, to improve considering. It contains the skills to perfectly understand emotions, to access and generate emotions so as to assist believed, to comprehend emotions and emotional information, and to reflectively management emotions so as to enhance emotional and intellectual growth.” (MacCann, John, Newman, Roberts, 2014).
The ability-based design views emotions as useful sources that help one to appear sensible of and navigate the public atmosphere. The design proposes that people vary in their chance to procedure details of an emotional nature and in their chance to relate emotional processing to a wider knowledge. This ability is seen to manifest itself in certain adaptive actions. The design claims that EI contains four types of abilities:
1. Perceiving emotions ‘ the chance to detect and decipher emotions in encounters, pictures, voices, and social artifacts such as the chance to recognize one’s own emotions. Perceiving emotions represents a basic part of emotional intellect, as it makes all other processing of emotional details possible.
2. Using emotions ‘ the chance to harness emotions to accomplish various intellectual actions, such as considering and troubleshooting. The psychologically brilliant individual can capitalize fully upon his or her changing emotions to be able to best fit the process at hand.
3. Understanding emotions ‘ the chance to comprehend feelings terminology and to appreciate complicated connections among emotions. For example, knowing emotions encompasses the chance to be sensitive to slight variations between emotions, and the chance to recognize and describe how emotions evolve eventually.
4. Managing emotions ‘ the chance to management emotions in both ourselves and in others. Therefore, the psychologically brilliant individual can harness emotions, even adverse ones, and handle them to obtain intended objectives.
The ability EI design has been criticized in the study for lacking face and predictive validity on the job. (Tomlinson, 2014).
The current evaluate of Mayer and Salovey’s kind of EI, the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT) is with different series of emotion-based problem-solving products. Consistent with the model’s claim of EI as a type of intellect, quality is modeled on ability-based IQ assessments. By testing a individual’s abilities on each of the four branches of emotional intellect, it generates ratings for each of the branches as well as a total score. Central to the four-branch design is the idea that EI needs attunement to public norms. ( Grant&Adam, 2014).
The MSCEIT is scored in a consensus fashion, with higher ratings indicating higher overlap between an individual’s answers and those offered by a worldwide sample of respondents. The MSCEIT can also be expert-scored, so that the amount of overlap is calculated between an individual’s answers and those offered by several of 21 feelings researchers. Although promoted as the skills analyze, the MSCEIT is unlike standard IQ assessments in that its products do not have objectively correct responses. Among other challenges, the consensus scoring criterion means that it is impossible to make products (questions) that only a minority of respondents can fix, because, by meaning, responses are deemed psychologically “intelligent” only if the majority of the sample has endorsed them. This and other similar issues have led some intellectual ability experts to question the phrase EI as a genuine intellect. (Grant&Adam, 2014).
2. Mixed design :
The design introduced by Daniel Goleman (1998). focuses on EI as a wide range of abilities and talents that drive management efficiency. Goleman’s design outlines five main EI constructs:
1. Self-awareness ‘ the chance to know one’s emotions, strengths, weaknesses, drives principles and objectives and recognizes their effect on others while using gut feelings to assist decisions.
2. Self-regulation ‘ contains controlling or redirecting one’s disruptive emotions and impulses and adapting to changing circumstances.
3. Social skill ‘ handling connections to move people the desired direction
4. Empathy – considering other’s feelings especially when making decision
5. Motivation – being driven to obtain for the sake of accomplishment.
Goleman has a set of emotional abilities within each build of EI. Emotional abilities are not innate talents, but rather learned abilities that must be worked on and can be made to obtain outstanding efficiency. Goleman posits that people are born with a standard emotional intellect that determines their prospective for learning emotional abilities. Goleman’s kind of EI has been criticized in the study literary works as mere “pop psychology”. (Goleman, 2011).
Two statistic tools are depending on the Goleman model:
1. The Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI), which was created in 1999, and the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI), a newer edition of the ECI originated in 2007. These tools created by Goleman and Boyatzis offer a behavioral evaluate of the Emotional and Social abilities.
2. The Emotional Intelligence Appraisal, which was created in 2001 and which can be taken as a self-report or 360-degree evaluation.
The ability design differs from mixed designs that consist of the influences of character, atmosphere, or both on the growth of EI. (Bradberry, Travis & Jean, 2009).
3. Trait design
Konstantinos Vasilis Petrides (“K. V. Petrides”) proposed a conceptual distinction between the ability based design and a feature based kind of EI and has been developing the latter over a very extensive period in numerous publications. Trait EI is “a constellation of emotional self-perceptions located at the ‘abnormal’ amounts of character.” In lay conditions, feature EI represents an individual’s self-perceptions of their emotional abilities. This purpose of EI encompasses behavioral dispositions and self-perceived abilities and is calculated by self-review, as opposed to the ability based design which represents actual abilities, which have proven highly resistant to scientific statistic.
Trait EI should be investigated within a personality structure.it is common and subsumes the Goleman design discussed above. The conceptualization of EI as a character feature leads to a build that lies outside the taxonomy of individual intellectual ability. This is an important distinction in as much as it bears directly on the operationalization of the build and the concepts and hypotheses that are formulated about it. (Petrides, Pita, Kokkinaki, 2007).
There are many self-report actions of EI, such as the Swinburne School Emotional Intelligence Test (SUEIT), and the Schutte EI design. None of these evaluate intellect, abilities, or abilities (as their authors often claim), but rather, they are limited actions of feature emotional intellect. One of the more comprehensive and widely researched actions of this build is the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue), which was created to evaluate the build comprehensively and is available in many languages.It provides an operationalization for the kind of Petrides and colleagues that conceptualizes EI with regards to character. The analyze encompasses 15 subscales organized under four factors: well-being, self-control, emotionality, and sociability. The psychometric properties of the TEIQue were investigated in an exercise a French-speaking population, where it was revealed that TEIQue ratings were globally normally distributed and reliable.
They also discovered TEIQue ratings were unrelated to nonverbal thinking (Raven’s matrices), which they interpreted as assistance for the character feature perspective of EI (as opposed to an application of intelligence). As expected, TEIQue ratings were favorably associated with some of the Big Five character traits (extraversion, agreeableness, openness, conscientiousness) as well as inversely associated with others (alexithymia, neuroticism). Several quantitative genetic research have been carried out within the feature EI design, which has revealed important genetic results and heritability for all feature EI ratings.. (Vernon, Petrides, Bratko & Schermer, 2008).
The Application of Emotional Intelligence:
Emotional intellect is a new idea in education; it has been thoroughly researched in business and business management and discovered to be a requirement of achievements. Much less research has been performed in medical and medical education and learning regarding the idea.) Cherry, Fletcher& O’Sullivan, 2014).
Emotional Intelligence and Workplace Stress and violence:
Although nursing employees are compassionate caregivers, they also deal with a variety of office stressors, many of which can get them to show less than efficient emotional responses at the same time. They are often tired and irritable from long shifts and overtime, being on call at for the operating room, and heavy individual loads of increasingly ill sufferers. Because of their insufficient psychologically brilliant responses and communications, many have become scarred psychologically from backstabbing, second-guessing, and other abusive, demoralizing, or hostile acts nursing employees inflict on one another. (Harris, 2014).
Relatively research in coaching and growth, and actions change, particularly on emotional intellect (EI), suggests that it is possible to boost the emotional proficiency of adults. It is possible to improve emotional proficiency to reduce wellness office pressure and, vicariously, office assault. Our function in medical good care as nursing employees and medical service providers is of itself enough to cause additional pressure to our new graduates, our incoming nursing employees. Also, there seems to be a connection existing between EI and preferred conflict-handling designs of RNs. It may of course not only be RNs; higher levels of EI favorably correlated with collaborating and adversely with accommodating. (Littlejohn, 2012).
Jones and Argentino (2010) revealed that top levels of individual EI and team emotional proficiency (GEC) may be associated with low confrontational anxiety ratings. Their outcomes of their perform assistance that we need to improve EI and GEC.Because of our insufficient psychologically brilliant responses and communications, many nursing employees and other medical good care employees have become scarred psychologically from abusive, demoralizing, or hostile acts inflicted on one another. Disruptive actions among medical professionals can pose a serious threat to individual safety and the overall great high quality of good care. The expectation of regulating bodies is that medical professionals focus on results disruptive actions has on a lifestyle of safety for both sufferers and employees. Relatively research in coaching and growth, and actions change, particularly on emotional intellect, suggests that it is possible to boost the emotional proficiency of adults. As it is possible to improve emotional proficiency to reduce wellness office pressure and office assault.
Emotional Intelligence and Nursing Education:
Nursing applications are graduating students who absence the abilities required to actually adapt to labor. As the health expert graduate’s absence many of the emotional and public abilities required for achievement and efficient efficiency in medical office. However, if nursing employees are able to deal with their own feelings well, they will be able to deal with others’ feelings confidently, competently, and safely. Freshwater and Stickley; reinforced EI as the core of medical curricula. This would enable health expert teachers to produce students who are not only technically competent but who can intuitively sensation the needs and emotions of the individual at the receiving end of the good care. (Rankin, 2013).
Wessel et al., (2008). Used across-sectional, correlational design to evaluate and compare the emotional-social intellect (ESI) of scholars in medical, actual physiotherapy and wellness science applications, and to determine the connection between ESI and management, caring, and moral judgment. The research facilitates EI as a requirement to efficient medical exercise and management, and offers reinforcement for inclusion of EI ideas in medical curricula. Interpersonal abilities, existing in psychologically brilliant individuals are very important to nursing employees and boost the standard of nurse-patient connections. However, the connection of EI and academic achievements must also be looked at.
Emotional Intelligence and Academic Success:
Research facilitates a connection between EI and academic achievements. An interesting research by Brown and Schutte (2006) mentioned a connection between EI and education and learning student fatigue. As EI was calculated by using the Assessing Emotional Scale which assessed the extent to which respondents characteristically recognize, comprehend, harness, and management emotions in themselves and others. The outcomes indicated that higher EI was associated with less subjective fatigue. EI may allow students to build up buffers, such as healthier emotions, more adaptive methods of interpreting the globe, and better public facilitates. These buffers may help alleviate the results of actual physical pressure which can have a adverse effect on higher education and learning student achievements. (Maraichelvi& Rajan, 2013).
Walker (2010) administered the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i) to a large sample of undergraduate students to evaluate EI and its connection to gender, ethnicity, gpa, variety of conditions completed, and variety of hours failed within the first four semesters. An excellent connection was discovered between EI and GPA, as well as between EI and academic persistence. A relationship between EI and gender and ethnicity was also mentioned. Females scored considerably higher on EI than males.
Emotional Intelligence and Clinical Performance:
A clear connection has been mentioned between EI and academic achievements and medical efficiency. As emotional perform can include nursing employees in handling instinctive emotions such as disgust, annoyance or frustration in individual communications. By trying to perspective the issue from patients’ perspectives and empathizing with their emotions, nurses’ facial expressions and behavior can be managed to display caring behavior. On the other hand, when nursing employees reflexively recognize with sufferers in suffering, a degree of emotional management may also be required to enable them to function in a manner that is beneficial for sufferers. While it is appreciated that showing feelings that reflects feelings for sufferers shows humanity on the section of the health expert. the aim of emotional management is to accomplish the best possible outcome for sufferers or clients. If one is overcome with feelings, knowledge and behavior can be adversely affected. (Preeti, 2013).
Emotional labor is described by as the induction or suppression of sensation to sustain the outer appearance that outcomes in others sensation cared for in a safe place. Emotional labor is guided by ‘feeling rules’ derived from public conventions, the responses of others or from within the individual. (Gabriel, 2013).
Emotional labor on the portion of nursing employees may have benefits for both sufferers and nursing employees. The advantage to sufferers of sensation cared for can be demonstrated in actual physical behavior, attentiveness, and sufficient time that nursing employees share with meeting their needs. The great high quality of good care may be improved when nursing employees can engage with sufferers, detect and act on cues, anticipate needs and wishes, and respond accordingly to deal with actual physical, emotional and spiritual factors of good care. Also it is critical in establishing therapeutic nurse’patient connections but carries the risk of ‘burnout’ if prolonged or intense. To prevent this, nursing employees need to adopt strategies to protect their wellness. The possibility value of emotional intellect in this emotional jobs are an issue that still needs to be researched. (Wagner, Barnes, & Scott, 2014).
The qualities in EI are the skills to comprehend other people, are very efficient at co-operation with them and be self-aware. These are relevant to direct individual good care and multidisciplinary teamwork, so management over emotions is required in efficient communications, so that professionals show knowledge of others and in turn effect the emotions of others. In adopting principles of holistic good care, partnership and intimacy, nursing employees get to know sufferers as people and encounter emotional responses to their suffering. They are, therefore, now more exposed to both emotional and actual physical distress of the sufferers and have to deal with this as an ingredient of their perform. As Emotional intellect plays an important look at forming efficient romantic connections. (Webb, Miles, & Sheeran, 2012).
How do we figure out how to improve our dealing and reduce stress-activated conflict by using EI?
A dealing strategy that works for each of us or each circumstance was developed:
Habel (2010) suggests that we consider these possible dealing stress-reducing actions: exercise great quality with the events of the day and then asking for input from a trusted friend; writing down your reflections about what has happened at work and what you are/were feeling; taking a few deep breaths and visualizing yourself speaking calmly and slowly; and taking a few minutes to center yourself by meditating each of them is exhibiting a characteristic of EI. Certainly, nursing employees are supposed to try out nicely with each other.
Aiken, (2011). reported that office assault (WPV) in medical good care has become a global issue. Because office maybe include assault, spoken abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment, which improved in the past several decades, the United States National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, in 2002, vigorously promoted the hope that people around the globe would take note of increasing WPV.So we need rational intellect for the science of medical and EI for the art of medical.
Academic accomplishment described as the outcome to train and learning or the extent to which an excellent student, teacher or organization has achieved their educational objectives. Academic accomplishment is commonly calculated by several methods including; efficiency in individual courses; grouped courses; yearly gpa (GPA), program GPA and continuous evaluation but there is no common agreement on how it is best tested or which factors are the most important. ( Molaee , Asdzadeh & Dortaj,2014 ).
Grade-point regular (GPA) is one of the most important indicators of school achievements, potentially influencing both financial aids in the temporary and career in the long run. (Feldman& Kubota, 2014).
Factors influencing kids’ academic achievement:
There are several factors can effect on academic accomplishment either favorably or adversely were identified as impacting on higher education and learning kids’ academic accomplishment. These include:
1) Student’s factors, 2) Instructor’s factors, 3) College Factors, 4) public part. (Gqweta, 2012).
1) scholar’s factors:
1-1) Demographic factor:
Traditionally students enroll in preregistration education and learning after completing additional education and learning at the age of 17 to 18 a lot of age. However, there has been a surge in the amount of older students enrolling into preregistration education and learning. The drive to recruit old students into medical applications is reinforced by findings that although not all important show being older does not affect adversely on efficiency. (Kimani, Kara & Njagi, 2013).
Nursing has traditionally been a female dominated career, a1though in the last
40 decades the amount of males has grown. Males entering medical require additional assistance as they continue to have poorer academic accomplishment compared to female students.
(Molaee, Asdzadeh & Dortaj, 2014).
1-2) Student’s lifestyle style:
A healthier lifestyle of the school student has been identified as one of the factors that be a part attending higher education and learning student academic accomplishment, because it relates to an excellent scholar’s lifestyle, such as attending sessions, working diligently, socializing, and maintaining healthier social connections such as separate learning. Therefore, the learners’ internal wellness and exterior atmosphere may perform an important look at their academic accomplishment. In addition, home research or separate research achievable through willingness to minimize certain factors of one’s public interaction. Mature students illustrate this willingness; they minimize exposure to factors of their public interaction that might interfere with their academic accomplishment, such as excessive socializing and intense social connections. They are focused and objective oriented, they delay instant gratification for long lasting gains and objectives. They resist the temptation to engage in instant pleasurable experiences that usually occur parallel to learning. (Gqweta, 2012).
1-3) Personal factors:
Personal factors impacting higher education and learning kids’ academic accomplishment included dedication to this method, natural abilities, academic planning, exterior obligations, and dedication to an objective, self-efficacy, self-determination, and self-worth. The greatest source of strength to succeed attending higher education and learning by nursing employees was from themselves (i.e., self-efficacy, self- termination, and self-motivation). (Fernandez, Salamonson, & Griffiths, 2012).
1-3-1) Outside responsibilities:
Success in medical university needs dedication to this method. People who have numerous family commitments or must perform too much hours to finance their schooling will likely struggle to keep up with their sessions and reports. Even the best intentioned nursing employees can struggle with balancing their homework and their current obligations. Those who do have many preexisting obligations must carefully consider whether they will be willing to devote the necessary a chance to their research and perhaps consider alternate arrangements to take some of the obligations off of their plates temporarily. (Womble, 2012).
1-3-2) Low Self-Confidence or Interest:
In common, insufficient efficiency is discovered to arise from a complex of factors in the individual student’s higher education and learning encounter, only some of which exist prior to entry. The most important among higher education and learning student factors is regarded as being an absence of self-confidence, assurance in the medium of instruction, or application due to absence of curiosity about the course. These students perhaps do not communicate, do not seek help, and/or have difficulty adjusting to the school atmosphere. And have insufficient terminology or communications abilities, as well as leading to insufficient interaction and contribution in the class room and other academic actions (and extra-curricular actions also in many cases). (Womble, 2012).
1-4) Cognitive factors:
Levett-Jones et al., 2010 stated that undergraduate medical student’s chance to procedure details and purpose effectively has been highlighted as an important great quality within the career of medical and there is a possible connection between medical student’s critical considering abilities and academic accomplishment.
1-5) Non-cognitive factors:
In an attempt to boost the predictability of school achievements, research has started to consider non-cognitive factors. Examples of such factors consist of Emotions, higher education and learning adjustment, community service, inspiration, Self-Regulated Learning, self-control, family background and Stress. (Gqweta, 2012).
1-5-1) the Negative results of Emotions on Academic Achievement:
Positive emotional experiences perform a look at academic accomplishment and have a considerable effect on students’ultimate achievements in the tutorial sector. Students’ enjoyment, hope, and pride relate favorably to their academic accomplishment, whereas hopelessness relates adversely to accomplishment. Both boredom and anxiety also outcome in an adverse prediction of generalized accomplishment as calculated by gpa (GPA). Moreover, some students encounter both positive and negative emotions with regards to an event, whereas others review only adverse emotions. The efficiency of those students who interpret any arousal as adverse would be more impeded than the efficiency of scholars who label the improved level of arousal with regards to both bad and the best emotions. (Huang, 2012).
1-5-2) Self-Regulated Learning as Forecaster of Academic Achievement:
Self-regulated learning is a multidimensional build that emphasizes the active section of the student. A self-regulated higher education and learning student is characterized as an excellent student who is aware not only of process requirements but also of his own needs with regard to optimal learning experiences. In fact, self-regulated student’s perspective learning as a controllable process: they constantly plan, organize, observe, and evaluate their learning during this procedure. They set standards or objectives to strive for in their learning, observe their progress toward these objectives, and then adapt and management their knowledge, inspiration, and actions to be able to reach their objectives. Self-regulated students actively avoid actions and cognitions detrimental to academic success; they know particularly necessary for learning to occur and comprehend when and how to utilize methods that improve perseverance and efficiency. (Efklides, 2011).
1-5-3) Motivation as Forecaster of Academic Achievement:
Students experience differently about themselves and their academic accomplishment and choose different considerations depending on what they believe they are capable of and what they hope to obtain. Students who believe they are able and will do well are much more likely to be inspired with regards to effort, perseverance, and actions than students who believe they are less able and do not expect to succeed. Students’ implicit concepts of intellect, self-efficacy, and strategy accomplishment objectives perform an important look at their purpose. These different components of inspiration are closely connected to self-regulated learning and accomplish and effect various self-regulatory methods. (Conley, 2012).
Motivation has been described as the procedure by which actions is energized, directed and sustained in business settings. There are two types of inspiration implicit inspiration and extrinsic inspiration. Intrinsic inspiration has been described as (a) contribution in an activity purely out of curiosity, that is, for a need to know about something (b) the desire to engage in an activity purely for the sake of participating in and completing a process (c) the desire to contribute. Intrinsic inspiration needs much persistence and effort put forth by an individual higher education and learning student. Students with implicit inspiration would make objectives such as the objective to understand and the objective to obtain. ( Adeyemo &Ogundokun, 2010).
Extrinsic inspiration represents motives that are outside of and separate from the behaviors they cause; the motive for the behavior is not inherent in or important to the behavior itself. If an excellent student research hard to do well on the analyze because an excellent quality will outcome in a brand new car, then the motive behind learning is not what it is intended to do: obtain information. Studying details are a requirement to learning; however, it is often manipulated to enjoy toward other things such as money, acceptance, or power. Achievement inspiration is a strong predictor of great academic efficiency and efficient schooling. Motivational theorists believe the fact that academic inspiration favorably influences academic accomplishment. (Adeyemo &Ogundokun, 2010).
1-5-4) Stress as Forecaster of Academic Achievement:
Stress is the bodies’ reaction both neurologically and physiologically to adapt to the new condition. College-related pressure has been discovered to be inversely associated with academic efficiency among undergraduates. Student can be stressed due to different stressors such as academic, financial, medical relevant or loss of close friend, etc. So pressure has a adverse effect on the tutorial efficiency of scholars. (Halizah Siraj, 2014).
1-6) Personality and actions factors:
Personality has been widely researched in the broader higher education and learning student population and self-efficacy can be described with regards to an individual’s inspiration to apply effort. As Self-efficacy is described as a self-evaluation of one’s proficiency to actually execute a course of action necessary to reach desired outcomes. And academic self-efficacy represents students’ assurance in their chance to carry out such academic projects as preparing for examinations and writing phrase papers. (McLaughlin, Moutray & Muldoon, 2010).
Self-efficacy impact higher education and learning outcomes by increasing students’ inspiration and persistence to master challenging academic projects and by fostering the efficient use of acquired abilities and information and increasing interest in educational research. People with High self-efficacy help to make feelings of serenity in approaching challenging projects and actions. Conversely, low self-efficacy may believe that things are tougher than they really are a belief that fosters pressure, depression, and a narrow vision of how best to fix an issue and Students with good self-complacency have repeatedly been associated with academic accomplishment. Several previous researchers concluded that self-efficacy was favorably associated with academic efficiency. (Shkullaku, 2013).
2) Instructor’s factors:
2-1) Course fills
Workload implies that if a individual within the short period of your time, encounters many issues and cannot fix them, he/she will experience part overload. Load affects a person’s wellness and perform great quality. Previous research argued that fill has a confident connection with tobacco addiction, cholesterol, excessive nervousness, and heart rate. So, we apply this idea in the student’s learning atmosphere. If students recognized a heavy course fill, they would have a higher burnout rate and low academic accomplishment. Thus, we conclude that the further the course fill, the larger the burnout and the reduced the tutorial accomplishment. (English & John, 2013).
When students understand that they are in a transparent, just and fair atmosphere, they display higher emotional stability and accomplish better academic efficiency. However, if students understand that they are treated unfairly or with disrespect, they despise university and avoid going to category, which causes reduced academic efficiency and emotional depression, even leading to bad social connections. (Gilman, 2012).
2-3) Lecturers’ Attention and Commitment:
Attention also contributes to students’ academic accomplishment. Attention has to do with a learner’s predisposition to react favorably in certain methods toward certain part of the surroundings and interest levels are usually designed with regards to and remains allied to more basic motives. Attention reaction to any scenario depends upon the situation’s prospective or actual fulfilment of individual needs and objectives. Attention and dedication to learning impact students’ academic accomplishment. There is an important connection between teachers’ credentials and students’ academic accomplishment. (Tomlinson, 2014).
2-4)Instructor’s information of Topic and Enthusiasm for Teaching:
Factors such as instructor’s information of subject, planning for category, chance to maintain interest and stimulate research, chance to clearly explain topic, enthusiasm for educating, consideration and curiosity about students, chance to stimulate considering, organization of lectures, tying details together and coverage of subject of examinations impact educating great quality and students’ academic accomplishment. Other factors include: instructor’s characteristics, differences in instructor, views of instructor and course attributes.
( Macnamara,2015) .
2-5)Teaching Method – Instructional Effectiveness:
Instructional efficiency and cooperative/competitive condition impact academic accomplishment. Teachers’ attitude can make students to run away in education. Moreover, adopting a bad methodology, cursing and calling students by derogatory names may cause acts of truancy and absenteeism on the portion of scholars. The content of the lesson is in most cases not adequate to keep students in education. As a outcome of the inadequacy in the planning of topic, students may loiter along the school compound looking for an opportunity to go away the school. Some of scholars do not bother to come university because they know their instructors will not teach well. This exercise is also widespread among students of tertiary organizations. (Mlambo, 2011).
3) Social factor:
3-1) Social support
Social wellness categories included participating in a research team and feelings of belonging. Support was also discovered to be associated with GPA and intent to quit higher education and learning. Social assistance has been identified as a resource that enables people deal with pressure. Perceived adequacy of public assistance has repeatedly been discovered to relate favorably to mental and wellness. As folks who lacked public assistance were easily affected by pressure and other those who higher public assistance tend not to have emotional or medical concerns. Parental participation, instructor attitudes, and expert connections do perform important roles in a student’s academic accomplishment. Hence, we conclude that the higher the public assistance, the reduced the burnout, and the larger the tutorial accomplishment. (Zhang& Aasheim, 2011).
4) College Factors:
4-1) Academic factor:
The traditional duration of entry for most preregistration medical applications is following university and depending on matriculation credentials. Internationally universities and universities have broadened entrance credentials for entry to medical applications to consist of Ludents’ university efficiency, requirement university programs and pre-admission minations. It is clear that students who perform better prior to entrance or on promotion examinations will have better academic efficiency within this method. Therefore, it is important to establish and check out efficiency of educational facilitates for those with reduced entrance credentials. (Tanner. &. Tanner, 2011).
Gqweta, (2012), mentioned that it is worth noting that kids’ insufficient academic accomplishment. Performance may outcome from numerous factors such as incongruence of the educating strategy to the kids’ learning designs, absence of inspiration, self-efficiency doubts as well as Inefficient learning methods. Furthermore, the type of evaluation utilized may also have an effect on the kids’ efficiency. Written assessments have demonstrated a decreased efficiency pattern for people as opposed to other types of evaluation. Projects, team projects, presentations and realistic assessments improved higher education and learning student efficiency in the particular program.
4-2) Student-Teacher Ratios:
Over populated sessions, institutional materials for learning and educating and teachers’ pedagogy are considerably associated with students’ academic accomplishment. Lack coaching aids in most educational organizations and insufficient planning of most instructors on the efficient use coaching or instructional aids make serious learning barriers that might outcome to under accomplishment or insufficient efficiency in subjects taught in educational organizations. Class size is equally very crucial in education design, and drives a host of costly facility-related issues that are along the same lines of the educational organizations buildings, planning, design, construction, costs maintenance and operation. Given that education and learning is labor intensive, category size is a big look at determining the amount of instructors required and hence, how much education and learning will cost. While public scientists are engaged in an intensive debate over the results of category size on educational outcomes, there is a widespread popular belief that smaller is better. (Kimani, Kara &Njagi, 2013).
Friendliness at work, grasp of business policies, observing hierarchical structure, providing incentives for job efficiency are considerably associated with the individual attributes of principals. As when instructors are satisfied with their boss attitude and promotion prospects, they will put in their best and ensure students’ academic progress. School management, salary, educational policy and reforms, conditions of service considerably contribute to the satisfaction and inspiration among education and learning professionals. The greatest influences on instructor morale, job satisfaction and inspiration are university management and management.) Adaramola & Obomanu 2011).
4-4)School Calendar Stability:
Disruption in education calendar stability was discovered to boost the risk of educational failure and hinder educational accomplishment (National Centre for Mental Health Promotion and Youth Violence Prevention, 2010). Savas and Gurel (2014) revealed in a research of the factors affecting the achievements of scholars in Turkey. The researchers discovered that students who attended private organizations for time of time are easier than the ones who studied for a few months. In other words, the longer students attended private education and learning organization, the higher their academic accomplishment.
4-5) School Plant:
Good university atmosphere is crucial in the attainment of great quality education and learning. Helpful learning atmosphere improves students’ efficiency in education perform and examinations. School atmosphere described as the aggregate of exterior conditions or factors, which affect them of colleges. These conditions often include: economic, legal, political, socio-cultural, technological and actual physical factors. Also it is conditions (natural and man-made) prevalent in the school and include: climate, building and their structural designs, facilities/equipment for educating and learning, collection materials, recreational features, management kind of the school management and the level of educational planning and participation. (Mbugua, Kibet, Muthaa & Reche, 2012).
Good university atmosphere is very important for the attainment of great quality education and learning and could affect students’ academic efficiency. Good atmosphere can lift one up and enhance one’s all round growth and bad atmosphere can let one down and build a individual live a hopeless lifestyle. So clean, quiet, safe, comfortable, and healthier environments are an extremely important component of efficient learning and educating. Also insufficient indoor great high quality of air makes instructors and students sick and sick students and instructors cannot perform as well as healthier ones. (Napier& Makura, 2013).
Good acoustics are also fundamental to great academic efficiency as higher education and learning student accomplishment is associated with educational organizations that have less exterior disturbance, that outside disturbance causes improved higher education and learning student dissatisfaction within their classrooms, and that excessive disturbance causes pressure on students. These issues are more acute for folks who may have hearing impediments and may change the detection of such impediments. Also disturbance levels effect spoken interaction, reading comprehension, blood pressure level and intellectual process achievements and may induce feelings of helplessness, inability to concentrate and absence of extended application to learning projects. ( Maguswi ,2011).
4-6)Physical and Content Resources:
Inadequate resource scenario in educational organizations for learning and educating may cause low students’ academic accomplishment. As there is a confident and important connection exists between actual physical and material resource scenario and students’ academic efficiency. Also the presence of unqualified instructors in the school program has the tendency to cause low students’ efficiency since qualified instructors have been seen as the drivers of efficient educational program. )Asikhia 2010).
4-7)Adequacy of Academic Infrastructure:
Accessibility to suitable places to read, adequacy of educational infrastructure and well equipped laboratories had important contributions to students’ academic efficiency. Also actual physical and material sources contributed considerably to students’ academic accomplishment. As insufficient sources for learning and educating may cause low students’ academic accomplishment. )Kimani, Kara & Njagi 2013).
Pupils’ variety should be given improved emphasis as the determinants of school budgets with the intended consequences.as teachers’ welfare package, employees growth scheme, promotion prospects are considerably associated with students’ academic accomplishment. However, if actual physical and material sources were optimally used, educating efficiency would be better improved. The non-significance of utilization of sources on educating efficiency may not be unrelated to the experience of frustration experienced by instructors as a outcome of common inadequacies in the provision of sources. )Murunga, Kilaha &Wanyonyi ,2013).
Strategies for enhancing Academic Performance:
There are several methods to improve student’s efficiency. They fall into three categories: (i) student-centered strategies; (ii) strategies to improve instructor efficiency to deal with insufficient students; and (iii) methods beyond the instructor implemented by the school or affiliating university.) Dougherty, 2015).
(i) – student-centered strategies:
1.1Appointment of Active Student Advisers, Mentors or Proctors.
The organization can appoint one employee for every 10-15 students entering in the first season. This Faculty Adviser/ Mentor/Proctor establishes a close connection with each higher education and learning student, orients them university methods, follows their progress regularly (e.g., with at least fortnightly/monthly meetings) and guides them throughout the four-year course. First-year students are important because the transition in education university and/or from home to hostel is often uncomfortable. However, contrary to the belief that only ‘first years’ require counseling and mentoring, students in all four decades need this as different issues make at different times.
The Faculty Adviser (FA) gives academic as well as individual advice; s/he is not necessarily able to deal with everything ‘ but outcomes in guiding the school student, putting the school student in touch with the appropriate assistance, and so on. For example, if an excellent student encounters poverty, the FA could help him/her seek a loan from the school administration; if someone has adjustment issues, the help of a Counselor may be sought. The connection is more informal than formal, allowing students to ask for help when they need it and share their issues without fear.
The Faculty Adviser (FA) discusses higher education and learning student efficiency, finds out whether there are non-academic reasons for a student’s insufficient or declining efficiency, and advises on appropriate research or other actions to be taken. The FA might also mediate between an excellent student and other employee if necessary, or seek help from a higher-level individual (HOD, Dean, Principal). Although students may not be for this next suggestion ‘ the FA may also keep in touch withparents and talk to them when a relevant issue arises. Faculty may be given some expert learning mentoring and counseling to try out this part. (Roberts-Hull, Jensen & Cooper, 2015).
1.2Diagnosing and Tracking Student Performance and Attendance.
Some universities start with an initial diagnostic analyze, supplementing their information of the represents with which students enter the school. Properly devised assessments offer details about areas or particular subjects in which a particular higher education and learning student is insufficient, and therefore what additional coaching s/he needs. These universities also gave details about which subjects need to be emphasized by the topic instructor for the school student team more widely. It is helpful to carry out such assessments particularly before ‘tough’ subjects begin each term.
The efficiency of insufficient students is reviewed by the instructor during the term, and efforts made to strengthen educating, and/or offer additional educating as required. Reviewing higher education and learning student attendance in connection with efficiency, and advising students about attending sessions, making up sessions missed, and getting additional help is also useful. A ‘report card ‘system can be used for each higher education and learning student, and carried through for the four higher education and learning decades. (Molaee , Asdzadeh & Dortaj ,2014 ).
1.3Improving Academic Performance.
Efforts to help students deal with particular academic weaknesses can include improvements in instructor methods in the class room and focused on the insufficient students. Many universities offer remedial sessions either during the term (say, in the evenings, on weekends or during periods of preparatory leave) or vacations. Another strategy is use a two-week period (in addition to planning leave) when no is held but instructors are available to help students deal with their weaknesses. Extra inputs could also get offers for in more innovative methods, such as:
‘ Tutorial sessions where additional issues are solved and students connect to each other in addition to a employee or older post-graduate higher education and learning student.
‘ Where there are many of weak students who cannot be handled individually, a ‘Student Academic Support Program’ could systematically offer additional sessions, additional notes and additional guidance.
‘ Student and employees collaborations on projects (which may be integrated in the curriculum) where instructors are available to students formally and informally and focus interest on insufficient individuals the team. (Zbar, 2013).
1.4Peer Learning Groups.
Peer learning categories motivate and help students to build up as they find that others have similar issues and get a chance to discuss their academic issues and other issues. Although students experience that they already perform a full day, and they also believe the fact that they like to analyze in categories and it is efficient. An organized way of this implies forming multiple 10-12 students – excellent and insufficient mixed, who understand jointly. They can revise lessons after category or on weekends, before examinations, etc. and undertake team projects also. Good students can help insufficient ones ‘ the act of tutoring also helps excellent students.
Peer categories can also help each other. There can be ‘vertical’ integration, i.e., older students can function with juniors, and student-faculty communications can also be improved, with instructors being available as resource persons to the school student learning categories and even interacting informally with them. A variation of this is the ‘buddy system’ where excellent and insufficient students (or older and junior students) are paired and connect to each other. (Jensen, Seeker, Sonnemann & Cooper, 2014).
Motivation is central university student achievements in a medical academic program, Educators Assume that their students are inspired to understand. Furthermore, accomplishment, inspiration and academic self -confidence have the strongest connection university quality factor average; therefore, highly inspired students may illustrate higher efficiency patterns. Students’ academic efficiency is connected to an excellent assistance program and inspiration from parents and teachers. Furthermore, teachers that are inspired make excellent instructors or facilitators and induce inspiration on their students. Educator’s inspiration and interest on the topic taught may improve kids’ interest and academic accomplishment. (Goss, Seeker, Romanes&Parsonage, 2015).
The accessibility of public assistance from family, friends may assist the school student in handling the stressful results of employment, academic demands, and other outside lifestyle demands. The extensive existing literary works examining scholars consistently suggest a confident linear connection between academic accomplishment and accessibility of public assistance. For example, Cutrona, (2004) revealed that parental public assistance was an important beneficial predictor of GPA for traditional students. Chartrand, (2007) revealed that public assistance of farnily and friends was one important predictor of efficient higher education and learning adjustment. (Barber& Hill, 2014).
1.7Nursing and allied wellness students:
Students in certain academic curricula and applications, such as those pursuing medical, typically move through their course function in cohort categories and therefore have much less opportunity to use the strategy of reducing their per term course fill and extending their program over a longer time-period. Also among students such as those in medical and the wellness sciences, higher particular GPA requirements exist for program continuance. Thus, the prospective connection between term-time employment and academic accomplishment among these students may have additional occurrence for these students. (Dinham, 2012).
1.8College assistance services:
The universities must offer some reinforced services to their students to ensure the setter academic efficiency for them; these services like; emotional assistance and sustenance, informational assistance, instrumental assistance, material assistance, and identity assistance. The universities must perspective the stresses that students encounter and deal with those issues by providing a climate in which students experience reinforced and know how to access the required assistance. Regarding informational assistance, the universities need to provide details assistance about housing, transportation, interaction, and wellness needs.
A quantitative research researched the connection between higher education and learning assistance services university student and kids’ academic accomplishment that the use of school assistance services of school student such as advising, counseling, workshops, tutoring, computer laboratories, transfer planning, career exploration, and social actions outcome in improve kids’ details about higher education and learning program that will reflect on students’ academic accomplishment in a confident way. (Sahlberg, 2015)
1.9Enhancing class room efficiency:
1.9.1Improving Classroom Practices:
One of the most critical needs is to ensure class room sizes in which instructors can provide adequate focus on students and include them in the daily lesson. To improve class’s instructors could adopt one or more of the following techniques.
‘ Start by asking students what they know and build their information and assurance by educating some familiar material and gradually moving to a new or challenging topic.
‘ Explain the significance of a topic being taught and its relevance to the real life.
‘ Give realistic examples particularly when explaining challenging ideas. Balancing theory and employ is an important request from students which also means providing more a chance to lab perform, projects and internships.
‘ Organize lectures by factors, such as adequate examples in each, using materials beyond the textbook!
‘ Move around the class room and connect to students while they fix issues or read texts, or even while just providing the lecture.
‘ Speak clearly and audibly.
‘ Use media beyond ‘chalk, board and Power-points – classrooms can be equipped with charts, designs, projectors and videos to make instruction more visual and tactile.
‘ Give reviews to students on their efficiency and how to improve it. Weak students (and others) say they rarely get constructive feedback; in some instances, they get no reviews at all. Besides making such reviews portion of teachers ‘responsibilities, they need to be trained in how to provide it with.
‘ Be open to concerns and to reviews from students about the educating contents and elegance.
‘ Be available for formal and informal contact after category. (Scheerens, Ehren, Sleegers & Leeuw, 2012).
1.9.Increasing Student Participation in the Classroom.
Both employees and students believe the fact that higher education and learning student contribution in the class room must be encouraged because it engages students more, builds their assurance, and helps clear their doubts. There are many ideas for instructors to improve higher education and learning student contribution, enjoyment and efficiency.
‘ Ask students concerns at the beginning of each category about the previous lesson, thereby assisting them to revise the earlier material and providing continuity.
‘ Ask students what they have understood in a category after 20-30 minutes, and ask them to summarize the details at the end of a category.
‘ Give students an issue at the end of a category to fix and existing in the next category.
‘ Ask students to fix issues on the board or on paper individually or in categories.
‘ Divide students into categories and ask each team to check out a topic from the syllabus and existing a seminar on it. Mixing students of different abilities, or varying vocabulary abilities, is useful. The groups’ subjects may be different or the same ‘ in the latter students gift for 10-15 minutes each, showing how an issue can be looked at from different perspectives or different evidence can be collected. Having one variety of scholars existing and another make inquiries is an efficient way to get students to have interaction, think and discuss. This can be extended to fixing an issue or doing a more substantial project, and even a multi-disciplinary project. Preparation of project reports before the category is also efficient.
‘ Encourage students to make inquiries in education, providing additional chances to insufficient students.
‘ Increase the amount of ‘hands-on’ function in laboratories, workshops, projects, improve team assignments, motivate and reward teamwork, especially where ‘mixed’ teams (peer groups) have helped insufficient students improve.
‘ Give assignments; ask students to prepare charts and review these collectively with students, selecting the most useful to display in the class room. On-line assignments are also useful, as well as other on-line materials such as movie clips, simulations, and lab demonstrations.
‘ Under take continuous evaluation, ensuring that these outcomes count in the final grade/marks.
(ii) Improving instructor effectiveness
2.1 Updating Domain Knowledge.
The need for having forceful and up-to-date sector information is well understood and given the rapid growth of technologies, new areas and even ideas. Fliers and business cards such as sending employees on exchange applications, to attend conferences, or to do PhDs in cutting-edge organizations are important but cover relatively few. Some universities pay all expenses for employees to existing papers at national or international conferences. Some give instructors keep without pay with liens on their job, while some even offer full paid keep for upgrading credentials.
The best universities earmark a proportion of their budget for employees’ growth actions. Improving sector information can also be done for larger numbers of school in several methods. Regular employees’ seminars on new subjects (which could also consist of older students); collection corners with compilations of contemporary journal articles, books, textbooks, etc.; seminars and workshops organized jointly with other universities are some ideas. There is considerable scope to innovate and make broader-based actions that constantly motivate and help employees (both the young and more senior) to update themselves. (Higgins, Kokotsaki & Coe, 2012).
2.2 Training in Pedagogy:
Institutions could devise methods to deepen pedagogical coaching especially for instructors who really need to improve their educating abilities and other who are really interested in achieving excellence in educating, inspired by a desire to build up the young minds for whom they are responsible, to innovate, and so on. International research suggests that recruiting instructors who are enthusiastic about educating and passionate about their subject is the best way to produce great quality Outcomes. And if organizations have not been able to recruit such instructors, they must enthuse the ones they have recruited. ‘Joyful learning’ is as important as it is in primary schooling, particularly in these times when youth are hyper-stimulated through television, the Internet, other types of media, the marketplace and changing public mores. Training in pedagogy must be designed to deal with insufficient students. For example, particularly most sought by insufficient students are ‘interactive methods’. Some universities have used videography for instructors to ‘see’ themselves teach, and obtain reviews from trainers or other instructors. (Victorian Department of Education and Training ,2015).
2.3 Fostering Positive Teacher Behaviors.
An important area for improvement of instructor efficiency is their actions toward students (especially insufficient ones). Students review that some instructors not only do not like concerns being asked in the class room, but are also rude about it and, even if approached after category, punish the school student (e.g., by providing reduced represents, etc.). Several techniques are used to improve such actions, such as Faculty Appraisal. An important ‘first resort’ is to counsel instructors who show bad actions, help and information them. Besides having a formal Counselor, some universities type senior-junior pairs of instructors ‘ the better instructor can help the weaker one; the more ‘expert’ can help the other to improve their information, etc. These pairs can sit in on each other’s sessions, connect to the other’s students, and offer ‘real time’ reviews and advice. (Santiago, Nusche, Braun &G”bor, 2014).
2.4 Faculty Appraisal System.
Faculty evaluation can start with a self-assessment type which is rigorously reviewed by the HOD, Deans, Faculty Committee, etc. It can usefully consist of higher education and learning student evaluations. While some institutes are reluctant to consider higher education and learning student evaluations because they experience that students ‘give lenient instructors kudos and strict instructors low represents,’ others give ‘incentive represents,’ for example, to instructors who perform diligently and are appreciated by students. Institutions may find their own way of taking higher education and learning student evaluations of instructor efficiency and actions seriously if insufficient students (who are often the hardest to handle) are to be helped. In the Faculty Appraisal represents can be given for a teacher’s contribution in a range of actions such as:
‘ Improving students’ examination ratings or ensuring ‘no failures’
‘ Assisting to boost the collection, laboratories or other educating features
‘ Helping students to get internships and placement
‘ Allowing their department a center of excellence
‘ Teaching new programs
‘ Participating in expert educating (where employees give reviews on the educating kind of their peers).
‘ Using coaching opportunities offered to them
‘ Improving their credentials
‘ Going to rural great educational organizations and inviting students to the campus to interest them in applying
‘ Filing for patents
Teachers could be given incentive pay for scoring above a certain level or for particular ‘rare’ achievements such as ‘first book in a peer-reviewed journal’, obtaining a patent, etc. (Bentley & Cazaly, 2015).
Also Gqweta, (2012) mentioned other methods such as:
2.5 The congruence methods of coaching with learning styles:
Students have different learning designs and teachers need to utilize a variety methods of coaching to accommodate most, if not all, leaning designs. Furthermore, teachers must be aware that they have the chance to widen their educating designs in methods that can meet the versatility of their kids’ learning preferences. Consequently, this will improve kids’ achievements. Varying one’s educating methods ensures that a wide audience is reached and can access the details. Furthermore, it promotes retention and application of new information. Accordingly, teachers should be sensitive to different learning designs and be equipped to apply different educating methods. Misalignment methods of coaching and kids’ learning designs may cause kids’ in attentiveness, insufficient efficiency, loss appealing, and ultimately dropping out of the course. The congruence of the educating methods and learning designs may also improve kids’ learning methods.
2.5The liability within the coaching environment:
Even though the current scholar’s improvement plans were mainly a matter of self-growth and revealed. Students also strongly felt that achievements depended mainly on the educator. This perspective is in stark contrast to the student -center strategy, where students are within the center of the coaching program and responsible for their learning. There is need to motivate a sense of liability of scholars with regard to the coaching atmosphere.
Accordingly, teachers make learning opportunities that re-enforce separate learning design and research abilities through higher education and learning student presentations, assignment projects and team projects. However, achievements in academic program needs utilization of strategic learning methods which in turn require interest, effort and consistency. Extensive course loads and the comprehensive details covered in today’s curricula necessitate the use of efficient research methods for academic achievements. The strategic learning methods require one to be attentive, consistent and inspired to become executed optimally. Students utilizing these learning methods will be demonstrating a degree of liability for the self within the coaching atmosphere.
2.7 efficient learning techniques:
The absence of data has led teachers to utilize principles methods of coaching that they are familiar with, which are not necessarily efficient. Conversely students utilize learning methods that are not necessarily efficient despite their familiarity with such methods. Some educating methods motivate a consume reproducer connection between students and teachers and as a consequence student become conditioned to receive and teachers to provide. As a outcome students may absence necessary abilities such as interaction, being portion of a team, searching for and consolidating details. This teacher-centered model outcome in that students are not well prepared to function independently. The learner-centered – model was introduced to replace the teacher-centered model to be able to deal with the need of the student and consequently those of society.
The learner-centered model encourages students to become separate, actively involved in and responsible for their Learning Educators are expected to employ learner-centered educating methods and a variety of evaluation types. The section of the educator changes from that of a “teacher” into that of a ‘facilitator”. Therefore, the change from teacher-centered to learner-centered education and learning will ensure maximized kids’ participation within the tutorial program. Such participation is hoped to improve kids’ liability and subsequent academic accomplishment.
(iii) BEYOND THE TEACHER
Several other efforts involving the organization more broadly could help insufficient students.
Improvement of Course Curriculum and Content.
While important program revision may have been a lengthy and distant affair in the past, it has been made easier with autonomy as each organization can evaluate higher education and learning student difficulties within its own context (e.g., accessibility of school, numbers and expertise) and then make suitable adjustments. Many steps can be taken to assist insufficient students.
‘ Include students in the evaluation and revision of program ‘ not only excellent students but regular and insufficient ones so that their needs can also be taken into account.
‘ Properly sequence program and syllabi going from the simple to the more complex. For example, students in some declares consider the first-year program to be easy and the second season very hard – covering some second-year ideas in the first season would depart time in the second season to go over challenging material again. (In other declares, students experience that the first season is quite difficult; this difference indicates the need for solutions to be contextual.)
‘ Develop learning objectives. Faculty of a department can get together to design the coaching objectives of individual subjects and the overall program. If students are told the necessary learning outcomes in advance, they have an objective to focus on.
‘ Integrate theory and practical’s. Students and employees experience that period in laboratories needs to be improved, more project and team perform done, and more realistic exposure gained. This is not only helpful but important for insufficient students.
‘ Identify appropriate methods and offer the relevant technology for educating different course contents, particularly to balance theory and employ.
‘ Schedule repeat examinations within a few weeks of the original ones, and offer additional sessions in the interim to students who must repeat the examinations.
‘ Include associates from other institutes in departmental Boards of Studies. They can look at this method and then make necessary changes in keeping with new requirements in the field of outside employment. (Jensen, Seeker, Sonnemann& Burns, 2012).
Emotional Intelligence and Academic accomplishment:
Petridis, Frederickson & Furnhamb (2004). Examines the portion of feature emotional intellect (‘trait EI’) in academic efficiency and in deviant actions in education in British additional education and learning. The research declares that feature EI moderated the connection between intellectual ability and academic efficiency. In addition, Pupils with good feature EI ratings were less likely to have had unauthorized absences and less likely to have been excluded in education.
The regards between EI and academic accomplishment, of pre-university students in the fields of humanities, experimental sciences, and mathematics participated. The subjects were asked to answer a questionnaire on emotional intellect. Academic accomplishment of students based on their great university regular was calculated. Statistical methods such as frequency, percentage, mean, standard deviation, variance research, connection coefficients, and regression research were done for data research. Results showed a confident connection between emotional intellect and academic accomplishment of scholars. (McCann, John, Newman & Roberts, 2014).
Managers who underwent various coaching applications that focused on public and emotional factors, showed important gains in office production, employees communications, and employees productivity. It makes sensation then, that building principals with strong emotional abilities should be able to have an effect on instructors in such a way as to improve their productivity. In this research productivity was calculated with regards to school student accomplishment. (Fish, 2012).
Subjects and Methods
This chapter represents the aim of the current study, research questions, research design utilized, setting, target population, tools, data collection procedures, pilot study, statistical analysis .
Aim of the study:-
The aim of current study was to explore emotional intelligence and its relation to academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students.
1. To what extent is there a difference in emotional intelligence traits among undergraduate nursing students all over the four academic years?
2. What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students?
Correlational cross-sectional design was utilized in this study.
The study sample was included (165 students at 1St academic year , 169 students at 2nd academic year, 162 students at 3rd academic year and 114 students at 4th academic year )who studied by credit hours program system . which represent (73.9%) of total population (825 students) who studied at Faculty of Nursing – Cairo University at academic year 2013-2014, which was identified by using Convenience sample of nursing student all over the four academic years at faculty of nursing.
Inclusion Criteria for nursing students who accept to participate in the study even if
The repeater nursing students.
1. Nursing student who participated in the pilot study.
2. Did not have recent emotional distress, pre”vious psychological abnormalities and chronic somatic disorders.
3. Any authorized absenteeism of the nursing student such as medical leave.
This study was conducted at Faculty of Nursing ‘ Cairo University in which the building total area 5875.95m2, it consists of five floors .The faculty building is located inside the campus of Cairo University Hospitals. The faculty has eight laboratories that are used in the educational process for the students, 1) basic skills laboratory, 2) maternity and pediatric skills lab, 3) critical care and emergency nursing skills lab, 4) Objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) lab, 5) anatomy lab , 6) two language labs, 7) two computer labs , and 8) audio visual material lab.
Nursing students take their place for clinical teaching training at EL kasr EL ainy hospital for medical-surgical students (1st and 2nd levels), obstetric department (part of students at 3rd level), pediatrics nursing department ( other part of students at 3rd level) , nursing psychiatric department (4th level) and nursing administeration department (4th level) ,but for community health nursing department (4th level) the clinical teaching training was performed outside the campus of Cairo University Hospitals .Also the faculty building contains different educational resources e.g. Library and digital library that helps the students in scientific research and study, as well as the faculty building contains expatriate extension garage for cars, cafeteria and mosque .
After reviewing related literature, study tools were designed by the researcher as the following: 1) A questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence among undergraduate nursing students and
2) The auditing checklist.
I) A questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence among undergraduate nursing students:
It consists of two parts:-
First Part: socio-demographic data sheet. It contains socio-demographic characteristics of the students (6 items) such as student code, age, sex, marital status, academic year and academic status.
Second Part: This is a developed questionnaire was consists of (90) items. It was developed by the researcher based on using the related literature review like: Petrides (2009) and also, based on the comments and reviewing the panel of experts at Faculty of Nursing ‘ Cairo University. The developed questionnaire was answered by students in each academic level. The developed questionnaire consisted of the following dimensions: –
A- self-awareness: It includes (7 items).
B-emotional regulation: It includes (8 items).
C-self-motivation: It includes: (8 items).
D-Empathy: It includes (11 items).
E-social awareness: It includes (11 items).
F-stress management: It includes (28 items).
G-self-esteem: It includes (17 items).
2) The auditing checklist:
This tool was developed by the researcher, to calculate the grade point average (GPA) of ursing and non-nursing courses and cumulative GPA for each student,s who participated in the present research. This sheet includes the grades that the student had in each subject in the academic year and the total grade of all subjects all over the academic year.
Each grade of grade point average (GPA) scores had a different point as the following:
Number Equivalent Degree Percentage
A+ 4 Excellent 95-100
A 3.7 Excellent 90- <95 A- 3.4 Excellent 85- <90 B+ 3 Very good 80- <85 B ,' 2.7 Very good 75- <80 C+ 2.3 Good 70- <75 C 2 Good 65- <70 D+ 1.6 Pass 60- <65 D 1.3 Pass 55- <60 D- 1 Pass 50- <55 F Zero Fail <50 The success rate is calculated as follows: The subject The success rate Nursing subjects 60% Non nursing subjects 50% All voluntary subjects 50% The scoring system:- A questionnaire to measure emotional intelligence among undergraduate nursing students used one scale for all questions; as the following:- Strongly agree (score 5), agree ( score 4), neither agree nor disagree (score 3), disagree (score2), strongly disagree (score 1). Validity Test:- Validity refers to the degree to which a study accurately reflects or assesses the specific concept that the researcher is attempting to measure. Also concerned with the study's success at measuring what the researchers set out to measure (Reliability and Validity, 2014). The content and validity were developed by reviewing related literature .It was revised by a panel of experts of five professors, three professors in the nursing administration department and two professors in the nursing psychiatric department. Based on experts' comment and recommendations minor changes had been made. Pilot study:- The pilot study was carried out on (10%) of participated students from different academic years at Faculty of Nursing- Cairo University. The time spent in filling the questionnaire was ranged between 20 to 30 minutes. The pilot study sample was excluded from the total number of the study sample. Reliability Test:- Reliability is the extent to which an experiment, test, or any measuring procedure yields the same result on repeated trials. Or the ability to use research tools and procedures that yield consistent measurements. Also reliability is concerned with the accuracy of the actual measuring instrument or procedure (Reliability and Validity, 2014). The Cronbach's Alpha test for independent variables was run for the academic achievement and emotional intelligence traits of nursing students all over the four academic years. As suggested by (Reliability and Validity, 2014). It was generally accepted that the lower limit of Cronbach's Alpha is 0.70. The estimated reliability was 0.97 for the current study. Ethical Consideration: An Official permission to conduct the proposed study was obtained from the Vice Dean for education and Student Affairs at the Faculty of Nursing - Cairo University. Approval of the ethics committee was obtained to carry out the study. Participation in the study was voluntary and based on the students' ability to give informed consent; where informed consent should be signed by the participants after reading all its details; the ethical issues considerations include explaining the purpose and nature of the study, stating the possibility to withdraw at any time, confidentiality of the inforrnation where it was not accessed by any other party without taking the permission of the participants, participation is with no risk Procedure: - Upon receiving the formal approval from the Vice Dean of Post Graduate Studies and Research at the Faculty of Nursing - Cairo University ,the approval of the ethical committee and the approval of Vice Dean for Education and Student Affairs, the researcher got a list of all students' names all over the four academic years from education and students' affairs department, then the researcher approached the heads of departments at faculty to explain the aim of the study and to obtain their permission to approach the students at the end of clinical days where students' attendance at clinical areas is generally higher than the theoretical lectures. The researcher invited the students in each academic level according to each level's clinical day to participate in the study and a written consent obtained. After that the students' perception administered individually to the students who are permitted to ask the researcher for further clarification if they encountered difficulties in understanding the perception items. The time spent to fill the perception was ranging between 20to30 minutes. Data were collected from the students in May 2015. After announcing the students' results, permission was obtained from the Vice Dean of education and students affairs to be present in the Control department to gather final grades of nursing and non- nursing courses for each student before adding the leniency degrees, after that the researcher started to calculate the grade point average (GPA) for nursing and non nursing subjects and cumulitive GPA for each student who participated in the study by added the degrees in the auditing checklist. Data was collected from the control department at faculty for 2 months August and September 2014. Statistical design:- Upon completion of data collection, the data were scored, tabulated, and analyzed by computer using the "statistical package for the social science" (SPSS), version 20 for analysis. Negative items scores were reversed during the statistical analysis. Descriptive statistics such as frequency mean and standard deviation was utilized in analyzing data pretended in this study. Relative statistical tests of significance such as (Chi-square, Friedman's ANOVA, and independent t-test) were used to identify the relations among the study variables. The p value > 0.05 indicates non significant result while, the p value < 0.05 is significant, and the p value is the degree of significance. Chapter IV Results and Data Analysis Aim of the study: - The aim of current study was to explore emotional intelligence and its relation to academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students. Research questions: - 3. To what extent is there a difference in emotional intelligence traits among undergraduate nursing students all over the four academic years? 4. What is the relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement among undergraduate nursing students? The study results were presented in the following parts: - Part. I: Percentage distributions of study sample according to their socio-demographic data (figure 1-5). Part. II: Differences between all faculty students' perceptions about emotional intelligence (Tables 1-7). Part. III: Relationship between socio-demographic data and emotional intelligence (Tables 8-12). Part. IV: Relationship between socio-demographic data and academic achievement (Tables 13-27). Part. V: Correlation matrix for dimensions of emotional intelligence (Table 28). Part .VI: Mean and stander deviations of emotional intelligence dimensions (Table 29). Part. VII: Distribution of sample according to emotional intelligence levels (Table 30). Part. VIII: Students 'academic achievement all over four academic years (Tables 31-33). Part. IX: Relationship between emotional intelligence and academic achievement all over four academic years (Tables 34-38). Part .I: Percentage distributions of study sample according to their socio-demographic data (figure 1-5). The figure (1) illustrates that (98.7%) of the study participants were between 17-24 years old. Figure (1): Percentage distribution of study participants according to age (n=550). The figure (2) illustrates that (64.9%) of the study sample were female and the rest were male. Figure (2): Percentage distribution of study participants according to gender (n=550). The figure (3) illustrates that (97.1%) of the study sample were single and the rest were married. Figure (3): Percentage distribution of study participants according to marital status (n=550). The figure (4) illustrates that (28%) of the study sample were from second level, (27.3) of the study sample were from first level, (26.7) of the study sample were from third level and the rest of the study sample were from forth level (18%). Figure (4): Percentage distribution of study participants according to academic year (n=550). The figure (5) illustrates that the majority (98.9%) of the study sample were freshman and the rest were repeater (1.1%). Figure (5): Percentage distribution of study participants according to academic status (n=550). Part. II: Differences between all faculty students' perceptions about emotional intelligence. Table (1) showed that, there were a highly statistical significant differences all responses of study participant's at ' 0 .00 regarding Self-awareness, Meanwhile, the highest Percent of agreement (93.2%) was found regarding to have self-confidence followed by Always be honest with myself and with others (92.7%) then Accept constructive criticism of others and Learn from the experiences of the past (91.1%). Table (1): Differences between all faculty students' perceptions according to Self-awareness (N=550). No. Self-awareness Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Agree Strongly agree Percent of agreement x'' p-value No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 I have self-confidence. 6 1.09 3 0.55 28 5.09 218 39.6 295 53.6 513 93.2 680.71 0.00* 2 Know your strengths and weaknesses. 6 1.09 7 1.27 51 9.27 217 39.5 269 48.9 486 88.4 560.33 0.00* 3 Accept constructive criticism of others. 2 0.36 10 1.82 37 6.73 241 43.8 260 47.3 501 91.1 605.95 0.00* 4 Learn from the experiences of the past. 6 1.09 0 0.00 43 7.82 217 39.5 284 51.6 501 91.1 628.45 0.00* 5 I have a lot of optimism and hope. 10 1.82 18 3.27 81 14.73 230 41.8 211 38.4 441 80.2 399.15 0.00* 6 Always be honest with myself and with others. 8 1.45 4 0.73 28 5.09 236 42.9 274 49.8 510 92.7 646.69 0.00* 7 Obvious in my goals and my principles. 7 1.27 10 1.82 72 13.09 251 45.6 210 38.2 461 83.8 472.13 0.00* * P value is significant at the level of ' .05 Note: Percent of agreement = (No. of agree + No. of strongly agree) /Total sample size. Table (2) showed that, there were a highly statistical significant differences all responses of study participant's at ' 0 .00 regarding Emotional regulation, Meanwhile, the highest Percent of agreement (88.6%) was found regarding to admitting my mistakes and I have the ability to apologize followed by try to find positive aspects in all circumstances that I deal with it (85.5%). Table (2): Differences between all faculty students' perceptions according to Emotional regulation (N=550). No. Emotional regulation Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree Nor Disagree Agree Strongly agree Percent of agreement x'' p-value No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 I can control my feelings and my actions. 14 2.55 26 4.73 118 21.45 217 39.5 175 31.8 392 71.3 291.00 0.00* 2 I control in my feelings when facing any risk. 12 2.18 22 4.00 134 24.36 222 40.4 160 29.1 382 69.5 299.71 0.00* 3 I try to find positive aspects in all circumstances that I deal with it 11 2.00 6 1.09 63 11.45 238 43.3 232 42.2 470 85.5 491.76 0.00* 4 Able to control my mood. 34 6.18 38 6.91 157 28.55 197 35.8 124 22.5 321 58.3 190.31 0.00* 5 Ignore what passed by me in the past of problems and anger and can overlooked it. 22 4.00 46 8.36 106 19.27 221 40.2 155 28.2 376 68.4 238.20 0.00* 6 Controlling my anger usually and not revolt in the faces of others. 40 7.27 59 10.73 107 19.45 240 43.6 104 18.9 344 62.5 222.24 0.00* 7 My feelings help me on taking important decisions in my life. 19 3.45 31 5.64 125 22.73 210 38.2 165 30.0 375 68.2 252.47 0.00* 8 Admitting my mistakes and I have the ability to apologize. 15 2.73 10 1.82 38 6.91 221 40.2 266 48.4 487 88.6 553.33 0.00* * P value is significant at the level of ' .05 Note: Percent of agreement = (No. of agree + No. of strongly agree) /Total sample size. Table (3) showed that, there were a highly statistical significant differences all responses of study participant's at ' 0 .00 regarding Self-motivation, Meanwhile, the highest Percent of agreement (90.4%) was found regarding to Can accomplish the important work with all my strength followed by have a number of important things in my life, and I'm excited it and showed such enthusiasm (88.3%). Table (3): Differences between all faculty students' perceptions according to Self-motivation (N=550). No. Self-motivation Strongly disagree Disagree Neither Agree nor Disagree Agree Strongly agree Percent of agreement x'' p-value No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % No. % 1 I have a number of important things in my life, and I'm excited it and showed such enthusiasm. 11 2.00 18 3.27 35 6.36 175 31.8 311 56.5 486 88.3 622.87 0.00* 2 I have a problem in that I'm taking informed risk. 60 10.91 66 12.00 132 24.00 186 33.8 106 19.3 292 53.1 97.38 0.00* 3 I can complete tasks with energy and high concentration. 12 2.18 18 3.27 100 18.18 265 48.2 155 28.2 420 76.4 401.98 0.00* 4 Can accomplish the important work with all my strength. 11 2.00 1 0.18 41 7.45 286 52.0 211 38.4 497 90.4 614.73 0.00* 5 Try to be creative with the challenges of life. 1 0.18 13 2.36 111 20.18 269 48.9 156 28.4 425 77.3 442.62 0.00* 6 I can achieve success even under stress. 5 0.91 12 2.18 110 20.00 261 47.5 162 29.5 423 77 419.40 0.00* 7 Excited to discover new ways of doing my work. 13 2.36 12 2.18 63 11.45 259 47.1 203 36.9 462 84 473.38 0.00* 8 I can apply large projects despite some obstacles. 17 3.09 48 8.73 153 27.82 211 38.4 121 22.0 332 60.4 224.22 0.00* * P value is significant at the level of ' .05 Note: Percent of agreement = (No. of agree + No. of strongly agree) /Total sample size. Table (4) showed that, there were a highly statistical significant differences all responses of study participant's at ' 0 .00 regarding Empathy, Meanwhile, the highest Percent of agreement (91.8%) was found regarding to a good listener to others and sensitive to the emotional needs of others (91.3%) followed by help others to feel better when they upset (89.4%) and have the ability to read people's feelings from their faces changes (89.1%).
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