Essay: Leadership annotated bibliography – review of a range of books/articles

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Caramela, S. (2018, August 27). How to Be an Ethical Leader: 4 Tips for Success.

Retrieved January 15, 2019, from

How to Be an Ethical Leader: 4 Tips for Success

There is different definitions for leader and boss. There is also a difference in how the people below them feel about their titles. Leaders lead by example. Anyone who is in a management position should have ethical leadership which will lead to earning respect and trust with other people in the workplace. This article states a few tips to become an ethical leader. These include:

  • Define and align your morals
  • Hire those with similar ethics
  • Promote open communication
  • Beware of bias

All of these aspects are important as an ethical leader. Defining and aligning your morals can help create a vision in the company that all the workers can work towards and be on the same page. Hiring those with similar ethics going along with the vision and having the same vision has the people you’re working with. Promoting open communication can help the people who work for you feel more open to talk to you about things. Being aware of bias can help you build good relationship with the people in your work place.

After reading this article, I agree with most of these tips given except for “hire those with similar ethics.” I don’t agree with this part to an extent because I feel that everyone is their own person with their own experiences and feelings, and that should not hold them back from getting the opportunity from a job. If anything, it would be better that they had different ethics, so there are more and different views to things. Although I do see where this article is coming from as it would be nice to have a common thought for particular things. I also thought it was important to talk about promoting open communication as I feel much more comfortable working for a business with an open communication policy where I am able to talk about my ideas. This article was somewhat similar to the other articles I have read about ethical leadership; they sort of tie in with each other.

CHUL-HO BUM. (2018). Relationships between Self-Leadership, Commitment to Exercise, and Exercise Adherence among Sport Participants. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 46(12), 1983–1995.

Relationships Between Self-Leadership, Commitment to Exercise, and Exercise Adherence among Sport Participants

Chul-Ho Bum questioned 280 athletes intending to investigate the relationships between self-leadership, commitment to exercise, and exercise adherence in sport participants. The first set of questions that he had asked had to do with the 3 factors of self-leadership which include strategies in all constructive thought pattern, natural reward, and behavior-focused. Asking these questions had helped Bum see if self-leadership had to deal with athlete’s commitment to exercise. His findings are that these 3 factors on self-leadership on exercise adherence interfere with their commitment to exercise. By improving the athletes self-management, their exercise commitment and adherence can improve. Self-management and self-leadership is very important in athletes.

I found that this article was interesting as I am an athlete, so it is awesome to see what kind of results people get from questioning different athletes around the world. I thought it would have been nice if the author could have attached a copy of the questionnaire, so I could see what kind of questions he asked to get the responses he did. But I do agree with the results that he got, as I think that self-management and self-leadership a very important aspect in athletes whether it be high school, college, or professional. In addition, I learned about the 3 factors of self-leadership. Not talked about in the article, but I also feel with these factors to self-leadership are something that every athlete should think about because there is always someone looking up to you, and you want to be the best leader/role model you can.

CLIPA, O., & GRECIUC, Ş. M.-A. (2018). Relations of Style of Leadership and Achievement Motivation for Teacher. Romanian Journal for Multidimensional Education / Revista Romaneasca Pentru Educatie Multidimensionala, 10(4), 55–64.

Relations of Style of Leadership and Achievement Motivation for Teacher

Otilia Clipa and Marilena-Artemizia Greciuc took a sample of 140 teachers from Bucovina County in 2018 to try identify the relationship between leadership and motivation in teachers. In order to do this, they had these 140 teachers fill out the Achievement Motivation Inventory and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. In the Achievement Motivation Inventory, it consisted of 17 focused dimensions:

  1. Persistence
  2. Dominance
  3. Engagement
  4. Confidence in Success
  5. Flexibility
  6. Flow
  7. Fearlessness
  8. Internality
  9. Compensatory Effort
  10. Pride in Productivity
  11. Eagerness to Learn
  12. Preference for Difficult Tasks
  13. Independence
  14. Self-Control
  15. Status Orientation
  16. Competitiveness
  17. Goal Setting,

and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire relates to transformational and transactional style of leadership. After putting together all of the data and information, they had come to find out that there is a great amount of positive relation between motivation and leadership in which teachers use.

I find that reading articles like this are good to read because it relates to the real world as they were questioning actual people, and they get to know how they feel about things. I learned what the Achievement Motivation Inventory is, and that many places use this source when trying to find out how the work relates to their motivation. This article relates to another article that I read in relation to transactional and transformational leadership styles. Since I read the other article explaining these types of leadership styles, I understood right away what this article was talking about.

Cummings, G. G., Tate, K., Lee, S., Wong, C. A., Paananen, T., Micaroni, S. P. M., & Chatterjee, G. E. (2018). Leadership styles and outcome patterns for the nursing workforce and work environment: A systematic review. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 85, 19–60.

Leadership Styles and Outcome Patterns for the Nursing Workforce and Work Environment: A Systematic Review

This journal article is about the approach taken to learn more about the nature of leadership and how it can be achieved. The main goal was to research the relationships between all of the different types of leadership used in the nursing workplace and the work environment as well as the outcomes of using these styles of leadership. In order to find this out they used electronic databases, quality assessments, data extractions and analysis. There was a lot of good information found when doing this research. An example: relational leadership styles had been linked to a higher nurse job satisfaction and task-focused leadership styles had been linked to a lower nurse job satisfaction. Overall, they established that hiring employees who lean towards relational leadership styles can help your nursing company in a great way for positive outcomes. Any occupation in the healthcare industry should aim towards relational leadership styles for the most job satisfaction by employees.

I decided to look up information about leadership in the nursing field because most of the information I have found is about the general workforce or athletes, and nursing is an occupation that many of my peers are in and an important occupation in the world. I thought that it would be interesting to see the similarities and differences between this topic and other topics that I have gone over. Although I haven’t read much on this type of information, I did learn that relational leadership had high job satisfaction and task-focused had a lower job satisfaction. Without doing much research and just on information I know and experience, I can definitely understand why the results were what they were as in task-focused leadership decreasing job satisfaction.

Erhabor, N. I. (2018). Developing Leaders Through Mentoring in Environmental Education. Electronic Green Journal, 1(41), 2–10.

Retrieved from

Developing Leaders Through Mentoring the Environmental Education

This article gears towards substantiating the claim on the importance of environmental education in building leaders for the present and future generation. It emphasis the integral role mentorship programs play in developing effective environmental leaders. These leaders should contribute to building environmentally friendly and sustainable societies in the future. Hence, the author elaborated on these through the following subheadings: overview of environmental education; concept of environmental leader; improving environmental education leadership skills, and mentoring of leaders in environmental education.

Modglin, A. (2017, September 20). Leadership: It’s Not About You. Retrieved January 12, 2019, from

Leadership: It’s Not About You
Amy Modglin wrote an article called “Leadership: It’s Not About You,” and in this article is a little background insight on her experience as being a leader. At the beginning of possessing a leader title, Amy had thought that it was all about her and that because she had that leader title, everyone would look up to her and respect her. After a couple people, who were leaders to her, had confronted her about her leadership ability, Amy realized that her leadership style was not what she wanted it to be. She had realized that it wasn’t all about her, and that she needed to start putting the people around her, before her. Because of this eye opening experience that changed her into a great leader, she added a few suggestions that people can use to work towards valuing the people around them more at the end of her article. These suggestions include viewing your people as your biggest success, acknowledging and appreciating people, knowing your people, leaving your ego at the door, and empowering your people. All of these things can help you be the successful leader you would like to be as people will follow you and respect you.

Garfinkle, J. (n.d.). What Great Leaders Do. Retrieved January 12, 2019, from

What Great Leaders Do

Every single leader demonstrates leadership in a different way. There are 10 traits of leadership listed in this “What Great Leaders Do” article written by Joel Garfinkle. Great leaders:

  1. lead by example with an overriding guiding vision or purpose.
  2. leaders know how to be themselves and are proud of who they are.
  3. have the ability to inspire confidence in others.
  4. are never self-serving.
  5. rarely question themselves.
  6. know when to take advice.
  7. possess the foresight to move ahead, even in the most questionable times.
  8. love what they do and communicate their passion to others.
  9. learn to lead by following.
  10. never quit.

Thinking about these traits and using them in your leadership style can help you reach high levels of leadership success.
Through the many articles have I have done so far for this assignment, I have read a lot of different characteristics, traits, and suggestions on how to be a great leader in which there have been a couple repeats. But these repeated ones are quite important. Although, in this article, it is the first time I have read “great leaders know when to take advice” and “great leaders never quit.” I believe that these are two HUGE traits to have taking on the leadership role. After reading this article, I thought a lot about the people that I looked up to and followed as leaders, and if they took on those two traits as I thought they were very, very important.

Garton, E. (2017, April 25). How to Be an Inspiring Leader. Retrieved January 12, 2019, from

How to Be an Inspirational Leader

Gordon, P. A., & Gordon, B. A. (2017). The role of volunteer organizations in leadership skill development. Journal of Management Development, 36(5), 712–723.

The Role of Volunteer Organization in Leadership Skill Development


The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of service learning and the use of volunteer organizations as a means for members to learn and hone leadership skills that can be transferred to their full-time corporate positions.Design/methodology/approach A qualitative study incorporating a phenomenological design was utilized to interview 30 past presidents of two volunteer organizations in Florida, Junior League and the Masonic Fraternity. The goal was to explore the participants’ thoughts and experiences related to transferable leadership skilldevelopment.Findings Emerging themes confirmed that accepting leadership roles within volunteer organizations is conducive to learning, testing, and evaluating new methods of leadership and skill enhancement. These skill sets can then be transferred and applied to different corporate settings.Practical implications Organizational leaders should consider the value-added benefits of encouraging employees to become involved in volunteer organizations and accepting leadership roles. This not only promotes good corporate social responsibility, but provides the employee with leadership skill development, which may ultimately benefit the firm.Originality/value Participants belonging to two separate volunteer organizations presented viewpoints regarding the value of volunteer organizations in developing and honing transferable leadership skills. Previous research has not addressed direct skill transference from leadership experiences in volunteer organizations and therefore, this research is unique in its contribution to the literature.

Marwah, A. (2018, May 14). Why Leadership Is not Acknowledged in the Startup Industry. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from

Why Leadership Is Not Acknowledged in the Startup Industry

In order to have a successful business, you must have leadership. Leadership is made up of leaders, or a leader, who has a vision, is passionate about their business/product and is able to create an organized environment and motivate others to become passionate about their business/product. Employee’s learn from their leaders, and will perform to greater standards if they have influence from dedicated leaders. When talking about leadership, there are two kinds of leaders. One kind of leader stays calm when conditions are tough, and lets their organization have freedom to express themselves while providing comfort and assurance. The leader has a good grasp on what may lie ahead and take responsibility. The second kind of leader, will lead in every situation with confidence and will push everyone else in the organization to perform to the best of their knowledge in their role.

McQuaid, M. (2016, May 21). Are You an Ethical Leader? Retrieved January 15, 2019, from

Are You an Ethical Leader?

In this article, it states questions that you should ask yourself when wondering if you are an ethical leader. These questions include, “Are you trustworthy? Do you always show others respect? Are you willing to forgo potential profits if it means looking after the needs of your employees better?” After research, it is found that many people choose to practice ethical leadership because of the type of leader they want to be for others while they leave a legacy wherever they are. Instead of just practicing ethical leadership, it is also important to try make the workplace a more ethical culture where people are then able to just step into ethical leadership because ethical leadership can be something hard to teach. There are also approaches you can take to start doing to be a more ethical leader. These include building your ethical muscles, creating ethical support tools, and walk the talk.
One thing that I took from this article that I thought was very important to keep with me was that ethical leadership may be hard to teach, so if you try create an ethical culture in the work environment, when people are working there, it can positively influence then into ethical leaders or ethical workers in all else. I really like the questions that were stated at the beginning of the article. It made you think about not only yourself and your characteristics but other people that you look up to as leaders. With that, I feel that my coach now is an ethical leader as she is always putting everyone on our team before herself.

Moran, G. (2013, June 14). 5 Keys to Inspiring Leadership, No Matter Your Style. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from

5 Keys to Inspiring Leadership, No Matter Your Style

Leaders aren’t always people who are wear a suit and tie. There are leaders around us every single day in which they have different way of leadership. Although every person leads differently, there are a few things that great leaders do every day in order to be an effective leader. These include:

  1. Face challenges – the best leaders face any type of challenge with bravery and honesty
  2. Win trust – as an employer, and you have your employees trust, they will be likely to be more motivated and enthusiastic in the workplace
  3. Be authentic – never try to be someone you’re not; use your own personality to build your own style of leadership
  4. Earn respect – in order to do this, you must present yourself in a way that will model what you want to see in everyone else
  5. Stay curious – great leaders are always looking for new ideas, information, and people that can give them and advantage

This article was one of my favorite articles to read about because not only is the information great information, it is also information that I look up to and hope to use one day. All 5 of these keys to become an inspiring leader I have taken note of and will always remember as I feel they are all some of the most important. This article stood out to me with the “win trust” and “earn respect.” I felt a quite a few of the articles I read talked about as a leader, people trust you and respect you, but that is definitely not the case. I feel like this is an article that should be looked at when researching leadership.

Oreg, S., & Berson, Y. (2018). The Impact of Top Leaders’ Personalities: The Processes Through Which Organizations Become Reflections of Their Leaders. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 27(4), 241–248.

The Impact of Top Leaders’ Personalities: The Processes Through Which Organizations Become Reflections of Their Leaders

The fascination with leaders and their impacts can be traced to ancient times and continues to this day. Organizations are often viewed as reflections of their leaders’ personalities, yet empirical evidence for this assumption has begun to amass only recently. In this article, we review this literature and trace findings about leaders’ personality traits, values, and motives and about the mechanisms through which these are manifested in their organizations. We specifically elaborate on research linking senior leaders’ values to organizational outcomes (e.g., financial performance, schoolchildren’s values) and demonstrate the mediating role of the organizational culture and climate.

Rath, T., & Conchie, B. (2008). Maximizing Your Team: What Strong Teams Have in Common. In Strengths Based Leadership (pp. 71-76). New York, NY: Gallup Press.

Maximizing Your Team: What Strong Teams Have in Common

In any business, it is important to have the right people in the right positions in order to become successful. After that, it will be much easier to tell if your team and the business are headed along the correct path towards success. Through many studies of leadership itself, as well as team leadership, there has been —-

  1. Conflict doesn’t destroy strong teams because strong teams focus on results.
  2. Strong teams prioritize what’s best for the organization and then move forward.
  3. Members of strong teams are as committed to their personal lives as they are to their work.
  4. Strong teams embrace diversity.
  5. Strong teams are magnets for talent.

My last semester here at Mayville State, I had an ethics class where we read the book Good to Great by Jim Collins. I thought that this book related closely to one of the chapters titled “First Who, Then What” talking about having the right people in the right places. In the section, What Strong Teams Have in Common of this Strengths Based Leadership book, it talked again about having the right people on your team. Although I have read many articles and books about this topic, I still think that this matter is very important because having the wrong people on your team may cause your team to head towards failure. I learned from this section that even though the leadership throughout many types of teams may be different, there are main concepts that are overall the same on each strong team.

Richmond, J. (2018, July 10). Millennials and Modern Leadership Styles. Retrieved January 13, 2019, from

Millennials and Modern Leadership Styles

Being in the business world in this day and age can be scary as things are changing every single day. With these changes, comes changes in the needs and behaviors of the employees. Companies are now focusing on how to make sure they are hiring the right people who will help their business in a positive way to be successful. With the needs and behaviors of the employees changing, the leadership in the company much change and advance as well. Four leadership styles that are appearing in today’s modern workplace focusing on millennials are innovative, servantile, empathetic, and committed to diversity. Other than these styles, great leaders also need to have strong communication, lead by example, and acquire employee empowerment. Overall, when the business workplace is changing, leadership styles may need to change as well.

This article relates to me because leadership styles are now changing in which I will be looking for a job within the next year, so paying attention to these styles may help me in this process. From this article, I took that just because the employees needs and behaviors are changing, it doesn’t have to be the end of the world. The leadership taking place in that specific workplace can change the way that they are contributing or hiring to the way that the employee is. If the leaders kept their leadership style the same, it could possible lead to the business towards failure or not to the success that they’re looking for.

Robinson, S. (2011). Moral Leadership. In Leadership Responsibility: Ethical and Organizational Considerations (Vol. 3, pp. 35-64). Switzerland: Peter Lang AG.

Leadership Responsibility: Moral Leadership

Moral leadership is an approach for a leader to be centered on group members rather than the individual leader as there had been past history of problems with leader-centered leadership

Chapter 2: Moral Leadership of Leadership Responsibility demonstrates 3 different types of moral leadership approaches:

  1. Transformational leadership – This type of leadership enables the organization to be able to change and easily respond to change. The focus in on the moral development of any particular group where the members and their values are engaged. Four main behaviors that help establish transformational leadership are idealized influence, inspirational motivation, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration.
  2. Servant leadership– This leadership approach puts the ones who are being lead, first. A few characteristics of a servant leader are committed to the growth of people, listener, aware, and ability to persuade.
  3. Transactional leadership – This type of leadership style is mainly focused on getting the job done. Transactional leadership comes down to two main points: being able to take on the responsibility of ethical decision making and doing things for other human beings, not just doing things of self-interest.

I chose this book because when right away when I looked through the table of contents, I read chapter titles about different types of leadership that I have never really looked into before. I thought that the leadership approaches explained in this chapter were interesting to learn about the characteristics of each type of leader as I have never heard of those leadership titles before. After reading this chapter of Leadership Responsibility, I agree more with moral leadership as I feel it is important to have a leader that is mainly focused on group members and the group accomplishments rather than a leader that is more focused on themselves and their personal achievements.

Ruta, D., & Guenzi, P. (2013). What can business leaders learn from sports leadership? Retrieved January 13, 2019, from

What Can Business Leaders Learn from Sports Leadership?


This article really stuck out to me because I feel as if I have gotten a lot of my leadership characteristics from being a part of a sports teams where I looked up to a lot of different people who I consider leaders such as coaches and teammates.

Unsworth, K. L., Kragt, D., & Johnston-Billings, A. (2018). Am I a leader or a friend? How leaders deal with pre-existing friendships. Leadership Quarterly, 29(6), 674–685.

Am I a Leader or a Friend?

Abstract We studied employees who were promoted into a leadership role from within their workgroup and explored how they dealt, psychologically, with being both a leader and a friend of their subordinates. In an inductive, qualitative study of 33 individuals from across three organizations (two mining companies and one childcare organization) we found that these people experienced psychological conflict that resulted in them feeling vulnerable to being exploited or being afraid to use their power over subordinate-friends. We identified five strategies that were used, namely abdicating responsibility, ending the friendship, establishing the divide, overlapping the roles, and using friendship to lead. We developed a model whereby the type of psychological conflict and the person’s leader identity (either “the boss”, just a role, or a weak or non-existent leader identity) leads to the choice of resolution strategy. This exploration into understanding pre-existing friendships demonstrates the ongoing need to consider those in a leadership role as “people” and not just “leaders”

YE HOON LEE, SEUNGHYUN HWANG, & YOUNGJUN CHOI. (2017). Relationship between Coaching Leadership Style and Young Athletes’ Social Responsibility. Social Behavior & Personality: An International Journal, 45(8), 1385–1396.

Relationship Between Coaching Leadership Style and Young Athletes’ Social Responsibility

In this article, Ye Hoon Lee, Seunghyun Hwang, and Youngjun Choi examined the relationship between how young athletes feel about their coaches’ leadership behavior and the athletes’ level of social responsibility. Through this study, they had 204 high school athletes participate throughout the Midwest region of the United States. The information they found included that there is a positive relationship between the coaches democratic style and the athletes’ level of social responsibility, but there was negative relationship between the coaches autocratic style and the athletes’ level of social responsibility. In conclusion, athletes seem to have a higher level of social responsibility when their coaches leadership behavior is more democratic.

One day, I am hoping to become a high school coach in either volleyball or basketball, so this article stood out to me as it’s important to know what kind of leadership/coaching styles will enhance the athlete as a person. After reading about the results, it wasn’t really a surprise to me as I would much rather have a coach with democratic leadership/coaching style than autocratic as it is much more personal when someone asks you to do something rather than just telling you what to do all the time. This is much more important with young athletes; whereas much older athletes with experience and skill can take autocratic coaching much better than younger ones can. I enjoyed reading this article because it relates to something that I am very interested in.

5 Leadership Skills Found in Managers. (2015, June 11). Retrieved January 13, 2019, from

5 Leadership Skills Found in Managers

This article talks about how leaders play such a large roll in organization and five major factors that tie into being a good leader. The five skills they mention are:

  1. Communication – With communication it helps relay a message on how and what the workers should do. With a wide variety of workers you need to be able to communicate with each and every worker.
  2. Awareness – Awareness is also a major role in being a good leader. In this article, they talk about the changes of the business and how they can affect not only the business itself but the employees working for them. This will help allow the business to grow.
  3. Honesty/Integrity – A key element in having a successful business because leaders must command respect and trust from their employees, but also being honest with them.
  4. Relationship Building – It is found that a production is opt to run much more efficiently and effectively when the team members work well with each other.
  5. Innovation – Technology and the working industry is changing every day, strong leaders are able to be aware of the changes and recognize when these changes can give their workflow an advantage.

I found this article useful because they talk about how to be a successful leader and not only about some ways leaders are, but what they believe every leader should have for key traits. I believe if you want to be a leader and work hard for it, your success will follow with it. One thing that I don’t agree with in this article is when it talked about honesty and integrity, it said leaders command respect and trust. In this case, I felt they should have used “earned” instead of “command.” In one of the other articles I read, it talked about earning respect, and I thought that was much better worded than this one because as a leader, you don’t just command respect, you must earn it.

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