Essay: KÜÇÜK AĞA (LITTLE LANDLORD) – Tarık Buğra

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  • KÜÇÜK AĞA (LITTLE LANDLORD) - Tarık Buğra
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1. About the Author (535)

Tarık Buğra is Turkish journalist and writer of novels, stories, plays and jokes. He is a well-known writer of Turkish literature in Republican period. Buğra is a versatile writer, especially known for his novels. In 1991 he became a State Artist. Tarık Buğra was born in Akşehir. He attended primary and secondary school in Aksehir. He was a student of Pertev Naili Boratav at the Istanbul High School, where he studied for boarding decided to become a writer in the tenth grade. He graduated from Konya High School in 1936 and enrolled in Istanbul University Faculty of Medicine. Two years later, she transferred to the Faculty of Law and from there to the Faculty of Literature. She quit without graduating.
In 1947, Akşehir, along with his father, Nazım Bey, published the newspaper Nasreddin Hoca and started journalism. He married Jale Baysal in 1950, and he was born in 1951 with his daughters, Ayşe, after a divorce after eighteen years. Buğra lost his father in 1952, sold the newspaper and returned to Istanbul. After 1951, he had articles in newspapers such as Milliyet, Vatan, Yenigün, Yeni Istanbul and in the weekly Yol. He served as editor-in-chief of some of these newspapers and magazines. He left the columnist in Interpreter Newspaper in 1976 and gave all his time to literature. He was a member of the Literary Committee of the State Theaters. Tarık Buğra wrote his first plays and the novel “The Lonesome People” during his military service. The novel which he completed in 1940 and a chapter in Çınaraltı in 1948 were published. His name, however, was heard in three hours on a claim by the story of his “Son”, which was published in 1948 in Cumhuriyet Newspaper. His first storybook, published in 1949, was Our Son, and in 1952, Tomorrow was nothing, 1954, Between Two Sleeps, and in 1964, he wrote Stories. In his stories, where he talked about the home and family environments of middle class people, he studied themes such as love, loneliness and non-conformity in an intensive, poetic language. He focused more on the internal reality than on the plot. In 1955, “Black amber” was passed to the novel. In Küçük Ağa (1963), which he had looked at from a town and not from the center, he brought a different interpretation to the recent history beyond his official understanding of history. It was published in 1967 by Küçük Ağa in Ankara. On September 8, 1977, he was married to the story writer Hatice Bilen.In his novels Firavun İmanı (1976), Dönemeçte (1978), Gençliğim Eyvah (1979), Yağmur Beklerken (1981), he discussed various phases of the Republic and the turbulence in the transition to democracy. Mr. Grant, the Osmancık’l told the founding years of the Ottoman Empire (1985) Literature Armağanı the National Cultural Foundation, “Waiting for Rain” with his novel from 1989 Job Bank Turkey received the Grand Prize. In 1991, he received the title of State Artist. On 26 February 1994, Tarık Buğra died at the Çapa Medical Faculty Hospital, where he received cancer treatment. He was buried at the cemetery of Karacaahmet. Tarık Buğra is the father of faculty member Ayşe Buğra. In 2004, the statue of Tarık Buğra was planted in Akşehir.

2. Context (450)

Küçük Ağa is a view of the War of Independence from a small Anatolian town. For the first time, a non-official view of the subject was examined with the free views of an enlightened Turk. This work, which you will read with the familiar characters and characteristics of our people and culture, discussed the national struggle from a different perspective. To mention the contexts of this book, the novel begins when Salih, who fought heroically, lost one of his branches and returned home. The war is actually finished, and the country surrounds its wounds. When you read the book, you will see that the plot evolves over Salih and Küçük Ağa. Returning to his village as a veteran, he is Niko’s best friend. Niko is Greek and Salih is friends with the villagers. Because the Greeks are close to the state of the Lebanon in the war and gossips in the village where they secretly help these state. They pressurize the villagers to cut his friendship with Salih and never see them again. With the arrival of the Istanbul Hodja who was sent to Anatolia by the Istanbul government, the events took a different course and did not lose the fluency of the novel even for a moment. The aim of Hodja in Istanbul is to ensure its commitment to the sultan and Istanbul government. The people here are divided into two. One side held the side of Ismet Pasha and his friends who managed the liberation war and one side expressed his devotion to the reign. Hodja then takes the name of Küçük Ağa. Salih comes to the war again. There is an important development that obliges Salih to join the war without an arm. His best friend, Rum Niko, joins the enemy ranks and begins to fight. Salih, who cannot accept this, joins the war. Big resistance begins. The Hodja, the name of Küçük Ağa, is located next to Çerkez Ethem and the resistance continues at full speed. Çerkez Ethem refuses to join the regular army and takes refuge in the Greeks as stated in the book. Kütahya acceleration is lost. On July 24, 1921, our army lost in the battles of Kütahya and Eskişehir and withdrew to the east of Sakarya. The Greeks set foot in Eskişehir and Kütahya. Tarık Buğra tells the story of war in the best detail and gives us that period. Country rescues. The epic resistance of the people of Anatolia frees the country from enemy occupation. In the following pages, the heroic stance of Küçük Ağa and Salih is greatly appreciated by the public. Our country how suffered and what difficulties are experienced in a different way is told in Küçük Ağa.

3. Synopsis (981)

World War finished, the Ottoman Empire was defeated and our army scattered. Akşehir expects their sons to be spread across different fronts throughout the war.

In Akşehir with a silent silence at night, the sounds of laughs, laughter, song, guitar and ud from, Minas’, Yorgo’ taverns in Gavur Neighborhood riddled this silence.

Salih has left his right arm on the front of Arabia and returns to Akşehir.

When the train goes down to his home, the two verse of the ballad of Yemen go through. According to Salih, I wish he was not to come, instead of coming to such a sketchy … His childhood friend Niko, who is Greek, meets, he takes very good care of him. Niko, like other Greeks and Armenians, changed with the war. He became conscious of Rum as not Ottoman, and became the man of his case, which was a betrayal. He dresses up. They go to Niko’s father’s tavern every night, They drink until morning. Her mother, who sees Salih as if she had turned miserable, is more worried about her situation. Since Salih has gone away, he sees that much has changed. The Greeks who lived as friends before, and their own people, now soured from each other. Niko, a sincere friend of Salih, is also a Greek and influenced by the developments. Slowly the news of the invasion of the Greek and British armies are coming and the hostility of the two peoples to each other is increasing. He cannot get away from his friend Niko. His friendship with the Greeks is noticed by the town and excludes the village of Salih. Salih is now constantly circulating around Niko and his circle. Salih gained the reaction of their town as the days passed, and no longer wanted.

In the meantime, a Hodja is sent to the town called Istanbul Hodja. The purpose of being sent from Istanbul is to promote the idea of encouragement to the sultan and the Ottomans in the town. Hodja is really a very influential person and wins the public’s appreciation and admiration. Hodja is against the Nationalists due to his devotion to the king. He is sent to Akşehir by politicians in cooperation with the British. Hodja, who is a real patriotic, defends devotion to the sultan in a sincere way, unaware of these intrigues, and affects the people of Akşehir. Adana, Antep, Maras, Konya, joins Nationalist Forces but Akşehir is resisting due to Istanbul Hodja. Ankara and the nationalist forces resort to all means to win it. But it is given batting order for Hodja who did not change his decision. Salih, meanwhile, witnesses a meeting in the tavern of the Greeks where he quietly goes to one night and the ones spoken in this meeting. The Greeks mobilized to establish the Pontus state. The priests are a priest, and the most ardent volunteer is Niko. Salih learns that we are not only enemies but also war. It contains a great ambition. Every day he uses his left hand to practice pistols to defeat his helplessness. In the end, he uses his left hand better than his lost right hand.
Hodja escapes from Akşehir with his marriage and his child, and most importantly by the force of the people, takes shelter in the gang leaders. He is no longer Istanbul Hodja, but the Küçük Ağa. He cut off his beard, pulled out his turban, his robe. Few people know that Küçük Ağa is İstanbul Hodja. One of them is Salih. Salih is very attached to Küçük Ağa.
He survives the chase between Nationalist Forces and himself, and takes refuge in a town with his own man. Nationalist Force is sorry for kidnapping Hodja and assigns him to find Salih. Hodja is now calculating which side to take place. Nationalist Forces is gaining success and strengthening day by day. Salih finds Hoca and convinces him to work for Nationalist Forces by giving up his sultan.

Together they join Çerkez Ethem’s brother Tevfik Bey’s gang. Çerkez Ethem and his brothers have taken on one of the biggest roles in the national struggle and have achieved success against both enemy invasions and riots. But now, when it is under the order of the regular army and Ismet Pasha, Circassian Ethem and his brothers have taken a contrasting attitude and opened the flag of rebellion against Nationalist Force and Ankara. Hodja believes that this path is wrong and plans to turn them in this way.

In the attack on Kutahya, which is the biggest attack for Ethem to avoid service for Ismet Pasha, he gives him a failure by playing a game. He gives the greatest service to the National Forces. Ethem will seek refuge in the Greeks. Ankara is aware of the successes of Hodja and invited him to Ankara. Accepting the invitation, Hodja sees the situation of Ankara closely, and he believes that fighting on the front is easier than fighting the wrong-minded and traitors in this power struggle. Fevzi Pasha shows closeness to Hodja. Hodja understands the importance of all these personalities. The country is heading for victory. Hodja now misses his wife and child very much.

The days pass, on the other hand, he is on the eve of a decision to go to Akşehir. Çolak Salih sends neither himself nor news from Mehmed and Emine. Küçük Ağa, who has no other choice, decides to go to Akşehir, but as soon as he enters Akşehir he learns that his wife is married to someone else. Now, the Istanbul Hoca must keep its identity. He meets his own son and makes friends. Mehmet also loves this young and beautiful man without knowing his father. He tells his wife that he’s coming but she’s dying and she says that he entrusts his son to Hodja, and days later he dies. Hodja then returns to Ankara and continues to fight.

4. Characters (1828)

The most prominent characters in the novel are Küçük Ağa and Salih. These two characters are round characters; therefore they experience a process of development and change throughout the novel. Other characters can be said to have flat characters.

Küçük Ağa is a very clever, altruistic, deep and lively type. He is knowledgeable, faithful and courageous. He is round character and protagonist. We can understand from these words that he is the round character:

“Küçük Ağa buz gibi odada, çifte yorganın altında yatağını nefesiyle ısıtmaya çalışırken tekrarlamaktan da kendini alamıyordu: «— Acaba istanbul u Hoca’yı keşfetti mi?» İstanbul u Hoca keşfedilmemeli, üzerine vur emri çıkan bu adam Allah’ın mağfiretine bırakılmalı idi. Fakat Küçük Ağa’nın kendisi İstanbul u Hoca’yı. Mazisini unutamıyordu, unutamayacaktı da. Emine nasıl unutulur, Mehmet nasıl unutulurdu?” (Buğra 449). Although he is young, he has a bushy, black beard, his eyes are green, he is open-minded, he is fluffy, has a length and wrestler structure. He is one of thousands who gave great services to the liberation struggle. We learn at the end of the novel at the age of 22 as the Istanbul Hodja. His real name is Mehmet Reşit and he becomes known as Küçük Ağa. It represents one of the elements that won the National Struggle and the clergy. He is the representative of the throne and the Ottomans. He is devoted to the Sultan and the Ottoman values. He is a devout, knowledgeable, intelligent, morally perfect person. In the beginning, he conditioned the people against the nationality force but it is because of his devotion to and belief in the Ottoman heritage. He gets married when he comes to Akşehir and his wife gets pregnant. Hodja escapes from Akşehir with his marriage and his child, and most importantly by the force of the people, takes shelter in the gang leaders. He is no longer Istanbul Hodja, but the Küçük Ağa. He cut off his beard, pulled out his turban He has run into a contradiction between his family and the task with Nationality Force threatened him after that he changed his name and appearance. It should be noted that Küçük Ağa is an idealized character. However, it is not a fixed, flat character. It cannot be said that the psychological aspect of Küçük Ağa is overworked since it is an idealized character and the author is used as a tool for expressing his thoughts. We only see the psychology of anxiety and fear for his family. The author has been able to express his thoughts through this character. Unity and order are very important to him. In order to ensure this unity, he fought against the Nationality Force in the behalf of the Ottomans. But then he began to believe in the Nationality Force. He fought against Çerkez Etem and Tevfik Bey in order to ensure unity in the behalf of Nationality Force in Kütahya. In the attack on Kutahya, which is the biggest attack for Ethem to avoid service for Ismet Pasha, he gives him a failure by playing a game. He gives the greatest service to the National Forces. When he returns to Aksehir, he meets his son and finds out that his wife is on deathbed. After his wife dies, he returns to continue the struggle.
Çolak Salih is the most important character in the novel after the Küçük Ağa. He is round character and protagonist. He has an old mother. He is a brave lad with amber-like eyes who lost his right arm and right ear in battle. There’s a scar on his cheek from the war. He is the ordinary Turkish human being victim of war and being a mediator between Küçük Ağa and Nationality Force. I think Salih is not the most important of the novel, is the best handled character. He is 22 years old. In the spring of 1919 he returned from Arabia. The face of his right arm has become unrecognizable. At first they are not aware of anything. we can deduce it from these sentences:

“Kanlarımız, kızlarımız neden aç kaldı?” “Neden yakacağımız, giyeceğimiz yok?” “Biz Galiçya’sından Kanal’ma kadar dünyanın her yerinde aslan gibi evlâtlarımızı bırakalım da İtalyan oğlanları tâ kasabamıza kadar gelsin ha? Sebep?..” Bütün bunların sebebini Salih onlar kadar bile bilmiyordu. Farkına varmadan güldü” (Buğra 40). When Salih returns to Aksehir, he becomes intimate with Greek Niko, his childhood friend. Niko also treats her close. At the same time, the rebellions caused by grievances lead itself to life. For these reasons, Akşehir’s Muslim Turkish population is excluded him. But Salih also has his own reasons. If he loses his arm, his face becomes unrecognizable, the troubles he draws on the front, his dreams, his ideals have to be postponed to its fullness, he is too heavy to carry but the environment does not understand it. Ali Emmi, the seventy-year-old, especially from the region’s first responders, makes the reaction of the society to Salih:

“Senin ağan nerde? Şuna bak, bildin mi? Yemenici Mustafa Ali.. oğlu da gitti, kardeşi de gitti. Söyletme beni. Yürekli ol, yürekli, imanını yitirme. Töbe de de yeni baştan başla!”( Buğra 42). The reason why Niko is close to Salih is because he wants to buy a garden. But Salih also understood this. He sells the garden to her and opens herself some coffee. This causes too much exclusion. As he is excluded, Salih gives himself more to drink. Of course, the sense of guilt caused by the escape from responsibility Salih sense of one of the reasons for his turn to drink this is the desire to suppress the guilt. He sees that in a nighttime, Niko and other Greeks are negotiating their plans, and he is stunned. It is the most important stage in Salih’s consciousness to be a tool for the Greeks’ plans, even without knowing it. Then Salih goes to Friday prayers to listen to the sermon of Istanbul Hodja. Following the prayer, he witnessed the dialogue between Hoca and Dr. Haydar. The reason why Salih is approaching the National Forces might be that he is also an outsider. The speeches he made with Haydar Bey allowed him to enter National Forces and started to perform hidden cops with his left arm. When Salih is close to the Greeks, he is drinking and irresponsible. When he leaves them and approaches his own society, he leaves the drink and takes responsibility for his country. When National Forces send him to find the Hodja, Salih doesn’t know him much. He wants to protect her after she recognizes him as Küçük Ağa. I think that the responsible side of the character of Salih is to know that the anger must become the target to raise awareness.

Doctor Haydar is a soldier who served with the rank of captain in World War II and gave great services to the National Forces during the years of national struggle. Akşehir is also one of the organizers of the National Forces. He is an enlightened intellectual. Istanbul is forced to struggle with Hodja. Not to the sultan, but has to enter the Government of Istanbul. Not against the sultan, but against the government of Istanbul. It is a person who knows that it is necessary to act as required by conditions. Although he struggles with the Istanbul Hodja, he delivers his goodwill and worth. Later, he met with Istanbul hodja as Küçük Ağa and he knew him. He also expresses his admiration. He comes out first with his activist identity.
Ali Emmi is an old citizen who sees liberation in Nationality and who makes great sacrifices. He represents the “nation in element of the National Struggle in the novel. Old man with hair and beard has fallen, with wrinkles on his forehead. It is an Akşehir villager who has digested the patience and calm of the land like all the others. He is one of the former elders of Akşehir. He lost both his sons in battle. National Forces has supported since the beginning. He is the representative of the reaction towards Salih, plays an important role in his awareness. He is a charismatic person with leadership skills. He is humorous. Akşehir has great influence over justified.

Niko is Salih’s childhood friend, tailor. He’s close to her since he’s back in Aksehir. he was interested in his mother when he was not available. Niko has tried to show superiority. When Salih came to Akşehir, he gives new clothes, eating and he takes the tavern him. The reason for his close relationship with Salih is that he wants to buy his garden. But he betrayed the Turkish people with whom he lived for many years and joined the efforts to establish a Greek Cypriot state. He is seen as a sneaky, sincere bargaining person. After the first episodes, he almost never appears.
Çerkez Ethem is a gang leader who initially provided services that were unseen for the homeland and the nation, showed great successes on the front, but adopted the opposite ideas when they decided to pass the regular army. It can be seen later in the novel. As we know, he is a real person. He is a round character. Because of his personal ambition for power, he broke his ties with Ankara and rebelled. Ethem Bey believes his services are not appreciated. He is a person who does not hesitate to spend his people and his ideals for the sake of personal passion.

Reis is strong personality despite its short stature. He is simple, humble and honest. He is stubborn and predatory when necessary. He had a good collecting and finishing. Practical, in the values he believes, is a person who has formed a harmony between the conditions. He is a wise man who also dominates in Akşehir. Kuvay-i Milliye is one of the leading people in Aksehir. It stands out with its wisdom. It’s a flat character and no change in life. He is angry with the Armenians and the Greeks. He thinks that they come to the play of the great states. But the presence of good people in them will cause him hesitations.

Emine is a daughter of a clean, honorable, rich family. It didn’t hit fifteen. She is a slender, but full-blown girl. Big eyes, black eyes, lightly frowning crescent eyebrows, red and thick lips, delicate and tender nose and pimp, skin is a very beautiful girl. She is as beautiful as his face. She is a daughter of a clean, decent, wealthy family. She is extremely committed to her man. She is the wife of Küçük Ağa and she has a son. She raised her son. She was married to another person when it comes to news that the hodja was injured. Also died when the hodja came.
Çakirsarayli is one of the bandits who plundered the property of the people and even attacked their honor. No moral concern. But some of the men in his command joined the National Forces with the suggestions of Reis Bey.

5. Themes (441)

Küçük Ağa is a novel about National Struggle. But only the Turkish side of the national struggle is the subject. Even though Armenians and Greeks pass from time to time, the main issue is the Turkish people and it challenges the problems within itself rather than the struggle against the enemy. Unity and separation, war, religion, national responsibility and economic problems are the main themes of the novel. Until the end of the novel the most important theme is undoubtedly the unity. . We can see the theme of unity in these words:
“Meselâ “Birlik”; yine meselâ “Nifak”. Tam bir isabet ve derin bir vukufla izah buyurduğunuz üzere birlik Allahın takdis ve siyanetine mazhar olmuş en büyük kuvvet, nifak ise mahvın sebebidir. Doktor acele konuştuğunun farkına vardı. Sebep de Hoca’mn “Fazla uzadı galiba doktor bey” deyişi idi. Yine farkına vardı ki, Hoca’nın tesirinden tamamen kurtulamıyordu. Cemaatin ilgisini kazanmıştı, bu da yeterdi. Gerisini umursamayıp tane tane konuşmaya karar verdi. Bu susuş da tam yerine denk gelmişti. Kafalar harıl harıl işliyordu: “Sırt ağrısı üşütme – ur -doktor yanıldıysa!.. Birlik, nifak, iyi ama, bu da bilinmeli. Nasıl bilinmeli? Bakalım ne diyecek?”(Buğra 99). Küçük Ağa became a spokesperson of the Union when he was İstanbul hodja or Küçük Ağa. We can see the theme of the unity in the struggle between Hodja and National Struggle. The most important reason for Istanbul to be against National Struggle is that National Struggle does not see malicious intentions but sees them as the ones who pursue power and therefore harm the unity of the country. Later, the struggle between Çerkez Etem and the government of Ankara and the ambition of personal power are broken. The most important obstacle to the achievement of the Union is that they are defeated by their personal ambitions. Çerkez Etem is the most important example in this novel.

In the novel, the subject of religion also manifests in the person of Küçük Ağa. He’s a priest at first. He doesn’t just do it as a duty; he has adopted the values of his religion sincerely. Other characters in the novel also approach the National Struggle with religious concepts. The author’s approach to war, which is one of the themes in novel, is quite superficial to me. It reduces the war to the struggle of good and evil. He sees Armenians and Greeks as being deceived by the great states and betrayed the Ottomans. Economic troubles are another theme. There is lacks in the country due to war. For example; there is no coffee in the coffeehouse. Lime is not drink anything but rich in the home of coffee, etc. things can be found.

6. Motifs (214)

Folk song of Yemen, fire, smoking and lime are motifs in Küçük Ağa. Fire is used to create atmosphere. Objects such as a luxury lamp or fireplace reminds me of there have been used so many times such as “Salim ateşe sürdüğü cezveyi ocağın kenarında tuttu, vazgeçecekti. Fakat yine de pişirdi ve sal antılı bir sesle: — Töbe de, töbe!.. “ (Buğra 70). Smoking is used to create an image of mood the persons. The smoking motif has also been passed in many places in the novel such as “Nefesi kesilmiş gibi sustu. Fakat sigarasını pek rahat içiyordu. Kahvede çıt yoktu: Ali emmi aynı sesle yeniden konuştu” (Buğra 42). Lime is served because there is no coffee reminds me of the absence of constant: “Ne gezer kahve… Lâf olsun diye sordum. Sana ıhlamur yapayım. Yalnız ıhlamur var” (Buğra 39). We see merging folk song of Yemen and Salih who is leaving her body in Yemen as a motif in a folk song: Bozüyük’lü bir topal saatlerce, hangi saatlerce? Günlerce tekrarlayıp durmuştu: “Adı yemendir, Gülü çemendir, Giden gelmiyor Acep nedendir?” Keşke gelmek olmasaydı. Gelmek mi denirdi buna? Nerede sağ kolun yavrum Salih? Nerede sağ kulağının yarısı oğlum Salih? O kehribar gibi gözlerine ne oldu bir tanem? Ya o yiğit yüzün kardeşim? Gelmek mi denirmiş buna?” (Buğra 14).

7. Symbols (209)

Flag, new clothes, mosque and coffee are symbols in Küçük Ağa. Flag symbolizes religion, nation, homeland and land: “Bu milletin kaderi, bu milletin tu kendisi yüzyıllar boyunca işte bu bayraktı. Ve bu bayrağı halife-yi rû-yi zemin, şâh-ı cihan açardı. Taçlar, tahtlar devirmek, ülkeye ülkeler katmak için açardı. Hayatı bu gelenek düzenlerdi “as an example in the novel (Buğra 6 ). New clothes symbolize superiority. To give an example from novel: “Ne çare… Öyle oldu. Çünkü… Çünkü yanında şen şakrak Niko, sırtında Niko’nun getirdiği yepyeni elbise vardı. Salih bunun ne demek olduğunu daha pek iyi bilmiyor, hattâ hiç bilmiyor, fakat ürkütmeye yetecek bir şekilde seziyordu” ( Buğra 30 ). Mosque represents decisions taken and community in novel: “Yaşlara, başlara göre kurulmuş üçer beşer kişilik gruplar, ağırlık noktası sabırsızlık olan ve endişe ile ümit arasında sallanıp duran, duygularını şaşılacak bir şekilde gizleyerek, en ufak bir özelliği olmayan bir günün öğle esneyişini yaşarmış gibi, şundan bundan konuşarak, aşağıdan, yukarıdan, ara sokaklardan geliyor, camide toplanıyorlardı” as an example in the novel (Buğra 90). In Küçük Ağa, coffee can symbolize wealth. In the novel, coffee is a drink that is used by rich people. People who are in Akşehir drink the lime because there is no coffee. This can be example as symbol.

8. Critical Reading (798)

Tarık Buğra is a historical writer. Buğra has described events in chronological order. Some sections have people’s flashback. Salih recalls his experiences on Arabia front can be given as an example. The narrator is 3rd person narrator. The author expresses his thoughts through the internal monologue of the characters. For example, the thoughts of the Istanbul Hodja about the National Forces:

“Ancak iyi iddia iyi niyet bir Kuvay-ı Milliye de değildi. Daha birçok cemiyetin kurulmuş, elebaşları çıkmıştır. Bunların hepside vatanı milleti bahis ediyorlardı. Hatta yalnız bundan bahsediyorlardı da, bir türlü bir araya gelemiyorlardı” (Buğra 181-182). According to me, the author has expressed the idea of unity through Istanbullu Hodja. It is a very intensive technique. Especially when the characters are alone, they are used when they think about a subject. Through internal monologue we learn the author’s ideas and ideology. The technique of expression is the dialogue that takes the most part in the novel. In particular, the first book is heavily involved in dialogue, while in the second book, internal monologue technique becomes prominent. The first book is predominant while the second book is intense with emotions and thought. The novel is a tragic novel and the writer addressed the modernist and traditional in a different way. In fact it compared modernism and traditional. It is a realist novel because it deals with an event in history and the events are real: “Ben bütün bu eserlerde birtakım kırıntılar arıyordum; Küçük Ağa’nın niçin ve nasıl Küçük Ağa olduğunu aydınlatacak kırıntılar. Bunları bulduğumu sanıyorum. Eğer elde ettiğim malzemeyi iyi kullanabildiysem şu roman gerçek bir romandır” (Buğra 4-5). There are no paradox, gaps and ambiguities in Küçük Ağa. However; Niko takes a lot of part in the beginning of the novel and the lack of knowledge about Niko at the end, and the lack of knowledge of what happened to the Niko can be seen as an ambiguity. The War of Liberation, the War of Independence, and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, in the book, can be referenced to legends:

“Bu arada çırılçıplak bir isim, Mustafa Kemal, doğuyordu. Kuvâyı Milliyeciler bütün güçleri ile bu çıplak isimden bir efsane kişiliği yaratmaya çalışıyorlardı. Onların bu işi başarmaları da güç olmayacağa benziyordu. Bir yandan Mustafa Kemal’in ruh ve kafa yapısı ile çıkarıp attığı terfilerini süsleyen başarılan, öte yandan da halkın bir kahramana ihtiyacı ve Kuvâyı Milliye ön ekibinin her çeşit üstünlüğü sonucu sağlama alacak gibi görünüyordu” ( Buğra 227-228). This section is mentioned in the legendary way of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. The war of liberation and Mustafa Kemal Atatürk are important legends in our history. Generally short sentences were used. This makes it easy to read the novel. Some important places have been repeated:

“Öylesi çok daha kolay olurdu diye düşündü. Çünkü öylesi çok daha kolay olacaktı”(Buğra 498). The language is simple and the author of a more natural language. Fire, Ihlamur, tobacco are the most used as motifs. Fire is used to create atmosphere. Smoking or tobacco is used to create an image of the mood of the persons. Ihlamur is served because there is no coffee reminds me of the absence of constant. Küçük Ağa is hypertext because it is a work written with inspiration from the previous texts, as Tarık Buğra said in the novel’s preface:

“Fakat hayır; ben bir destan yazmak niyetinde değildim. Bunun tam aksine bir roman, romanlardan bir roman yazmaya çalışacaktım. Doğru • Başta «Nutuk» olmak üzere o hem yürek paralayıcı, hem alın ağartıcı devre ait kitapların hemen hepsini tekrar tekrar okumuştum”(Buğra 5). According to me, in the novel, self-reflection can be seen on Çolak Salih. When he returned from the front, he was in a great purposelessness and he had no idea what to do. This purposelessness brought him closer to Niko and made the wrong decisions but he began to make internal reckoning with the things he experienced and he takes a different and correct route. There are fragmentations. There are sections in the novel. The author almost divided each event into sections. It consists of 2 books and each book consists of 4 parts. When we examined the novel psychologically, if we set off from the lack of Lacan’s, he was psychologically devastated by the fact that he had lost his arm and felt incomplete and lacked the country. He experienced a lot of confusion within himself, and he made it clear through what he experienced afterwards. The people were worried about the war.

The children, the wives and the fiancée were fighting at the front, the outgoing did not come back and the coming was coming in as a half. When we examine people psychologically, the anxiety is in the foreground. There are binary oppositions in novel.

Friendship and enmity, presence and absence can be given as an example for binary opposition in the novel.

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