Water is essential of life. It plays a key role in achieving the Millennium Development Goals. As the population continues to grow and the economy develops, the competition for water uses between different users intensify, which inducing excessive strain on the environment. Climate change and water pollution further aggravate the situation. Today, 2.8 billion people are affected in some form of water scarcity, and the number of regions have affected by water shortages is on the rise. By 2025, two-thirds of the world’s population will live in countries have affected by water scarcity, including one-third of the populations of China and India. Water scarcity is not only a regional issue, but also a serious global concern. This is why UN-Water has identified the theme ‘Coping with water scarcity’ as one of its priorities for the decade. Accounting for 69 percent of global water withdrawal and 84 percent of Asian water withdrawal, agriculture plays a crucial role in sustainable water management. While achieving much, irrigation is more and more frequently criticized for inefficient water use. The general consensus is to incorporate agricultural water management into integrated basins, water resource management and to promote irrigation modernization.(Yangbin, 2007)
The bureaucratic system is component governmental ministries and departments, which are these plans, will have offers to serve the people in various fields for satisfaction of human wants. For example scope of Duties and Responsibilities of Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives have the powers and duties with respect to agriculture, water sourcing and irrigation development, agriculturist promotion and development, cooperative system promotion and development, including production process and agricultural commodities. Addition, the set of ideas or plan of what to do in particular situations that has been agreed officially by a group of people, a government or a political party is making of an important policy. (Source: http://eng.moac.go.th/ewt_news.php?nid=101)
Policies are engaged in numerous different activities depending on the particular needs of country development which the irrigation distribution is emphasized that the water distribution should be on helping the farmer to use suitable irrigation techniques, particularly scheduling of the irrigation water; however, this is unfortunately the rarest, traditional extension services may suffice to cover the needs of the farmers for their productions. Although farmers can contribute a great deal to this kind of work with their own works and funds, some financial support is also needed from the Central Government in the form of credit facilities or materials, equipment and the like.
Irrigation performance is a key to increase the production of staple crops, to meet the growing gap between agricultural productions and the needs of the expanding population by increasing (i) food production, (ii) on-farm employment, and (iii) incomes for social development achieves. Irrigation systems operate under the environment of pressure from several external and contextual factors. As a socio-ecological system (SES), an irrigation system faces ever-increasing scale of influence of the human activity (Shivakoti and Bastakoti, 2006).
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