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Essay: Transactional Analysis

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Task 1

Communication and administration are nearly related. Pioneers who are acknowledged to be great ace the craft of communication. By definition a pioneer is one who has an emulating. Notwithstanding the business or calling, a pioneer utilizes correspondence verbally and non-verbally particularly by a good example. That capability to get cross, win trust from different subordinates gets to be extremely critical that getting all these relational abilities will be exceptionally significant. Therefor to attain great working comes about, the right ruler of correspondence ought to be utilized by ground dwelling insect pioneer.

Transactional Analysis

Transactional Analysis (TA) includes the methodology of the understanding of human conduct and movement and was initially created by Dr. Eric Berne who is the writer of the book ‘Diversions People Play. TA is recognized to be a standout amongst most of the developments in psychiatry in numerous years.

TA separates an individual’s identity into three senses of self-states. A sense of self state is a solid example of considering, acting or feeling. These three states are shapes by reviewing the past occasions including true individuals, genuine spots, true times and true emotions. The three self-image states get supportive in the recognizing of the words from their exacting partners. In any business where items and administrations are conveyed at the counter on an individual to-individual fundamental, this study demonstrated convenient in understanding and reacting to different practices.

The Three Ego States

The three inner self states where recognized as the Parent, Adult and Child and are illustrated beneath.

Parent ego state
This state is that state of the human identity which relates for the most part to values, encounters and choices of youth. The Parent state could be communicated either through the discriminating parent or the supporting parent.
This state might be partitioned into two capacities. One capacity bargains of the supporting side and can said to be delicate, authorization giving and cherishing. This part is called sustaining parent inner self state as it likewise sets confines in a sound manner. The opposite side of parent conscience is known as the Critical Parent or frequently called the Prejudiced Parent. This is that a piece of the identity that holds the accepted thought feeling and those convictions that one has gained from their parents. A few messages hold in from the parent personality state could be useful in everyday life whilst other parent messages are most certainly not.

Adult ego state

This state discusses the objective some piece of the human identity. Choice making and critical thinking under this state are carried out on the groundwork of a genuine information and watchful appraisal.

Child ego state

This is a state which identifies with the passionate some piece of an individual’s identity. The state may be communicated through the free youngster and additionally the received kid.

The first order ego state model


Eric Berne decently characterized strokes as a unit of human differentiation. This implies that a stroke might be a nod, look, grin, spoken word or even touch. At any specific time a person does something to distinguish an alternate individual it is recognized to be a stroke. Strokes could be said to be antagonistic or constructive and most individuals incline toward positive strokes to negative strokes. Strokes can likewise be restrictive or unconditional. Unconditional strokes are those that come to us for simply being. Furthermore contingent strokes are basically given for what we achieve henceforth they fill paramount needs. The following are samples of negative and positive strokes.
Table.1 Example of strokes
Positive Negative
Hello Get stuffed
I love you I hate you

The main most exceedingly terrible thing than a pessimistic stroke is no stroke at this is on the grounds that all individuals have a frantic need so they could be seen by others.

Target Analysis has or like-wise eluded to the four positions in life which concern one’s own particular self and additionally others. These life positions are as takes after.
1. I’m OK-you’re OK
This is an exceedingly needed position. It shows an acknowledgement of an individual’s own particular self-esteem and that of others. In this life position, it surpasses individual encounters and acknowledges that are not yet encountered reflections and potential outcomes.
This life position exhibits a positive approach in managing genuine circumstances. The individual that is concerned shows a feeling of development and is not uneasy while managing others. Those individuals that have this state of mind delight in positions of authority and they do well as far as supporting and creating serious interpersonal connections.
2. I’m not OK-you’re OK
This is the position that identifies with the differentiation or acknowledgement of others however not of self. This is the point at which the individual feels that there is something wrong or needing in himself or herself.
It indicates a deficiency in managing positions in genuine living. By nature this kind of individual may or will be detached or subjective. There is sure lowliness mind boggling in associating with others. Such individuals normally indicate a loyal disposition and may be perceptible by their self- disavowal. Regularly ‘I’m not OK-you’re OK’ sort of individual searches up to others for guidance and look for steady direction.
3. I’m OK-you’re not OK
This life position identifies with the acknowledgement of self yet not of others. This sort of individual feels that there is something needing or off with other individuals.
The life position has its own particular restrictions when managing genuine circumstances. Here the individual concerned will be having a debilitating or predominance complex. The state of mind or stance that the individual brings in managing circumstances is forceful or could be scary. This sort of individual tries to overwhelm and have a tendency to give unwanted guidance.
4. I’m not OK-you’re not OK
This life position alludes to the refusal of both self as well as other people. For these individuals nothing is acknowledged to be correct. There feel that there is something needing in others and likewise in them.
This life position has its issues; it is inadequate and lacking when managing circumstances and individuals. The individuals are the inverse of the ‘I’m OK-you’re OK’ sort of individuals. These sort-of individuals are recognizable by their negative and suspicious conduct.

Task 2
Managing Director,
Chomba Mulenga,
71700 Negeri Seremban.
3 April 2013
Dear Sir/Madam,

RE: Report on Team building
The building of an effective team and the management of it, led to the selection of the Team members and their roles. In order to build an effective team, I first had to consider that our team had to be restructured in order for me to identify what the members were specialized in, for example, the technical expertise and skills to make decisions; their capability to identify problems and solve problems, giving ideas and analyzing ideas. Lastly, the Team needed the type of people who are quick learners able to resolve a conflict and are good communicators.
My appointment to the position of new manager for the Marketing Department had been a bit difficult. The first few months, my Team members and I were not on agreeing terms. As new manager I had to change the unproductivity of the marketing Department, but after a lot of Team management and team building. I was to come up with a multi-disciplinary team in order to achieve our particular objectives.
The first stage is I had to explain the concept of Team to my Team members which is that we were to work together based on achieving particular objectives. I explained to them that we were an organization that had restructured ourselves and if we were to compete in marketing, and secondly I had to structure the Team in a way that would use what they knew in terms of experience.
Selection of Team members
I then selected new team members to add to my existing Team to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Team. This encouraged the Team members to get more connected to one another and to share their ideas with the rest of the Team members. After explaining to the new Team members the reason they had been select and their roles on the board. I then told them we were to operate effectively by motivating one another and work with an understanding of the vision and mission of the organization.
According to RM Belbin, there are nine sorts of team roles, firstly the facilitator or administrator, plant, shaper, screen or evaluator, assets examiner, implementer, team laborer, finisher and finally expert.
I had also taken the step in changing the roles of my Team members. The goal is to mold the Team members in a way that allows them the opportunity to alter the way they do their work. In order for the project to be successful, the Team members need to change the way they work and behave. The roles I assigned to the Team where those of the coordinator, the shaper, the plant, the monitor-evaluator, the resource-investigator, the implementer, the team worker and the finisher.
The roles I assigned consist of the coordinator who gathers information concerning the Marketing department. The shaper had to be focused on the task and in line with the mission, vision and objectives of the department. The plant was someone who regularly came up with good ideas and was creative. I assigned the role of monitor-evaluator to a team member who monitors what is going on in between the team members in the department. The next role I assigned was that of Resource-investigator, whose job was to give the team something to strive for. The resource-investigator searches the external environment of the Marketing department for opportunities on a large scale.
The next role is that of the Implementer who turns team member ideas and opinions into reality. The composure of this individual has to be one of reliability, efficiency and self-discipline in order for his or her own interests not to get in the way of the organizations objectives. An implementer has to be one known to be punctual in order for the set deadlines, presentations and ideas to be delivered on time. This individual has got to have the team’s best interests at heart even if it means carrying out difficult tasks for the good of the team.
The Team worker was the role next in line after the implementer. The team worker helps make the whole team activities to run accordingly. This individual has to be one with leadership qualities and must have the zeal to direct people, understanding their differences and capable of settling disputes between team members. Though the role of the Team worker may be one of the low key role, it is noticeable when they are absent as the little, but important things are left unattended to. Team members will soon argue and have misunderstandings.
Last but not least, the role I appointed was that of the Finisher. The individual appointed to the position of the Finisher is one who is meticulous in behavior and strives for perfection. The Finisher can be relied upon to ensure that the deliverables are correct to the last detail. Although the Finisher can be strict to other team members in the work that goes around the organization, they usually encourage others. These have been the roles that I had had to institute in order for the team to work efficiently within the marketing department.
In the second stage, three approaches are used to create a distinguished team with solidarity and responsibility to set goals. I have additionally illustrated the significance of team personality and team solidarity.
The making of a team identity can help the smooth running of our project. It comes with having a great team character as well as a team name. This helps with the team’s objectives and working relationship bonding. In order for my team to stand-out among other teams, I have chosen to give the team an emblem and attire to wear. Lastly I characterize team techniques that motivate my group to create its own particular work methodology as opposed to permitting individuals to utilize the methodologies of a separate organized team.
Team solidarity is characterized as a unionized investment with sensitivities around the team. I came up with simple recommendations for my team, first was the need to communicate its solidarity, this is important for team trademark. The following thing I did was to set interpersonal relationships to create the need to believe in one another and to readily cooperate on a deeper level. In conclusion, the control of conflict amongst colleagues, as animosity and differences ought to be managed instantly in public and not privately after time.
Concerning the dedication set on the objectives, I have to include the simple laying out of the team goals and their position in the movement of the organization, I additionally need to include the team in setting particular targets, models and suitable strategies for arranging work aimed to achieve the objective. As team pioneer I have to give the right data, information, assets, preparing and environment for my members with the goal that they can reach the objective and focus in finishing the occupation and project.
For the third strategy, I further gave a discussion on the normal for a workable team. There are demonstrating that a low non-attendance or disappointment to appear for work, and have a high yield and benefit where produce a great nature of yield. There is considerably a lot about the target and objective that have been accomplished. Team members likewise give a high responsibility to accomplishment of target and in authoritative objectives having clear understanding of gathering work and their likeliness to take care of the central issue. There are in turn offering the thought to one another with common help and support. Teams can inspire and intensely work in the team leader’s nonattendance, want for self-advancement through the work and profession.
In conclusion, this is what I delivered to my new team members and the department. You rest be assured we can accomplish the objectives.
Chomba Mulenga
The Manager in Marketing.

Task 3
The Idea of Conflict Management
Conflict management is a methodology of constraining the harm that comes with conflict. It starts when one of the team members recognizes that another team member has been mistreated, or wrongly influenced. Conflict can be seen differently in any organization. Conflict management likewise executed inside a business environment typically includes successful correspondence, critical thinking and great arrangement of expertise to restore the focus to general organization objectives.
Conflict is a state of uncertain contrasts inside a single person or between people, an individual and a team and two or more teams. At some point conflict can happen all around the profession. To transform it into positive angle, it must be overseen in a manner that will offer support to the organization. Every individual ought to have a positive demeanor and co-operative attitude which can be spread to the relationships around them, keeping in mind the end goal to grow and uplift the mentality which in turn will diminish conflict, by leaving or by declining to interfere with other single person.
Process of Conflict
Process of conflict consists of five steps in processing conflict that is a potential opposition or incompatibility, cognition and personalization, intentions, behavior and outcomes.

Step 1 potential opposition or incompatibility: The first step is a preview on the situation that can increase the chances for conflict to occur. Each one of these do not necessarily lead to conflict, but one of these situations is necessary if conflict is to occur. For simplicity sake, these situations have been condensed into three general categories: communication, structure and personal variables.
Communication: in distinctive words here means, the exchange of information and clamor within a corresponding channel are all precursor conditions to conflict. An excess of correspondence and additionally little correspondence can set forth conflict.
Structure: The idea consists of varying leadership techniques, compensations, authoritative precision, compatibility in team member goals, level of expertise concerning in assigned tasks for team members as well as the teams interdependency.
Scope and specialty go about as strengths to animate the conflict. The bigger of the groups are and the more complex its tasks, the more stupendous the probability of conflict. Conflict and duration have been discovered to be conversely related. Possibilities for the clash tend to be common at the point at which groups are mostly youthful with high turnover. The more stupendous the uncertainty in characterizing where obligation regarding the activity, the best the potential for the clash to develop like Jurisdictional vagueness heightens group battles to control or assets and domain.
Personal Variable: Personality types where the people who are exceedingly tyrant and obstinate to lead the potential clash. An alternate reason for clash is change in worth frameworks. Qualities are the finest clarification of different issues, for example, bias contradictions over one’s commitment to the group and prizes one merit.
Cognizance and personalization: It has been portrayed that clash must be seen by those influenced by it whether or with reference to whether clash happens is a recognition issue on the grounds that it doesn’t imply that it is a particular issue.
Step 2 is a set in a methodology where the gatherings go to a choice what the conflict is about and conclusion assumes a principle part in molding recognition.
The third step is aim: Intention is the outcome to act in a given technique expectations mediate between individual discernment, conduct inside and out and feelings. There are five clash taking care of expectations might be distinguished, for example, contending, teaming up, avoiding, accommodating and compromising.
Contending: When an individual tries to fulfill their own particular investment paying little heed to the effect in different gatherings to the conflict, he/she is contending.
Teaming up: Situation in which the gatherings to the conflict each one craving to fulfill completely the concerns of every last one of gatherings. It mean in teaming up the plan of the gatherings fathoming the trouble by elucidating contrasts as opposed to by obliging different purpose of perspectives.
Avoiding: Refers to a time when an individual may perceive that a conflict exists and want to withdraw from it. To stay away from the clash an individual ought to attempt to disregard and evade others with whom you can’t help contradicting.
Accommodating: Is a circumstance where the readiness of a group is in conflict with his or hers.
Compromising: Is a position in which a group is in conflict weather they agree to surrender on something.
Intentions bear the cost of general rules for groups in a conflict circumstance. Throughout the conflict, they compel change in light of a passionate response to the conduct of other gathering.
The fourth step is Behaviors: In this step the conflict transformation is noticeable. In this step the conduct incorporates the articulation, movements and responses made by the clashing gatherings. These conflict practices are by and large obvious endeavors to execute each one gathering proposition.
The last step is outcome: Result is the movement response between the conflict and the impact in outcome. These results may be practical or useless in that they thwart execution. Practically means conflict is helpful when it enhances the nature of choice mimicking imagination and improvement empowering investment and interest around the allies.
While clash is useless when uncontrolled restriction breeds discontent which act to break up normal binds and in the end prompts the decimation of the group.
How Conflict can be Resolved in a Team
Determining the clash is that when aggregations neglect the sign of solid contrasts of judgment, determining clash obliges appreciation and persistence. A singular knowledge of clash includes our feelings, discernments and movements. Hence concentrate on Jacob is an individual who is not exceptionally well thought about, a ton of issue with this individual, he’d generally been discovered going off site amidst the day, leaving early and so forth. Jacob has been included with an alternate group of the division and had been supplying all the data of the current office he is working at to that division. Cyril and different parts find Jacob gently presumptuous and experience issues in enjoying him, in spite of the fact that he appears to have extraordinary arrangement of appreciation. So the clash has happens between Jacob and Cyril and other aggregation parts where none of them are co-working with Jacob and one or two somewhat catty comments are, no doubt made betraying his trust.
Agree to Communicate: the most essential thing all around the determination practice is for everybody to keep correspondence open with one another. So dependent upon this research endeavor, Jacob and Cyril which included need to discuss the issue and attempt to examine their solid feeling. They ought to hear each out other, when essential as it is fundamental in light of the fact that to proceed onward you have to truly comprehend where the other individual is originating from.
Third-Party Negotiations
Straight transaction of people or group assembly will concur on a stalemate and tackling all their disparities. In sentence case, they may turn to an outsider who will be not the slightest bit connected with them to help them discover an answer.
Third party transaction is exceptionally standard, where the outsider who really bodes well for disputants for arriving at a conclusion.
There are four simple third party types that a third party could play in a conflict negotiation, where it is mediator, arbitrator, conciliator and expert.
Mediator: Is a regular third party where profession is to encourage an arranged conclusion by thinking and impact, recommending choices to the concerned gatherings. Go between additionally extremely normal in the process of childbirth administration clash in civil court debate.
Arbitrator: third party that has the capability for directing an understanding between the gatherings. It could be asked for by the gatherings or might be necessarily implemented on the gatherings by court or arrangement. The huge profit of mediator over intercession is that dependably bring about a settlement.
Conciliator: Is a trusted outsider whose vocation is to create a casual correspondence connection between the moderator and rival. It is utilized normally as a part of global, work, family and group question. It by and large goes about as more than unimportant correspondences courses.
Expert: Is an ability and unbiased outsider who endeavors to encourage critical thinking through correspondence and examination. It is well on the way to have much recognition of refereeing. Specialist part is not just to settle down the issue around them however it as opposed to putting advances particular result, advisor tries to urge the gatherings to take in understanding working with one another. Moreover, this methodology has a more drawn out term center to assemble the new and positive observation, conduct and disposition between the clashing gatherings and people.

Maslow’s Theory
As stated by Abraham Maslow, Maslow’s hypothesis is that a need that is like nature and assumes a significant part in propelling conduct. Maslow termed the most elevated amount of the pyramid as development needs. Development need don’t come from an absence of something, but instead from a longing to develop as an individual.
There are five levels in a Maslow’s hierarchy of needs where it has Physiological Needs, Security Needs, Social Needs, Self-Fulfillment Needs and Esteem Needs.
Basic Physiological Needs: mean these an essential need that crucial to survival, such a sustenance, beverage, slumber, sex, warmth and haven. Maslow’s accept that these needs are the most fundamental and instinctual need in the chain of command in light of the fact that all need get auxiliary until these physiological needs are met.
Security needs or wellbeing needs: are extremely paramount for survival, however it not requesting as the physiological needs. Security needs are, for example, health awareness, nature, safe neighborhoods, cover from the situations, law, solidness and flexibility from dread.
Social Needs: is for having a place, love and affection from work bunch, family, companion and sentimental people connections. These connections help to satisfy this need for friendship and acknowledgement as doe’s association in social, group or religious.
Self-fulfillment Needs: is a largest amount of Maslow’s pecking order of necessities. Fulfillment toward oneself mean is mindful, concerned with self-improvement, less concerned with notion of others and intrigued satisfying their potential.
Esteem Needs: has been fulfilled, esteem needs ended up progressively imperative. These incorporate the need for thing that ponders respect toward oneself, accomplishment, authority freedom, status, strength, self-esteem and appreciation from others.
Focal points of utilizing Maslow’s chain of command of necessities.
‘ You won’t commit the error of attempting to engage gathering of people higher needs when there are fundamental needs not yet fulfilled.
‘ This hypothesis is give a helpful outline of human need, which could be utilized within item plan item situating, evaluating and retail outlets outlines.
‘ It help advertiser to center their publicizing bids on particular needs imparted by an expansive section of their target.
‘ people can satisfy their larger amount needs when unforeseen circumstances might all of a sudden undermine their much shorter term needs, promoting many-sided quality.
‘ disadvantages of utilizing Maslow’s order of need are that since your gathering of people part is interesting, much the same as others, it troublesome to place him or her in a crate.
‘ It can’t be tried experimentally, there is no real way to measure accurately how fulfilled one level of need must be before the following higher need get agent.
2 Herzberg Hygiene Theory
Herzberg discovering uncovered that certain qualities of employment are reliably identified with occupation fulfillment,
As stated by Herzberg, people are not content with the fulfillment of easier request needs at work, for example, least compensation levels or wellbeing and charming working conditions. Rather, singular search for the satisfaction of larger amount mental need needing to do with accomplishment, differentiation, obligation, progression and the way of the work itself.
Herzberg added another measurement to this hypothesis by proposing a two element model of inspiration, in light of the idea that vicinity set of occupation aspects or motivators prompts specialist fulfillment at work, while an alternate and separate set of employment attributes prompts disappointment at work.
This hypothesis propose that to enhance work mentality and gainfulness, executive must distinguish and go to both sets of attributes and not expect that an increment in fulfillment lead to decline in un-pleasurable disappointment.
To concern Herzberg hypothesis, you have to receive a two-stage methodology to rouse individuals. In the first place, you need take out the disappointments they’re encountering and next, you have to help them discover fulfillment.
Step one: Eliminate Job Dissatisfaction
‘ provide work security and wellbeing.
‘ provide compelling, strong and non-meddling supervision.
‘ build work status by giving compelling work to all positions.
‘ create and help a society of appreciation and pride for all colleagues.
‘ ensure that wages are focused.
All this step movement helps you to wipe out employment disappointment in an organization.
Step two: Create Conditions for Job Satisfaction
To make fulfillment, you have to address the rousing components connected with work. It calls work advancement. Things that need to think about incorporate:
‘ provide open doors for accomplishment, to development in the organization through inner advancements.
‘ offering preparing and advancement good fortunes.
‘ giving however much obligation to each one colleague as could be expected.
Preferences of Herzberg hypothesis
‘ In recognizing that there are variables that all in all will propel and demotivate gathering of representatives.
‘ It might be utilized to recognize wide issues that need to be tended to or relieved all in all.
Disservices of Herzberg hypothesis
‘ Herzberg model are to a greater extent a generalization that may not be proper to all assemblies of representatives or people inside a gathering.
‘ Herzberg hypothesis all the more on meeting with bookkeepers and architects. His discoveries are not so much straightforwardly relevant to boundlessly diverse representative aggregation.
2. Expectancy Theory
Hope hypothesis is depicted as a procedure hypothesis included in settling on decision. In authoritative conduct, hope hypothesis grasps how inspiration
Expectancy theory proposes that work motivation is dependent upon the perceived association between performance and outcomes and individuals modify their behavior based on their estimation of expected results. This hypothesis is based upon the thought that inspiration originate from an individual accepting they will get what they need as execution or prizes.

Anticipation hypothesis is considered a methodology hypothesis of inspiration on the grounds that it underscores distinctive recognitions of nature and resulting connections emerging as an outcome of particular desires.
Figure 2: The three part of the Vroom Expectancy hypothesis.
The hypothesis is based upon the accompanying convictions:
I. Valence (reward).
It alludes to the passionate introductions individuals hold as for conclusions (rewards). The profundity of the need of a representative for extraneous (cash, advancement, time-off, profits) or inborn (fulfillment) rewards.
II. Expectancy (execution).
Workers have diverse desires and levels of trust about what they are equipped for doing. Administration must uncover what assets, preparing or supervision worker needs.
III. Instrumentality (exertion).
The observation of representative in the matter of whether they will really get what they are craving regardless of the fact that it has been guaranteed by a supervisor. Administration must guarantee that guarantees of prizes are satisfied and those representatives are mindful of that. Vroom proposes that a representative’s conviction about Expectancy, Instrumentality and Valence collaborate mentally to make a motivational drive such that the worker demonstrations in ways that bring joy and maintain a strategic distance from ache.
‘ It gives a schema to seeing how inspiration works in a given circumstance.
‘ It will break down if employee does not believe in the inspiration or prize.
‘ You can’t want individuals behaving in a rational way and weigh the different choices open to them.
The way that Managers ought to take after to propel is as follows:
Work Satisfaction occurs through empowering if need be by pushing to make representatives to acknowledge obligation. There are four elements, for example, cautious situation of individuals in occupations, exclusive expectation of execution in employment, furnishing the specialist with the data required to control their own particular execution and open doors for interest in choice that will give the representative managerial vision and mission.
Job Enrichment is a planned, arranged methodology to enhance the obligation and test of the occupation.
‘ Giving a gift ‘ worker giving more terrific variety despite the fact that this could additionally be portrayed as a vocation expansion.
‘ Allowing the worker more terrific opportunity to choose how the occupation ought to be carried out.
‘ Encouraging workers to take an interest in the arranging, settling on choice of their administrators.
‘ Ensuring that the worker gets consistent the sentiment on their execution.
Work expansion is an endeavor to augment work by expanding the amount of operation in the employment holder. It is an even expansion of a singular work where work improvement is a vertical development.
Participation is a sure rule that must predominate if interest to be powerful in raising inspiration. Cooperation must been seen as a piece of a proceeding approach not only one-off activity. Also, the support must be real while individuals must have capacity, supplies and will to be included.
The Cash incentives for present the qualities of a great director of the organization’s pioneers to workers, superintendents need to be alarm that a percentage of the representatives who come to work to win cash and need to get money elective to help. As directors we need to be minding to representatives by providing for some additional cash for worker resolve – specialists infuse such a great amount of enthusiasm to do the work.
Non-money incentives are as an administrator of the organization will offer aid in states of therapeutic, motivational, help transport to work et cetera. In place so a few workers will feel great to work in an organization that provides for us some adaptability as non- monetary yet as far as our fundamental needs.

Silhanek, B. and Decenzo, D.A. (2007) Human Relations: Personal and Professional Development. London: Prentice Hall.
Robbins, S.P. and Judge, T.A (2009) Organisational Behavior. 5th edn. London: Prentice Hall.

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