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Essay: Devices in an IoT ecosystem

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The Internet of Things has changed due to the advancement of technology and pressure from companies to innovate faster. The possibility of unintended surveillance that comes through modern lifestyle demands evolution of technology. Further, experts have predicted that more devices will be in IoT by 2020 (DI Martino, Li, Yang, & Esposito, 2017). This research has highlighted the significant challenges associated with the Internet as we know it today. There are challenges currently with IOT and it is expected to have more issues in the future. Therefore, these emerging technologies must be secured promptly and efficiently. The challenges and security concerns relate to IoT trust, authentication, provisioning, confidentiality, availability, confidentiality, access control and integrity. This paper, therefore, examines security and challenges for the Internet of Things.

Table of Contents

Title Page 1

Abstract 2

Introduction 4

Methods 4

Type of research 4

Using reliability theory 4

Background information 5

Findings 5

Cyberattacks 6

Establishing business model and location 7

Audio data 7

Digital identity 7

Emergent behaviours 8

Identification 8

Discussion 8

IoT scalability studied using simulation 8

IoT business investment. 9

Conclusion 9

References 10


Internet of Things can be termed as a process of interconnecting devices intelligently to systems with the aim of leveraging data that is gathered by embedding sensors and actuators in machines. These devices include; cell phones, home appliances, smart outlets, LED bulbs and among other machines that have on and off options to be connected to the internet. Experts have predicted that IOT will rapidly spread shortly and the quality of services will improve within the next few years. The advantages associated with IOT include better, optimized production and enhanced management (Krishna, 2016). However, despite these advantages, security vulnerabilities are threatening the system and can lead to security breaches. Users will get worried about privacy violation such as ransomware. Also, there is fear of loss of life due to attackers controlling various items such as your home devices and such.


Type of research

This paper utilizes both qualitative and quantitative types of research. The objective of the qualitative research is to understand the security of IOT and the security challenges. The discipline investigates the vulnerability of the Internet of Things. This research was conducted through Internet by gathering secondary data.  According to Di Martino, Li, Yang, and Esposito, (2017), experts have been trying to figure out mitigation measures against internet threats. Therefore, to get accurate data, this research paper is based on secondary data. Besides this, the paper will vividly present an explanation of the phenomena by analysing numerical data to show progressive changes in the sector.

Using reliability theory

This theory can describe the reliability of the IoT system to achieve the expected performance. Each component is keenly analysed to determine its viability. Five reliability functions are included in internet, perception layer, mobile, network, satellite communication, and application layer (Di Martino, Li, Yang, & Esposito, 2017). This theory can also be applied to determine the quality of service and data management

Background information

The concept of internet research was put forward by Mark Weiser when he wrote an article in Scientific American. According to him, the idea generated due to the continued trend of the reduced price of items, size, and energy consumption. The term was used by the British technologist Kevin Ashton. He described IoT as a process in which physical items can be linked to the internet using sensors. He was illustrating the power of connecting Radio-frequency identification (RFID) that is used in supply chains to count and track goods without the need for human   intervention (Fraga-Lamas et al., 2016). Thus, much of the research conducted into IoT has been from an engineering perspective with scientific approach.


Table 1. Technical and Business Research Challenges of IoT and applicable OR tools

IoT Challenge OR Tools/Techniques Applicable


Architecture Data analytics, optimization, game theory

Interoperability (Addressing/

Naming Objects)

Scalability Simulation

Mobility Simulation

Security/Privacy Data analytics; fuzzy systems; graph theory


Energy Efficiency/Power Simulation; Game theory; decision analysis

Reliability/Robustness Reliability theory


Software Development Expect simulation to help?

Availability Reliability theory; simulation should apply

Data Management/Information Fusion Game theory; data analytics

Cloud Computing Decision analysis; data analytics

Performance (Quality of Service) Optimisation; reliability theory;

queuing theory; math programming;

stochastic processes

(Fraga-Lamas et al., 2016)


Devices that are not well secured could be entry points for cyber-attacks. Individuals with malicious intentions can re-program the devices or cause them to malfunction. Therefore, the user’s data can be exposed to theft by leaving data streams inadequately protected. Higher costs of production and technical constraints on the internet of things context challenge manufacturers to design security features into these devices which leads to a security vulnerability. Security deficiencies in these devices coupled with increased number and nature of IoT raise opportunities for attacks (Krishna, 2016). Therefore, every device that is connected online through internet potentially affects the security and resilience of the internet.

The ability to function, without using internet-connected devices will reduce. Notably, it is already difficult to purchase items that are not internet enabled. Most people are becoming dependent on devices that are IoT connected for essential services. While doing so, we need to be secure, yet we know that no device is secure.

Establishing business model and location

Developing a business model for the IoT is a challenge but can be addressed by OR. Free enterprise society has a market setting whereby it is easier to locate customers that are near the region. Knowing the location patterns of the target demographics help advertisers to efficiently plan (Ziegler et al., 2015). IoT has enabled social media and physical dimensions to proximity. However, people are not willing to give their location data, but IoT sensors that are owned by others can share data implicitly anonymous. Only four data points are required to identify a person, and it's identified as a commodity in commerce and governments. This aspect is likely to become an enabler crime.

Audio data

Many home devices have voice activation features. Thus, for that to work, voice data are collected continuously and then uploaded from the device cannot recognize a command when something is spoken. The unfortunate issue is that it is a requirement for users to accept the terms and conditions before using the services (Ziegler et al., 2015). The Less acceptable practice also happens to make it unavoidable to breach privacy agreements.

Digital identity

The only right way to provide digital identification is by delivering pre-shared secret keys. These keys are stored in non-volatile read-only memory that is used to encrypt data. He approaches, expensive and vulnerable side channel attacks since it can tamper.

Emergent behaviours

These are behaviors that can happen in complex systems, mostly due to feedback relationships. The possibility of unintended negative emergent behaviors can be significantly substantial.


Interaction and collection of a significant amount of information have become relevant as the evolving technologies raise the threats of identification (Ziegler et al., 2015). For example, surveillance cameras have become increasingly integrated and are being used in the non-security context like marketing platforms. This aspect of identifying individuals automatically defies the privacy policy


The OR techniques can be readily applied to predict IoT and reliability. Three subsystems of the network layer, perception layer, and application layer (Roy & Chowdhury, 2017). Their transmission networks are assumed to independent. Therefore, as per Roy and Chowdhury (2017), the application layers and perception layers are dependent, total reliability (RT) is therefore given by

RT = R1 × R5 × (1 − ∏ 4 k=2(1 − Rk))

From this equation, R1 is the reliability of perception while R5 is a reliability of application layers. R2 is the reliability of the internet, R3 is the reliability of the mobile network, and R4 is reliabilities of satellites. Also, reliability theory can be applied to data collected.

IoT scalability studied using simulation

According to Roy and Chowdhury (2017), scalability is the first challenge in IoT. The reason is that IoT will have billions of devices connected. These devices will require management and maintenance. These devices operate and supported using conventions, protocols, and power appropriately. The available approaches may lack adequate and hence fail to scale the required number IoT objects.

The IoT will have billions of electronic devices, and many of them will be impossible to reconfigure in the contrast one's computer that needs regular software updates or hardware upgrade. These updates and upgrades will increase more memory, CPU power, and storage space.

IoT business investment.

Decision analysis has been applied before. But game theory and discrete event simulation as appropriate for the application. These techniques have been used previously to explore technical issues like the multipath selection and data distribution (Krishna, 2016).


In conclusion, this paper emphasizes the need to analyze security threats and challenges on the internet of things. First, I provided a basis to discuss security and difficulties in IoT with a short review. Secondly, I acknowledge that IoT is evolving and gives good services. Finally, I stress my core thoughts that privacy is a challenge and must be faced with necessary measures Solutions require well-coordinated actions to provide technical support. This research paper has shown how QR techniques can be applied to solve challenges associated with the internet with technology. The IoT is best requires other forms of systems and software engineering, project management that will help develop and control the system in future. Privacy violations in the interaction and presentation are possibly considered as a future threat. The correspondent mechanisms with smart things and systems that are evolving heave received little attention in the related work.


Di Martino, B., Li, K., Yang, L. T., & Esposito, A. (2017). Trends and Strategic Researches in Internet of Everything. Internet of Things, 1-12. doi:10.1007/978-981-10-5861-5_1

Fraga-Lamas, P., Fernández-Caramés, T., Suárez-Albela, M., Castedo, L., & González-López, M. (2016). A Review on Internet of Things for Defense and Public Safety. Sensors, 16(10), 1644. doi:10.3390/s16101644

Krishna, M. B. (2016). Security and Trust Management for the Internet of Things: An Rfid and Sensor Network Perspective. Cyber-Assurance for the Internet of Things, 137-162. doi:10.1002/9781119193784.ch4

Roy, S., & Chowdhury, C. (2017). Integration of Internet of Everything (IoE) with Cloud. Internet of Things, 199-222. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-50758-3_8

Ziegler, S., Nikoletsea, S., Krco, S., Rolim, J., & Fernandes, J. (2015). Internet of Things and crowd sourcing – a paradigm change for the research on the Internet of Things. 2015 IEEE 2nd World Forum on Internet of Things (WF-IoT). doi:10.1109/wf-iot.2015.7389087

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