The role of forensic odontology for perpetrator identification through bite marks

The role of forensic odontology is for personal identification, perpetrator identification through bite marks, establishing legal age, analysis of facial injury and dental malpractice, and testimony in court. Odontologists identify human remains that cannot be facially identified, fingerprinted, etc., identify bodies in mass disasters, estimate the age of bones or skeletal remains, and find the … Read more

Identifying antemortem/postmortem nature of wounds

INTRODUCTION A wound can be elaborate as the sudden discontinuation of the connection of bodily tissues due to some external force or action by some substance either blunt or sharp. The definition also contains burns from fire or heat, electricity, all type of laceration and bruises and the effects of any type of force upon … Read more

Advanced Dermal Science

CHAPTER 1 Advanced Dermal Science The skin The skin is considered to be the largest organ of the body, which is about 1.5 to 2m squared [1]. It is composed of 3 main layers namely: Epidermis, Dermis and Hypodermis / subcutaneous layer. These layers are designed to serve as a form of protection and thermal … Read more

Seismology – definition and history

Seismology is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of the elastic wave through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies. The earliest seismoscope was invented in by Zhang Heng of China’s Han dynasty in 132 AD[2]. This instrument is reported to have detected a 400-mile distant earthquake. However, it does not tell any … Read more

Artificial Neural Network, Flotation, Separation Efficiency

An artificial neural network and regression procedures were used to predict the separation efficiency of Cu and selectivity indices of Mo and Fe of the copper flotation concentrate on different operational conditions. Flotation parameters, such as chemical reagent dosages (Collector, frother, Fuel-oil), Feed rate, solid percentage and the Feed grade of Cu, Fe and Mo, … Read more

Identification and Synthesis of an Unknown Acid

Introduction This report describes an experiment that was used to assist in the identification of an unknown acid. These experiments were conducted due to an unknown acid discovered by MSU Office of Environmental Health and Safety. A list of 26 possible acids, their molar mass, and pKa values were given by MSU EHS1. To identify … Read more

Investigate cancerous stem cells

The purpose of my research is to investigate cancerous stem cells, which are cells that are able to undergo specialization based on the environmental factors and location of the cell (7). Cancer cells can have stem cell properties in their ability to propagate and reduce the likelihood of normal, programmed cell death (3). This particular … Read more

Synthesize benzil through oxidation of benzoin by bleach in the presence of Stark’s catalyst

Purpose: The purpose of this experiment was to synthesize benzil through the oxidation of benzoin by bleach in the presence of Stark’s catalyst. The addition of Stark’s phase transfer catalyst (Aliquat 336) to the reaction mixture was necessary to promote the occurrence of the biphasic reaction.. Thin-layer chromatography was utilized to monitor the progress of … Read more

Using optical interference to determine the refractive index of 3 lenses and water

Abstract The refractive indexes of 3 different glass lenses and water were determined using Newton’s rings interference pattern. The refractive index of each lens determined were as follows nlens 1=1.329±0.008, nlens 2= 1.47±0.03, nlens 3=1.44±0.07 and the refractive index of water was found to be μ=1.26±0.03. The true value for the refractive indexes should be … Read more

Physiological responses to a moderate intensity cycle while consuming carbohydrate drinks

INTRODUCTION The ingestion of carbohydrate (CHO) has been proven to improve cycling endurance capacity and performance during prolonged exercise. Research in this area didn’t start till around the 20th century; the importance of CHO feeding was first recognised by Krogh and Lindhard (1920). They found that athlete’s found exercise easier when they had consumed a … Read more

Proposal: does quadruplex molecular beacon responsiveness and efficiency change when put into more complex environment

Chapter 1 Introduction 1.1 Background Importance of Cancer Screening Among known diseases, cancer and heart disease are among the most recognizable and principle cause of mortality among those whom contracted them. Although cancer has led to fewer deaths than heart disease in the United States (at 22.0% compared to 23.4% of all deaths in 2015), … Read more

Investigate whether horizontal transfer is a significant mode of transmission between species.

Abstract Wolbachia are a genera of alpha-proteobacteria, and infect the cell cytoplasm of over 80% of Lepidoptera species. The endosymbionts can alter host physiology, causing cytoplasmic incompatibility and female-biased sex ratios. This would reduce the fitness of the host population, and potentially hinder conservation efforts. This would be particularly problematic if virulent strains could host-switch … Read more

Newton and Einstein: Gravity

Prior to the groundbreaking scientific revelations of Sir Isaac Newton and Albert Einstein, Gravity was an elusive concept. Greek philosophers believed the planets followed a natural motion due to being a part of the gods’ realm, as they did not realize that gravity was involved. These ideas stayed around until the 1500s, when astronomers Galileo … Read more

Primary Colonization Models for Peopling of the Americas

Over the past few decades, genetics has become essential in calculating the arrival time of the first migrations into present day America as well as determining the genetic composition of these first inhabitants. While the archaeological record is demonstrably useful in the reconstruction of migration patterns, a bias exists which poses that the likelihood of … Read more

Successful Creation of Recombinant pET-41a(+)/EGFP Plasmid Confirmed by PCR and Restriction Digest

Introduction Plasmids are so helpful and important to understanding about genes in the field genetic. Fragment of DNA can ligate to plasmid vector to create a recombinant expression plasmid. In 1973, recombinant plasmid DNA was first achieved by Boyer and Cohen at Stanford University, California. In the beginning of this experiment, we will create a … Read more

Bacterial Diversity Lab

Introduction Bacteria are very diverse organisms, and their diversity is the reason multiple different tests and differences need to be taken account of in order to identify specific species. Some identification is based on morphological differences between bacteria, like: cell size, shape, color, colony shape, surface appearance, elevation, and colony edge shape. Other than by … Read more

DNA Extraction in Strawberries and Tomato Cells

Problem In order to isolate DNA, the solution or substance used as extraction liquid has to do a lysis process within the cells, meaning that it needs to break down the cells. Because plant cells like strawberries and tomatoes contain a cell wall, it is harder for the solution to penetrate the cell membrane and … Read more

Capillary Electrophoresis (CE)

What is CE? Capillary electrophoresis(CE) and chromatography are techniques for chemical analysis. It is generating tremendous interests in industrial labs due to their high sensitivity, high separation efficiency and rapid rate of analysis in many industrial applications. CE is able to accurately determine chemical compositions and detecting trace impurities. Even small deviations from process specification … Read more

Open channel flow

Open channel flow: Flow of liquid with a free surface through any passage with atmospheric pressure acting on its surface is known as open channel flow. The liquid flowing through any closed passage without touching the top can also treated as open channels. Examples: 1. Flow in natural waterfalls, river and streams. 2. Flow in … Read more

Zinc oxide (ZnO)

Zinc oxide (ZnO) is one of the most important semiconductor materials in the live sciences since it has numerous applications, particularly in the field of optoelectronics, because of its excellent optic and ultraviolet properties, high electric conductivity and good thermal and chemical stability.[9] Even though several methods of synthesis were used for ZnO preparation, it … Read more

How to write a science essay

Coming up with a good science essay requires critical analysis of several elements in writing since scientific arguments are different from other disciplines.

However, the steps involved in writing scientific essay is more or less like other paper works involving stages such as planning, thorough research and analysis, making an outline, actual writing, conclusion and work-editing. There are myriads of challenges facing writers in this sector due to the high demands in a scientific paper. Science writing should generally honor accomplishments of science (Roach & Folger, 2011). In this regard, arguments in science should largely be based on facts and data hence it is a requirement that science essay-writers should embrace research work and have multiple facts at hand. This paper, therefore, gives an analysis of various strategies in writing a comprehensive science essay which makes a difference in scientific reasoning. It discusses the various steps in writing and what is essential in each stage. It is an informative paper aimed at improving writing skills in science which is currently running out of professionals.

Planning how to write a science essay

The most critical point in science essays is the planning stage. It is where ideas are generated and the entire outlook of a paper is decided. Moreover, the topic of discussion is also narrowed down in this stage. Given a general topic, researcher should concentrate on the key words in the topic. They are general words from which ideas are generated (Tan, 2001). Planning requires and understanding of the research question in details. A writer should be able to break down a question into several parts and come up with sub-parts that collectively address research question comprehensively. Most importantly, planning should be an advanced course of action, meaning it should take its own special time.

Carrying out research and analysis of findings

Learning how to write a science essay involves a lot of research and analysis. Research involves finding relevant sources of information on which basic facts are argued out. This can be done in the library or on the internet. Internet, specifically, has wide range of information but some can be irrelevant. However, it is easier to explore internet sources than going through books and articles. Moreover, there are online scientific journals which provide comprehensive information about current issues in the world of science. Researchers should, therefore, differentiate between relevant and immaterial sources of information to reduce the risks associated with producing irrelevant scripts (Betts et al., 2005).

Analysis, on the other hand, is putting together the various sources plus information there in, to gain understanding of real context of writing. It further involves getting an assurance that the materials at hand are enough to cover all areas required in research paper. Above all, analysis should enable a writer make some sense out of the sources before beginning actual writing.

The preparation of an outline

This is not as technical as the previous stages, but still involves a broad analysis of what researcher needs to cover. Most essays have three basic sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, writer is at liberty to choose his own outlook depending on his ability to organize thoughts well. If a writer has difficulty in recapping what he analyzed in the research stage, it is important then to organize an outline prior to beginning actual writing. There are no basic rules regarding outlines of scientific essays, it all depends on how logical ideas can be presented.

The actual science essay writing process

It is the main interest in scientific writing since arguments and facts are presented in the actual writing. There are varieties of issues to consider when writing an essay. First, it is at this stage that basic points in an essay are introduced. This implies that writer should be able to present an argument logically and reach a conclusion too (Betts et al., 2005). This is for purposes of organization and producing a well-written essay. It should, therefore, have a logical progress in which facts are presented in the right order. Moreover, in writing, it is important to support all key ideas with relevant data. Studies presented in science writing should not just be cited, but rather, a brief description of its key findings should be given. Science also requires that all nonobvious statements be accompanied by proper references.

In addition, writing should aim at producing a myriad of possibilities and go ahead to perform tests to prove them. The best criteria is rejecting impossible hypotheses rather than accepting real ones. It is the basis of elimination in scientific research and always based on facts. This is a step aimed at accepting or rejecting various hypotheses in science based on quality proofs (Betts et al., 2005). Moreover, science essays should be critical. The facts in each statement should be carefully examined and vague ideas should not be presented at all. In a case where a writer cannot comprehend certain statements, it is important to follow up with a good research. It is in this stage that proper citations and referencing are decided and used. Writers should be familiar with the four basic writing styles; APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. Lastly, writing should be concise, meaning, avoiding use of general statements. Most importantly, technical terminologies not familiar to common psychologists should be avoided or accompanied by their definition.

Writing the conclusion

This stage also involves critical thinking and is not merely a brief summary of points illustrated in an essay. The focus should be broadened at the end of an essay, and use an appropriate last sentence which gives readers/scientists something to ponder about. In addition, it is in the conclusion that writer warns readers about consequences of ignoring scientific findings if it touches on the contemporary society.


It involves cross-checking a piece of work to ensure there are no unnecessary mistakes. The most effective program for editing is grammarly which proof reads and points out mistakes for writer to correct. All grammar mistakes are corrected at this stage and it improves quality of writing.

In conclusion, science essay writing is more challenging compared to writing on other subjects. Science requires a deeper analysis and understanding of facts and does not deal with writer’s opinions. It is important, therefore, to do a lot of research prior to beginning writing in this field and have quality facts at hand. Above all, planning of a science paper is the major determinant of success in writing.


Betts, K., Farquharson, K., & Seitz, A. (2005). Writing Essays and Research Reports in the Social Sciences.Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Roach, M., Folger, T., ed. (2011). The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2011: The Best American Series. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Tan, Lyn. (2001). Home Help in Essay Writing. Carlton South Vic, Australia: Curriculum Press.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a science essay‘ guide.