The Event Horizon Telescope

I. Introduction A journey to space is a journey expediting the unknown. A road that no one knows what to expect or what is about to happen. I was really fascinated by one of the most debated as well one of the least known phenomena called black hole. Black hole is place in space where … Read more

Assignment: The Brus equation

1.Review of J. Phys. Chem., 1986, 90, 2555-2560 This paper mainly focuses on the experimental and theoretical background of properties, which differ in nanoparticles from the bulk material. This change depends on the size in semi conductor crystallites of ~15Å to several hundred angstroms. The “crystallites” are named as clusters. Generally, the word ‘nanocluster’ is … Read more

Exploring the Impacts of Antimicrobials on P. acnes Biofilm Formation and Antibiotic Resistance

Despite the ubiquitous presence of P. acnes on human tissues, concrete knowledge in relation to its pathogenic role amongst various disease states remains controversial (Portillo et al. 2013). Numerous studies have indicated the organisms’ ability to act as an opportunistic pathogen, with suggested etiological roles amongst a number of inflammatory diseases such as acne vulgaris … Read more

Evaluate the different methods of granulation (practical)

Introduction Granulation is a process of forming or crystalizing powders into grains. It is a process in which primary powder particles are compressed to bind and form multi-particle entities that are known as granules. In the process of granulation, particles are collected together by compressing the particles and this causes them to form bonds between … Read more

Final Internship Report (marketing at JN Medsys, a Biotechnology Company)

Abstract The Ngee Ann Polytechnic Internship Programme INT4 is a compulsory module and a prerequisite for a Diploma in Biomedical Sciences (BMS) 3-Year programme. The Internship Programme is also important in the development and growth of the student, as well to attest to the capabilities of any graduate in a professional background. Overall the Internship … Read more

Investigating Mechanism of Virus-Mediated Formation of Double Membrane Vesicles

Specific Aims The overall goal of this proposal is to investigate the mechanism of virus-mediated formation of double membrane vesicles within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The ER is considered the origin of induced intracellular structures for a number of viruses.1 It has been shown that the formation of double-membrane vesicles (DMVs) within the ER is … Read more

Understanding Genomics: The Study of Genes and Heredity in Relation to Coronavirus

Genetics is the study of genes and heredity explaining how certain traits is passed on from parents to their offspring which is as a result of changes in the DNA sequence. A gene is a part of a DNA, it contains the instructions of building molecules and how they should work. Genome on the other … Read more

Green Chemistry’s Potential: Industry and Academia Involvement

Whatever gives a favorable edge has always been a big deal to sustainability and to the technological changes embraced by chemical industries. On that ground, pressure is imposed to green chemistry’s advocates ensuring the environment’s health while plugging into lucrative innovations. That is why the said greener style’s potential remains at rest as long as … Read more

Was Einstein data-driven?

Modern ideal of Science attempts to specify a procedure an individual must follow to come up with a credible idea or theory. However, recently I’ve caught myself thinking that scientific method with its sequence of action wherein a hypothesis is followed by experimental verification can’t possibly describe all the advances in the history of science. … Read more

The Estrous cycle

Abstract Estrous cycle is a physiological change in female individuals that associate with reproduction including rats. It has four stages categorized as proestrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus. Rats are an ideal animal for investigation of changes occurring during the reproductive cycle due to its short cycle length. The estrous cycle in rats lasts averagely in … Read more

Polyprotic acids in Cola beverages

INTRODUCTION Cola beverages contain phosphoric acid, citric acid and carbonic acid. Phosphoric acid, citric acid, and carbonic acid are the example of polyprotic acids contained in Cola beverages. Polyprotic acid is an acid which contains more than one hydrogen ion per acid molecule. The acid ionizes with a separate ionization constant for each step which … Read more

Embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cell research

Abstract In this project I intend to explore to what extent ethical arguments about the research on Embryonic stem cells (ESC’s) and induced pluripotent stem cells (IPSC’s) have changed over the last 20 years and how factors such as, breakthroughs in research, socioeconomic and government involvement and widening access to media have contributed to these … Read more

How to write a science essay

Coming up with a good science essay requires critical analysis of several elements in writing since scientific arguments are different from other disciplines.

However, the steps involved in writing scientific essay is more or less like other paper works involving stages such as planning, thorough research and analysis, making an outline, actual writing, conclusion and work-editing. There are myriads of challenges facing writers in this sector due to the high demands in a scientific paper. Science writing should generally honor accomplishments of science (Roach & Folger, 2011). In this regard, arguments in science should largely be based on facts and data hence it is a requirement that science essay-writers should embrace research work and have multiple facts at hand. This paper, therefore, gives an analysis of various strategies in writing a comprehensive science essay which makes a difference in scientific reasoning. It discusses the various steps in writing and what is essential in each stage. It is an informative paper aimed at improving writing skills in science which is currently running out of professionals.

Planning how to write a science essay

The most critical point in science essays is the planning stage. It is where ideas are generated and the entire outlook of a paper is decided. Moreover, the topic of discussion is also narrowed down in this stage. Given a general topic, researcher should concentrate on the key words in the topic. They are general words from which ideas are generated (Tan, 2001). Planning requires and understanding of the research question in details. A writer should be able to break down a question into several parts and come up with sub-parts that collectively address research question comprehensively. Most importantly, planning should be an advanced course of action, meaning it should take its own special time.

Carrying out research and analysis of findings

Learning how to write a science essay involves a lot of research and analysis. Research involves finding relevant sources of information on which basic facts are argued out. This can be done in the library or on the internet. Internet, specifically, has wide range of information but some can be irrelevant. However, it is easier to explore internet sources than going through books and articles. Moreover, there are online scientific journals which provide comprehensive information about current issues in the world of science. Researchers should, therefore, differentiate between relevant and immaterial sources of information to reduce the risks associated with producing irrelevant scripts (Betts et al., 2005).

Analysis, on the other hand, is putting together the various sources plus information there in, to gain understanding of real context of writing. It further involves getting an assurance that the materials at hand are enough to cover all areas required in research paper. Above all, analysis should enable a writer make some sense out of the sources before beginning actual writing.

The preparation of an outline

This is not as technical as the previous stages, but still involves a broad analysis of what researcher needs to cover. Most essays have three basic sections; introduction, body and conclusion. However, writer is at liberty to choose his own outlook depending on his ability to organize thoughts well. If a writer has difficulty in recapping what he analyzed in the research stage, it is important then to organize an outline prior to beginning actual writing. There are no basic rules regarding outlines of scientific essays, it all depends on how logical ideas can be presented.

The actual science essay writing process

It is the main interest in scientific writing since arguments and facts are presented in the actual writing. There are varieties of issues to consider when writing an essay. First, it is at this stage that basic points in an essay are introduced. This implies that writer should be able to present an argument logically and reach a conclusion too (Betts et al., 2005). This is for purposes of organization and producing a well-written essay. It should, therefore, have a logical progress in which facts are presented in the right order. Moreover, in writing, it is important to support all key ideas with relevant data. Studies presented in science writing should not just be cited, but rather, a brief description of its key findings should be given. Science also requires that all nonobvious statements be accompanied by proper references.

In addition, writing should aim at producing a myriad of possibilities and go ahead to perform tests to prove them. The best criteria is rejecting impossible hypotheses rather than accepting real ones. It is the basis of elimination in scientific research and always based on facts. This is a step aimed at accepting or rejecting various hypotheses in science based on quality proofs (Betts et al., 2005). Moreover, science essays should be critical. The facts in each statement should be carefully examined and vague ideas should not be presented at all. In a case where a writer cannot comprehend certain statements, it is important to follow up with a good research. It is in this stage that proper citations and referencing are decided and used. Writers should be familiar with the four basic writing styles; APA, MLA, Chicago and Harvard. Lastly, writing should be concise, meaning, avoiding use of general statements. Most importantly, technical terminologies not familiar to common psychologists should be avoided or accompanied by their definition.

Writing the conclusion

This stage also involves critical thinking and is not merely a brief summary of points illustrated in an essay. The focus should be broadened at the end of an essay, and use an appropriate last sentence which gives readers/scientists something to ponder about. In addition, it is in the conclusion that writer warns readers about consequences of ignoring scientific findings if it touches on the contemporary society.


It involves cross-checking a piece of work to ensure there are no unnecessary mistakes. The most effective program for editing is grammarly which proof reads and points out mistakes for writer to correct. All grammar mistakes are corrected at this stage and it improves quality of writing.

In conclusion, science essay writing is more challenging compared to writing on other subjects. Science requires a deeper analysis and understanding of facts and does not deal with writer’s opinions. It is important, therefore, to do a lot of research prior to beginning writing in this field and have quality facts at hand. Above all, planning of a science paper is the major determinant of success in writing.


Betts, K., Farquharson, K., & Seitz, A. (2005). Writing Essays and Research Reports in the Social Sciences.Australia: Cengage Learning Australia.

Roach, M., Folger, T., ed. (2011). The Best American Science and Nature Writing 2011: The Best American Series. New York: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Tan, Lyn. (2001). Home Help in Essay Writing. Carlton South Vic, Australia: Curriculum Press.

We hope you gained a lot from reading our free ‘how to write a science essay‘ guide.