Essay: Chemical parameters of water samples

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This investigation has been discussed with dyeing industry effluent of various groundwater samples collected from surrounding areas of dyeing industry in and around chellandipalayam at karur district. The physico-chemical parameters such as colour,turbidity,TDS,alkalinity,electrical conductivity, total hardness, calcium, magnesium, chloride, nitrate, COD, iron, copper and chromium, were determined by using the standard procedures. At the result of this analysis has been compared with the water quality standards of WHO. The results of the various physic-chemical analyses of the textiles dyeing industries effluent, the ground water and the heavy metals were undertaken. The Water sample has been discussed after the treatment of using RO plant following here.
An electrical conductivity of the effluent I & II are 25644 Mg/l and 52140 Mg/l both the highest than the permissible limit. These are influenced for all the stations of sample water. Sample water III has the highest electrical conductivity which compared to that of all the other samples. This is clearly shows the station III very nearer to the industrial effluent locations. An extent of total dissolved solid is presented in the effluent which is availed in the eight times and greater than all the other stations. From the sample water I and VII contained total dissolved solid which is above the prescribed limit, it showed that discharging amount of chemical from industrial wastage which is totally affected the surrounding areas. The total hardness of the sample II is the highest value when we compared with effluent I and all the other samples. But the hardness of the other water sample is in the range of 250-680 Mg/L. This indicates the more distance of the each samples influenced by the acceptable limit.
This analysis has been carried out the calcium how much important in the sample I and II are presented in the range of 2240,5520 Mg/L. and then, other samples contained in the range of 176-128 Mg/L. This would increase the hardness of the water sources. An amount of chloride ion is presented in the effluent I and II are 5000, 11250 Mg/L and then their sample range exists between the range of 1650-530 Mg/L. it is affected the softness of the water. In Chemical oxygen has demanded on the effluent I and II are in the value of 5188 and 6744 Mg/L .It is above the permissible limit and it’s totally unfit for all the application purposes and then it causes of the harmful effect such as kidney stone formation and related their diseases. The amount of iron in the samples I and ii and the sample iii are 2.98, 3.34 and 1.21 Mg/l .This is the above permissible limit on other samples containing the iron of the maximum desirable limit. if it is in consumed excessive quantity of the iron stored in liver ,kidney and heart diseases . It makes the of causes failure on these organs.
An extent of chromium in the dyeing effluent I and II are in the value of 0.057 and 0.665 Mg/l the desirable limit 0.005. Hence, the effluent II has been contained the highest quantity of heavy metal and its toxic nature of the effluent 0.005 Mg/l amount of chromium requires for the glucose tolerance factor, insulin biological metabolism and above of those range. It becomes the toxicity through the oxidation of glucose. The amount of copper in the effluent I and II are 0.0008 and 0.00024 Mg/l presented in the desirable limit it does not produce any toxicity but it increased the long period causes with the adverse effect such as Wilson diseases on neurological damage and liver diseases also.
We are concluding that all the water samples I to VIII have commonly chemical parameters, such as hardness, total dissolved solids, and electrical conductivity, calcium, sulphate, and chloride alarmingly above the prescribed limit. Even though some parameters are copper and fluoride those are all in the acceptable limit .If it makes some of changes on beyond this limit ,it will become a harmful thing. Parameters of chromium and iron are presented in the considerable amount. Definitely, it causes made on the metal toxicity of human beings. we compared for all the eight samples with the effluent samples 3 has mildly affected every stations due to the long distance .and then ,it almost of all other station water samples are influenced in the large amount due to the improper management of waste water over exploitation of water sources and rapid growth of industrialization in the urban areas. An attempt has been discussed to study about the impact of dyeing effluent containing the inorganic, heavy metals and organic pollutants in Chellandipalayam area. The effluents are including oils, greases, metallic wastes, suspended solids, phenols, toxins, acids, salts, dyes, cyanides and DDT. Generally, it increases the TDS, hardness of water, and heavy metal resented in the effluents from dyeing units are percolated in and around the Chellandipalayam area in Karur District.
Maximum amounts of dyes are used in the textile processing. Due to the incomplete absorption of dyes and waste water generated through the washing operations. The effluent volume is high and the dyestuffs are highly structured polymers .these are very difficult to decompose biologically. The impact of effluents from Dyeing industry has highly affected the dangerous level in karur district at chellandipalayam. During the rainy season the rain water were collected in the pond which is a main source of ground water to the wells, bore wells located in and around the pond and highly polluted due to the indiscriminately discharge of untreated dying effluent around the Chellandipalayam in Karur District. It makes the water hard with high TDS and unfit for drinking domestic and agriculture uses. The pollution control board insisted for the treatment of the dyeing effluent using RO plant. During rainy season the water flows along with the effluents. The people used to take bath and wash their clothes in the pond water. The pond water percolates in the ground and contaminates the ground water. The results of the various physico – chemical analysis of the dyeing effluent from dying unit in Karur where the treatment of water using the RO plant and reveals that the dying effluent contains very high Total Dissolved Solids and ground water also contains high total dissolved solids which is above the standard level.
[1] Guidelines for drinking water quality -WHO, Geneva, 1999, 2nd Ed., 97- 100 [2] APHA. Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water (19th edn) (1996).
[3] G.Dilli Rani, M Suman, C. Narasimha Rao, P.Reddi Rani, V. G. Prashanath, R. Prithibha and P. Venkateswarlu, Current World Environment, 6(1):191-193(2011)
[4] APHA, ‘Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater’, American Public Health Association, Washington D.C.,(1998).
[5] Tiwari T R, Indian J Environ Health, 2001, 43(1), 176. [6] BIS 1991.IS:10500 Specification for drinking water,Indian Standards Institution, New Delhi. Indian Council Medical Research, New Delhi, Special Reports, No.; 1975, (44)27.
[8] K.K. Sivakumar and M.S. Dheeenadayalan, Indian J Environ Prot.; 2012, 32(2), 152-157
[9] WHO, International standards for drinking water, Geneva, Switzerland, 1992, 4, 46
[10] Standard methods for the examination of water and waste water, APHA AWWA),
Washington D.C., 1998
[11] K.K. Sivakumar, M.S. Dheenadayalan, C. Balamurugan, R. Kalaivani, D. Ramakrishnan and
L. Leena Hebsibai, J Chemical, Biological and Physical Sci.; 2012, 2(2), 1079-1090
[12] State of Environment Report of Tamil Nadu.

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