Essay: Protective Effect of Abutilon indicum (L.) on Cisplatin & Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxic Rats

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Abstract:
Abutilon indicum L. (Malvaceae) is a common Indian medicinal herb traditionally used for curing variety of disorders in ancient systems of medicine. The study aims at evaluating the protective and curative effect of ethanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (EEAI) at 200 & 400 mg doses on cisplatin and acetaminophen induced nephrotoxic rat models. Ethanolic extract of the plant is prepared from the aerial parts of Abutilon indicum by successive solvent extraction using soxhlet apparatus. The extract after preliminary phytochemical studies, was evaluated pharmacologically for nephroprotective role in both cisplatin and acetaminophen induced nephrotoxic rat models. The drug induced nephrotoxicity is often associated with elevations in serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, uric acid, total proteins, total cholesterol, alkaline phosphatase, albumin and acute tubular necrosis Treatment with ethanolic extract of Abutilon indicum (EEAI) dose dependently attenuated abnormal elevations in serum parameters in both the cisplatin and acetaminophen models when compared to toxic control group. Histopathological results further supported the nephroprotective role of the plant.. In the present study, histopathological examination and serum parameters elevation showed a clear evidence of nephrotoxicity following the administration of cisplatin and acetaminophen. EEAI pre-treatment ameliorated both the drug induced renal changes. High dose (400 mg) of the EEAI have shown higher incidence of nephroprotection. Therefore, further establishment of EEAI for nephroprotection may be beneficial for patients undergoing drug therapy with cisplatin and acetaminophen.
Introduction
Abutilon indicum (Malvaceae), referred commonly as ‘Thuthi’, is spread throughout the hot regions of India predominantly in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Maharastra1. Plant leaves are stalked, ovate, irregularly crenate or dentate. The flowers are orange-yellow in colour, solitary, axillary. The fruits are hispid, scarcely longer than the calyx and the awns are erect. Seeds are kidney shaped, dark brown or black in colour, tubercled or with minutely stellate hairs 2.
The plant is abundant in fixed oils like gallic acid (roots), linoleic acid, oleic, palmitic, stearic and capric acids3. Asparagine, fructose, galactose, vallinic acid, caffeic acid, fumeric acid, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, saponins, Abutilin A, ??-sitosterol, scopoletin are also reported4. Quercetin and its glycosides have been isolated from flowers5. The plant has been described in the Siddha system of medicine as a remedy for jaundice6, piles, ulcer and leprosy7. The plant is used for various kidney disorders by local traditional healers and abroginal people8. A leaf paste is taken orally to cure piles and to relieve leg pains9. Bread prepared from the mixture of its leaf powder and wheat flour is used for uterus displacement10. The leaf juice when mixed with jaggery is used for the treatment of snakebite as antidote11. The fruit is used to treat piles, gonorrhea, and cough12. Fruit decoction mixed with ammonium chloride is given orally with water to treat hemorrhagic septicemia13. Root infusion is given to cure fever, dry cough and bronchitis14. It is traditionally claimed to possess to treat uroliths in the kidneys15. The plant is also reported scientifically for analgesic16, hepatoprotective17, hypoglycaemic18, wound healing, and abortifacient19 properties.
Current day xenobiotics are the agents which may possess …

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