CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION
Teens in today’s society undergo many challenges that require adaptation. Psychological, intellectual, and physical changes attribute to the many obstacles adolescents are faced with overcoming. They must learn to cope with the overarching theme of responsibility that may include balancing acts of school, jobs, and extracurricular activities (Gholamzadeh, Jadidi, & Donyavi, 2017). Students of this age must learn how to cope with trials of impulsivity, identity crisis, relationships, and viewpoint of time (Siegel & Shaughnessy, 1995). Social identity theory summarizes that the stronger individuals identify with their own cultural group, the less they favor others from different groups. On the contrary, the multi-cultural theory states that the more a cultural group identifies with their own ethnicity, the more likely they will be open to accepting others outside of their culture (Negy, Shreve, Jensen, & Uddin, 2003). Theorists have researched the behavior of adolescents and have concluded the developmental social stages are a difficult time period of dynamic changes and self-identity. Pressures of school, family, and social factors cause stressful situations. Adding an extracurricular activity such as a sport while simultaneously learning to integrate as a minority in society can add extra difficulty to the mix. Coaches and mentors have helped adolescents through sporting programs to become better at time management and recognition of self-identity. This has provided an overall positive effect.
Influences of the Sporting World and Outcome
According to Donaldson & Ronan (2006), a study found a relationship between adolescents who viewed themselves competent at sports and a positive self-concept with fewer behavioral problems. (Donaldson & Ronan, 2006). Another study conducted by Benson, Surya, & Eys (2014) viewed athlete perceptions in the “nature and transmission of roles in sport teams” indicating that athletes’ specialized task roles developed from prescribed assignments by their coach; their social roles evolved from group interactions; and their leadership roles developed through the formal and informal processes. In another study by the same researchers, “some athletes depended on informal role expectations rather than explicit coaching instruction” when it came to role responsibility and athletes’ efficacy beliefs about their ability to perform a role. Analyses from the second study revealed starters were more likely to select roles requiring specialized tasks and leadership, while nonstarters were more likely to select roles requiring assistant roles (Benson, A. J. Surya, M., & Eys, M. A. 2014). Coaches were viewed as an inspiration to athletes in helping to endure hardships, developing moral character, sportsmanship, and respect for others (Lumpkin and Stokowski, 2011). Based on these studies, it is clear all athletes are influenced by expectations from both coaches and teammates to develop specialized or leadership skills. Having a sense of belonging and responsibility provides self-perception to be viewed in a more positive light forming confidence and intrinsic motivation. These uplifting tasks provide the skills adolescents need to socially develop in a society and persevere through challenges.
Barriers on Social Development
Minorities are faced with barriers that can make it extra difficult to integrate social norms. Language barriers, discrimination, and financial hardships can cause setbacks on Hispanic adolescents. A study conducted by Patel, Barrera, Strambler, Munoz, & Macciomei (2016), showed significant differences in GPA scores compared to the life stressor scale scores in minority groups (Patel, Barrera, Strambler, Munoz, & Macciomei, 2016). Mejia-Smith & Gushue (2017) have also established career barriers for females of Hispanic backgrounds including finances, gender, ethnicity, and race. However, having a positive ethnic identity and being able to acculturate into a different culture effectively helps in breaking some of the perceived barriers that can lead to career achievements (Mejia-Smith & Gushue, 2017). Ali & Menke (2014), studied the social cognitive career theory in relation to Hispanics and Caucasians. The results found that rural schools placing emphasis on self-efficacy and outcome expectations without ignoring the barriers Hispanics face, strengthens their career achievement (Ali & Menke, 2014). These studies show how extraneous barriers can have a detrimental impact on development and future aspirations of a person. School officials who discuss these issues with Hispanics and help them come up with ways and methods to deal with problems while simultaneously guiding them to reach goals can make all the difference in an adolescent’s life for future success.
Cultural and Gender Role Expectations
The importance of participating in sports may vary in importance based on gender and cultural expectations. Viewpoints are found to be more collectivistic than individualistic for those of Hispanic backgrounds. The main achievement places emphasis on the group rather than on one individual person. Contrary to the American emphasis on individual competition in youth sports including team sports, Hispanic cultural focuses on interpersonal relations. Their goals are also based on current experiences rather than future outcomes (Ryska, 2001). Hispanics who are able to blend cultures, help form role expectations of marriage and parenting styles. These expectations vary based on gender. Although roles differ, transitions of development depend on the adaptation stage of that particular individual (Archuleta, 2015). When observing cultural roles, Hispanic decent females take on cultural roles that are different than their male counterparts. An analysis by Wells (2005), viewed the impact of culture and education on work patterns of Hispanic women. The study viewed cultural values, jobs, physical problems, and educational gains. The article stated the two types of roles for the women. One mentioned the traditional roles such as to be a wife/mother and to remain at home taking care of the family. The second role described the women in the labor force. These women would modify their traditional roles by joining the workforce. Overall the results showed Hispanic decent women have made some improvements in joining the labor force, but overall the majority still uphold cultural values through related gender roles and family expectations (Wells, 2005). Based on the findings, the majority of Hispanic female adolescents come to terms with the gender roles upheld by their mothers. The adolescents may even have to engage in the same gender role as their mother by helping to take care of siblings, cook, and clean before even reaching adulthood. Although these roles socially develop females for their heritage culture, it is lacking the social expectations for the American social norms.
Overall, theorists have established developmental and social stages for adolescents. Based on these theories, information is gathered as a base for furthering research on minority, Hispanic adolescents. Incorporating sports into the lives of these young individuals can make a lasting impact. Overcoming cultural and gender role expectations for female Hispanics need to also be taken into account when analyzing the social aspects of development.
Statement of the Problem
The problem of this case study was to examine how the newly established girls’ soccer program at a rural county high school has impacted the social development of Hispanic-Descent female players. Because of the difficulty Hispanic adolescents have had in the past in integrating with others outside of their race, or the acceptance of Hispanics by other races, the focus of the study analyzed the characteristics the soccer program formed for female participants to use in other settings of their life. The study also investigated the cultural and gender roles of the female Hispanic adolescent and its role on social development. This was due to factors that caused the female Hispanic soccer players to miss practices or games.
Purpose(s) of the Study
The purpose of this qualitative case study was to analyze the impact of the newly established soccer program at a rural county high school, and the role it has played on Hispanic descent adolescent females on social development. Specific objectives included integration of social skills from the soccer program to other parts of the Hispanic-Descent athlete’s life such as the community and school setting. As a result of this study, feedback will be provided to stakeholders on ways to improve the program to help socially develop future minorities with the skills to integrate with other races.
The rationale for this study emanated from the researcher’s desire to better understand the Hispanic female players on the team. The researcher is a coach, educator, and an advocate for student-athlete success on the soccer field, academic classroom, and other areas in the community. The researcher examined Hispanic roles as females, their culture, and the challenges they faced daily. Based off the answers, the researcher will be able to continue improving the program for Hispanic descent student-athletes by developing positive social roles on and off of the soccer field. The interviewer will conduct a qualitative case study and search for common themes from participants. The common themes provided an understanding of how the soccer program has played a role since the establishment four years ago on the lives of Hispanic descent adolescents.
Initial Research Questions
1. How has the perception of social interactions changed for Hispanic descent players from the rural county high school soccer team?
2. In what ways has the rural county high school soccer program made a difference in the lives of Hispanic descent players with their relationships?
3. How has the rural county high school soccer program influenced Hispanic descent players in making positive decisions?
4. What lessons have been learned from being a part of the rural county high school soccer team?
Significance of the Study
At this particular rural county high school, drop-out rates have been a problem, especially among the Hispanic descent population. At age 16, students dropped out and began working in order to make money for themselves and their families. Attending school did not help in paying the bills, and since cultural viewpoint was to focus on the current time period needs, many families did not see the relevance of secondary or post-secondary education (Ryska, 2001).
Soccer is a part of the Hispanic culture, and as more immigrants are coming to the United States, research shows a growing number of teams and leagues for Hispanic women. Women are now challenging the traditional gender role expectations by working to integrate a new identity through competitive soccer. A study conducted in North Carolina on adolescent to adulthood Hispanic women shared their experiences of playing in an organized soccer league. Challenges experienced included learning the language, compromising with family on days allowed to participate, worries of family deportations, and breaking cultural female stereotypes. Positives included feelings of empowerment, confidence, and staying out of trouble (Cuadros, 2011).
Many of the challenges mentioned in the study have been observed but not documented on the girl’s soccer team over the course of three years. However, the girls that are in the study from the team powered through the difficulties and remained part of the team. By conducting a research study, themes will arise for the reasoning of why the girls persevered through the challenges. The study will also look into how the newly established soccer program impacted the Hispanic descent adolescents in the choices made beyond the soccer field into their social development. This included their interactions with peers, family, the community, teachers, and other superiors. It will also analyze potential changes in their thought process in regard to adversity and their future since obtaining a role in the soccer program.
The contributions of the research will provide feedback to the soccer program so that the coach/researcher can continue applying the recognized strengths but also make changes as needed in helping student-athletes of Hispanic descent have a more positive high school cultural experience as well as a lasting impact on their social development. The themes that will be established will also help teachers and school leaders in gaining a better perspective of the current experiences Hispanic descent students encounter at the rural county high school. The themes that may be established may leave an imprint for future Hispanic descent adolescent generations that are contemplating joining the soccer program or looking for ways to develop socially.
Definition of Terms
- Culture: Sociologists defined culture as a set of learned beliefs by a group of people who share common history (Gollnick & Chinn, 2004)
- Race/ethnicity: This sociocultural term denotes “culturally created groupings” (Shih & Sanchez, 2009, p. 4), as defined by the individual (Quintana, 2007).
- Role: The word role refers to a function assigned to or played by something or somebody (Role, 2010).
- Hispanic-Descent: Refers to a group of people that speak Spanish or are descendants of Spanish speaking countries (Cole, 2018).
- Female: Relating to the sex that is capable of bearing children and produces eggs during fertilization (Merriam-Webster, 2018).
- Adolescence: “The period when a child develops into an adult”, beginning at puberty (Merriam-Webster, 2018)
- Gender roles: Shared beliefs that are applied to individuals based on social roles identified to each sex (Eagly, 2009)
- Social development: Learning to interact with others by developing own individuality based on perception of surrounding (Social development in children, 2018).
- Community member: Any individual “who lives, learns, works, plays, and prays” in an organized area (Community members, 2018).
- Teacher: A person who teaches (Merriam-Webster, 2018).
Assumption and Limitations
Based on the researcher’s current observation in the school and community, the first assumption is made that Hispanics struggle to integrate with others of different races and ethnicities. Secondly, it was assumed that an ample sample of the participants from the rural county high school girls soccer team would participate in the study. This was due to the researcher being the coach of the female Hispanic-Descent players. In addition, it was assumed that the teacher and community member participant had enough prior social observations on the female Hispanic-Descent players to provide enough information to answer the interview questions.
The first limitation of the case study pertains only to the individuals of the rural county high school girls’ soccer team and information cannot be used in another situation. Since the sample size is based off of a case study, themes may not arise. Another limitation may include the participant relationship between the Hispanic descent athlete and those of their peers, teachers, or community affiliated member if weak relationships are present. Last includes the initial qualitative data if participants are not comfortable expressing their true perceptions and opinions.
Chapter 1 presented the introduction, statement of the problem, purpose of the study, rationale, research questions, significance of the study, definition of terms, and assumptions or limitations of the study. Chapter 2 contained the review of related literature and research related to the problem being investigated. This included theories of adolescent development, Hispanic descent cultural expectations, gender roles in the Hispanic culture, and the impact extracurricular activities have on adolescents. The methodology and the procedures used to gather data are presented in Chapter 3. The results of analyses and findings to emerge from the study are contained in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 contains a summary of the study and findings, conclusions drawn from the findings, a discussion, and recommendations for further study.
CHAPTER 2 LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter focused on research based topics currently existing in academia related to adolescent social development, Hispanic descent cultural and gender expectations, and effects of extracurricular activities. Specifically, theories were analyzed on the stages and ways adolescents develop. Current research on Hispanic descent cultural values were studied alongside the roles each gender is required to perform in society. The impact extracurricular activities including sports and clubs had on the social development of an adolescent were also investigated. This included interactions with mentors, coaches, peers, and the effects of overcoming adverse and challenging situations.
Theories of Adolescent Development
According to Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory, there are eight stages of development. Adolescents may undergo changes from the stages of industry versus inferiority to identity versus role diffusion. Industry versus inferiority begins around around five years old and lasts through adolescence. During this stage, children who develop feelings of competency will have more self-confidence throughout their entire life. The next stage, identity versus role diffusion, will last from adolescence to adulthood. This is the stage that requires a lot of contemplation of self-identity questioning, future career choice, and long-term life goals. Adolescence are more prone to experimentation with their sexuality and purpose in life, trying to find the piece of how they belong in society. The changes encompass individual interaction with others, other’s behavior, and their own behavior as members in a society. These developmental changes will occur throughout one’s life, with each stage emerging in a fixed pattern similar for all people. In addition, Carol Gilligan’s Female Stages of Moral Development has three different concepts. One involves “ orientation toward individual survival” where females concentrate on what is practical and the best for them. The second is “goodness as self-sacrifice” where females think they must sacrifice their own wishes for the sake of pleasing others. The third is the “morality of nonviolence” where women view harm of hurting others or themselves to be immoral (Feldman, 2016). Kohlberg’s Moral Development Theory includes 6 stages. Stages 1 and 2 are the preconventional stage where people follow unvarying rules based on rewards and punishment. Stages 3 and 4 are the conventional stage where people approach problems in terms of their own position as responsible members of society. Stages 5 and 6 are the post conventional stages where universal moral principles are invoked and considered broader than a particular society (Feldman, 2016). Ginzberg’s Career Choice Theory has three different periods. The first is the fantasy period, that includes a time when career choices are made and discarded without regard to skills, abilities, or available job opportunities. Then the tentative period is the second stage that spans through adolescence, where one begins to think in pragmatic terms about the requirements of various jobs and how one’s own abilities might fit with them. The last stage is the realistic period that occurs in late adolescence and early adulthood where one explores career options through experience or training and narrow their choices to eventually make a lifetime career commitment (Feldman, 2016).
Sigmund Freud was a theorist who studied the psychodynamic perspective. This type of theory is motivated by inner forces, memories, and conflicts that a person is not aware of or can not control. This suggests the behavior and personality of a person is determined by one’s own unconsciousness. There are three aspects of personality: ID, EGO, and SUPEREGO. The ID is the raw, unorganized inborn part of personality that is established at birth. It is operated according to the pleasure principle, minimizing pain and maximizing satisfaction. The EGO is the part of one’s personality that is rational and reasonable. It is based on the reality principle, restraining instructional energy in order to maintain the safety of the individual. It is supposed to help integrate an individual into society. The SUPEREGO is the part of one’s personality that represents a person’s conscience. It is the part that helps one distinguish between right and wrong, according to the norm in society. Similarly, Holland’s personality type describes 6 different types of personalities that include: realistic, intellectual, social, conventional, enterprising, and artistic. Realistic personality is one that is down to Earth, can solve practical problems, are physically strong, and have mediocre social skills. Examples to fit this criteria might be farmers, laborers, and truck drivers. Intellectual personality types are oriented toward theoretical and abstract tasks. Careers that would suit them would include Math and Science. Social personalities have strong verbal and interpersonal skills. Career types to fit would include teachers, counselors, and working in sales. Conventional personalities would prefer highly structured tasks. Clerks, bank tellers, and secretaries would best fit this type. Enterprising personality include those who are risk takers, and like to take charge. They would make effective managers and strong leaders. Last, the artistic personality type is one where an individual likes to express himself or herself through art (Feldman, 2016).
James Marcia describes four identity theories of development. Moratorium is the category in which adolescents may have explored various identity alternatives to some degree but have not yet committed themselves. The identity diffusion is the category in which adolescents consider various identity alternatives but never commit to one or have never even consider identity options in any conscious way. The identity foreclosure is where adolescents prematurely commit to an identity without adequately exploring alternatives. The identity achievement focuses on an identity that teeneragers commit to following a period of crisis where various alternatives were considered (Feldman, 2016). Elkind’s Personal Fable is a theory based on the adolescent thought process. During this time of development, adolescents believe themselves to have special and unique experiences that no one else has encountered. They have a difficult time accepting empathy from other and can actually cause rebellious activity to occur. Their egocentric world often has adolescents behave in a reckless manner, taking impulsive risks without hesitation. This can lead to experimentation with drugs, alcohol, and sexual promiscuity. The best way to approach adolescents when trying to explain situations is by using “I” language, meaning feelings are claimed as one’s own, instead of placing it on how the adolescent should feel. Another helpful way to reach them is by peer connections. Using a social factor such as a peer reference group can help in influencing a desired behavior in the adolescent (Manley, n.d.).
John B. Watson, on the other hand, critiqued Freud’s theory because he claimed unconscious memories play a behavioral role on personality. He focused on the Behavioral Perspective Theory. There are two types of behaviors that play a role in this type of development: classical and operant conditioning. Classical conditioning is a type of learning that is paired with a stimuli, causing an emotional response. Operant conditioning is a type of learning that is strengthened or weakened depending on the environmental consequences that follow the reinforced behavior (Feldman, 2016).
Albert Bandura and the Social Cognitive Learning differs from classical and operant conditioning by considering the mental activity in the form of thoughts and expectations. This stage is depending on the role model. With this theory, the observer must pay attention to the model’s behavior. The behavior in question must be remembered. Then the observer must accurately replicate the behavior. The observer must be motivated to learn and carry out the behavior. Robert Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory found cognitive development occurred when an individual took in, stored, and maintained information. Complex behaviors such as learning, remembering, and thinking could be broken down into series of individual analyzed and processed stages. Contextual knowledge would include new information being compared to what was already known. Related facts would be combined in novel and creative ways. Experiential information would deal with the practical intelligence such as the demands of the everyday environment (Feldman, 2016). Vygotsky had a similar theory based on social culture. This theory focused on cognitive development proceeding as a result of social interactions between members of a culture. Children interact with parents and learn from one another. They also learn from other children that are more developed than them. The learned behavior will depend on what is important to the culture (Feldman, 2016).
Urie Bronfenbrenner’s Contextual Perspective holds relationship between personality and the physical, cognitive, and social worlds. There are five levels of environment in the bioecological approach. The first and most basic is the microsystem. It is very important because all of the other levels build on from it. This stage includes the home, caregivers, friends, and teachers. The second is the mesosystem, that connects the homes, caregivers, friends, and teachers. Third is the exosystem that represents broad societal institutions. This includes the local government, community, schools, church, and local media. Fourth is the macrosystem that represents larger cultural influences. This includes society in general, types of government, religious systems, and political thought. Fifth is the chronosystem that underlines all systems and involves the way in which the passage of time and historical events affect children’s development. Two examples would include the polio epidemic and the 9/11 tragedy (Feldman, 2016).
Piaget believed children understand the world by two principals: assimilation and accommodation. In addition, separation is sometimes used for a minority group to fit into society (Feldman, 2016). It consists of maintaining one’s own identity even in a certain dominant culture (Chand, 2003). Assimilation is the process by which a person integrates their own culture with a new existing culture. One takes a new stimuli or events and integrate it with their current way of thinking (Feldman, 2016). Nonassertive assimilation is focusing on commonalities amongst a diverse group, establishing a positive reputation, and avoiding controversy. Assertive assimilation requires manipulating stereotypes, bargaining, overcompensating. Aggressive assimilation includes ridiculing self, strategic distancing, mirroring, and separating oneself from others (Orbe & Roberts, 2012). Spatial assimilation is an assumption that immigrants will eventually move to other neighborhoods or housing types over time (Andersen, 2016). When analyzing spatial assimilation, Iceland & Nelson (2008) used the 2000 Census and analyzed subcategories of Hispanics that included: U.S. born, foreign born, white Hispanics, black Hispanics, and other race of Hispanics. Out of all the categories compared, foreign born Hispanics were the most segregated, while U.S. born were the least segregated. In addition, white Hispanics were considered to be the least segregated amongst the racial categorical groups. Overall, there was evidence of assimilation amongst Hispanics with both Caucasians and African Americans (Iceland & Nelson, 2008). Schema is an “organized pattern of knowledge” used to understand the world. Accommodation is taking in new information or experiences that cause changes to one’s schema. The brain does not create new schema but rather takes the new experience and organizes it to what is already known (Williams, 2019). A study by Lay (2017) examined the process of accommodation for Hispanic and Asian immigrants in two towns with similar characteristics in Iowa. Both towns found Caucasians currently living in the city to easily integrate and accept the newcomers. One of the towns had previous exposure to immigrants so it was easier for the accommodation to occur. In the towns, immigrants helped contribute their culture to the community through food, festivals, and clothing stores. This sent a positive message to city leaders, which in turn helped in sending and establishing a welcoming approach for the minorities. This caused predetermined fear and threats of the current townspeople to be driven out. Although this study should not be generalized to all cities, the actions of the community members to accommodate immigrants can apply to other rural towns in America. Some rural towns have negative stereotypes of being intolerant to others, but based on this study, there was more acceptance than hostility (Lay, 2017). In a study conducted by Rudick (2017), co-cultural theory was explored to analyze Hispanic student interaction with Caucasian students in a Hispanic Serving Institution and a predominately white institution. The findings showed no difference in Hispanic communicative approaches between the two institutions. However, there was a significant difference in the preferred outcome of integration. Between assimilation, accommodation, or separation, accommodation was the favored approach of Hispanics at the predominately white institution. The implication made is that Hispanics do not adequately feel like they are being valued or represented in the predominately white setting, causing feelings of having to prove their ethnic culture as worthwhile. It is assumed Hispanics would take the assertive form of accommodation to eliminate stereotypes and educate others on their culture (Rudick, 2017). Co-cultural theory by Mark Orbe is based on underrepresented minorities in a dominate group culture, and the communicative techniques they may use to interact with others (Orbe & Roberts, 2012). The difference between co-culture and subculture is that co-culture has the ideology of all cultures residing together in a geographic area, rather than in separate subgroups (Chand, 2003). Nonassertive accommodation includes an ethnic group becoming more visible, helping to abolish stereotypes. Assertive accommodation includes networking within a community, and using liaisons to educate others on misconceptions. Aggressive accommodation is by confronting others to gain advantage (Orbe & Roberts, 2012).
There are two types of cultural group influences. The first one is individualism, and it emphasizes personal identity, uniqueness, freedom, and the worth of the individual. This is evident in North America. On the contrary, collectivism, found to be popular in Asian and African countries, focuses the importance on the well-being of the group rather than the individual (Feldman, 2016). A study was conducted by Beatty, Givan, Franke & Reynolds (2015), related to the choice of stores used for purchasing clothes in female adolescents. The results found the sub-theories of stereotyping and group identification from the social identity theory. Social identity theory is based on an ideology that a person’s identity comes from group membership and is maintained through group affirmation (Beatty, Givan, Franke & Reynolds 2015). In addition it proposes that the stronger one identifies with their own group, the less favorable attitudes they will hold towards other ethnic groups (Negy, Shreve, Jensen, & Uddin, 2003). The theory has three elements that include categorization, identification, and comparison. Categorization has intergroup boundaries with similar attitudes and behaviors arising from that group type. This can cause stereotyping to form, which is a generalized assumption attached to an individual or group of people. Stereotyping can occur based on classifying an opinionated expectation of a certain group. Identification is how the female adolescent would view herself to fit into the group. Then she will compare herself to others in the group. There is a underlying goal of wanting to identify oneself with the group leader or leaders, also known as the “in-group.” In the study, female adolescents identified with stores that fit their desired self-concept and distanced themselves from stores that did not. This type of group identification showed how the females viewed themselves in relation to their social group. They only wanted to purchase from stores that others in their social group shopped (Beatty, Givan, Franke & Reynolds 2015). According to Festinger, when objective measures are absent, people rely on social reality, and how others act, think, feel, and view the world (Feldman, 2016). On the contrary to social identity theory, multicultural theory states that the more a cultural group identifies with their own ethnic identity, the more likely they will be open to accepting others outside of their culture. Ethnic identity involves the way a person views himself or herself in relation to a group, their attitude, and behavior. Ethnocentrism is viewing one’s own group more positively than others, while judging other groups in an inferior manner. This sometimes leads to prejudice, a predetermined negative perspective about a group of people that is different than one’s own ethnic group (Feldman, 2016). Fravell’s Theory of Mind includes being able to understand “another person’s knowledge, beliefs, emotions, and intentions and using that understanding to navigate social situations.” A false belief task is sometimes used to show this theory. It is used to measure understanding someone may have about a belief that does not match up to reality (Thompson, 2017). A study was conducted to compare social identity theory and multicultural theory amongst Hispanics, Caucasians, and African Americans. The findings showed consistency in ethnocentrism amongst Caucasians and Hispanics for social identity theory but not for African Americans. The positive relationship between preferences of own’s group caused conflict to the multicultural theory. There was no significant correlation between African Americans and ethnocentrism of one’s own ethnic group. In addition, Hispanics and Caucasians significantly correlated ethnic identity to self-esteem but African Americans did not. The implication in the study is made that African Americans identify with both “African” and “American” identity, allowing more acceptance of the multiculturalism theory to emerge (Negy, Shreve, Jensen, & Uddin, 2003).
...(download the rest of the essay above)