What is really interesting about Covid 19 is that an AI – driven algorithm used by a Canadian company called BlueDot actually sent details of a flu-like illness spreading in China to its customers on 31st December 2019 – 9 days before the World Health Organisation publicly announced this. The algorithm obtains data from foreign … Read more
Hello Human, We Are Friends ElifSert İzmir Institute of Technology 2016-2017 Fall Semester – Chemical Engineering Artificial Intelligence, shortly AI , is the ability of a machine or a computer that allows the machine to think and act as an “intelligent form” (Copeland, 2010). Its development is nearly sixty years old and the name … Read more
Over the entire course of human history, the biggest enemy of any progress is and has always been fear. It is the fear of failure to be more specific. The technological revolution and new creations in robots manufacturing are perfect examples of this point. The fear of robots taking over the world and wiping … Read more
Imagine sitting in a car at highway speeds without touching the wheel or pedals. This used to sound like an idea from the future, but it has now become a reality. Engineers from Google showed off this technology to the writers of The Second Machine Age a few years ago, and artificial intelligence like … Read more
Dubai National School Artificial Intelligence Maha Ahmad Almuhairi English Language Department Miss Suha Jawabreh November 12,2018 Maha Ahmad Almuhairi Miss Suha Jawabreh English Language Department November 12, 2018 Artificial Intelligence Introduction: Artificial intelligence ( AI ) is a term used for simulated intelligence in machines. It is also part of computer science that emphasizes … Read more
Artificial intelligence ( AI ) is a term used for simulated intelligence in machines. It is also part of computer science that emphasizes the creation of intelligent machines that work and react like humans. The ideal characteristic of artificial intelligence is its ability to rationalize and take actions for achieving a specific goal that … Read more
With just a simple voice command, we are able to control the brightness of the lights in our home, order more toilet paper, as well as even lock the front door. Artificial intelligence (AI) voice recognition technology used in devices such as Apple’s Siri, Google Home, and Amazon’s Alexa make the fiction-like idea of … Read more
Artificial Intelligence & Robotics Artificial Intelligence as the name says, its composed of two different words namely, artificial which means it is not natural and is human made and intelligence which means ability to interpret and process information and respond according to environment. Intelligence is usually possessed by humans as it’s a god gift. … Read more
“That terminator is out there, it can’t be bargained with, it can’t be reasoned with, it doesn't feel pity or remorse or fear, and it absolutely will not stop,” is a quote from the 1984 smash hit The Terminator, directed by James Cameron ("The Terminator (1984)"). The film takes place in what was then … Read more
AI (Artificial Intelligence) is intelligence which is exhibited by machines rather than humans or machines. In the past few decades technology has advanced tremendously and even more advances in technology are being made every day. Technology is great and useful but where do we draw the line and when will we know if we’ve … Read more
Artificial Intelligence The idea that machines and technology can, and are, becoming “intelligent” is a scary thought. Throughout the history of technology, there has been a steady increase in the capabilities of software, and much research has gone into how these capabilities can be used to “better” our lives. In our lives today, we … Read more
Introduction This paper, as said above is about how AI and robots can help a victim of a serious traffic accident, form life support, until living with it at home, after a long recovery. To research this topic, we made a couple of sub questions. These sub questions are listed below. We, the researchers, are: … Read more
Technology has developed drastically over the past two decades reaching a new level when the term artificial intelligence was first coined by John McCarthy in the 1950s. The first prototype of Artificial Intelligence to resemble that of today’s was invented by Frank Rosenblatt in 1957. The Perceptron, Rosenblatt’s invention, allowed for distinguishing of patterns through … Read more
Business systems can be improved and even automated with the help of data matching AI. Above all, this eliminates many of the common errors that occur when comparing human input to structured data input. For example, do you believe humans make sound decisions when confronted with uncontrolled information? Machine Learning refers to the automated decision-making … Read more
Technology adds a layer of protection against the COVID-19 pandemic. Individuals, organizations, and businesses are using it to develop their skills. Unlike previous periods of innovation in human history, the Fourth Industrial Revolution has always occurred without pause following a situational crisis – COVID-19 refusing to take a natural review period. The Fourth Industrial Revolution … Read more
1. Introduction Humans need the vision to form perception and understanding of their environment. The goal of computer vision is to adapt human vision by giving computers the ability to electronically understand and perceive an image . Computer vision provides an output in the form of image understanding when given a digital image as input. … Read more
Introduction R+ is the general name given to Augmented Reality (AR), Virtual Reality (VR), and Mixed Reality (MR). Augmented reality is an intuitive encounter of a genuine environment where the items that live in reality are improved by PC produced perceptual data, now and then over different tactile modalities, including visual, sound-related, haptic, somatosensory and … Read more
This paper proposes a methodology for the solution of the problem of DSR using artificial immunological systems, based on a new approach of hypermutation proportional to the electric current, which makes it more robust and efficient.
Abstract: Abstract: This research work presents the composition of the pseudostem of selected varieties of banana and detailed characteristics of the fibre in its intact form in the stem. Banana is one of the important fruit crops cultivated in tropical parts of the world. Non-food products like yarn, fabrics and quality papers are manufactured from … Read more
The following report details stage 1 of the research study “Artificial Intelligence in a Simplified Driving World Environment”. Artificial intelligence (AI) focuses on the development of machines to be able to perform intelligent tasks independently, replicating the actions that a human expert would take in a given situation. The AI market is growing annually, and … Read more
Research Methodologies and Emerging Technologies Section 1. Introduction Autonomous vehicles are required to achieve the fundamental performance in the timelessness of metropolitan transport procedures, as they provide the probability for additional security, enhanced originality, unique availability, excellent drive performance, and right decision on the various position. The self-sufficient car has to find out the ability … Read more
Introduction 1.1 Background of the Study Fake news is defined as a misleading information that facades itself as real news (Jennifer Allen, 2020). Its main purpose is to promote a specific cause (Erin May, 2017), and is often used to influence a person’s perspective, usually for political agenda. Experts now recommend avoiding the term “Fake … Read more
‘Economics has never been a Science – and it is even less now than a few years ago.’ Paul Samuelson describes how economists prefer to refer to their theoretical models – those which have minimal affiliation to the real world, for they are unable to consider the irrational human behaviour on state or macroeconomic affairs. … Read more
During his quarantine in Beijing, Kai-Fu Lee had his food delivered by a ‘wheeled creature resembling R2D2’. While the end of the COVID-crisis does not seem in sight for the rest of the world, China is already thinking about a post-COVID world. Lee explains in this article how he has seen immense strides when it … Read more
INTRODUCTION Modern era of research has always focused on development of Automating the process of any type. Following their path automating the process of extraction of information from the natural language text with use of Natural Language Processing (NLP) is in the next phase. This field is related to computer linguistics and artificial intelligence which … Read more
1) Data mining is essential technique to extract and analyse figures from the homogeneous data. It is mainly focused on account dependent activities such as accounting, purchasing, supply chain, CRM etc… The solution can be quickly found once the algorithm is defined. Text mining is the technique to extract data from the heterogeneous document formats … Read more
AI stands for Artificial Intelligence, IoT stands for Internet of Things, and Big Data is the vast amount of information collected. AI systems are typically associated with human intelligence where it works in a humanlike way. IoT is a system where it connects other computing devices and machines to the internet. Big Data is sets … Read more
Artificial Intelligence (AI), is creating a vast shift in the global market, due to which new questions arise every day. The main source of questions for the media arise from the AI Arms Development, which is led by the USA and China. Although these Countries are certainly central figures, but are not the only ones … Read more
Elon Musk, CEO and owner of Tesla and SpaceX is a billionaire. He has recently revealed more information regarding his upcoming project, which is Neuralink brain chip. It is been said that this chip will retrain the brain cells which will result in curing depression and addiction. Let’s see how it works. How to manage … Read more
Stephen Hawkins once said, “Computers will overtake humans with AI within the next 100 years, when that happens we need to make sure the computers have goals aligned with ours”. Artificial Intelligence is a broad topic, consisting of deficient fields, from machine vision to an expert system. AI is one of the marvelous creations of … Read more
Artificial Intelligence, as many consider, is a backbone of FinTech. Artificial Intelligence has a notable history in the area of science and economics. Artificial intelligence at its core is all about dimension reduction, seeing patterns in date, efficiency, information structured or unstructured that creates value in financial services. Many identify Alan Turing, a famous scientist, … Read more
Difference between supervised learning and unsupervised learning Supervised Learning: When there is a person who tests and decides whether you have gotten the answer correctly as the student is learning a specific task is seen as supervision. Similarly, when you train an algorithm, the idea of supervised learning deals with providing a full collection of … Read more
Artificial Intelligence is such a field which spread its root in almost every domain. It relies our work in simple and sorted way. It consumes less time to complete an ample of work. It completes the work in smarter way. Its such an intelligence system in machines that are programmed to think like humans and … Read more
Many experts think fast-charging batteries will be critical for the adoption of electric vehicles. The main goal of the battery improvement process is to find the balance between the high charging speed and long battery lifetime. Artificial intelligence is accelerating this process. In order to know how a battery can be improved, current battery performance … Read more
Introduction: Over the past decades, many researchers have shown great interest in the artificial-neural-networks (ANNs) and their applications in industry, business, as well as private and government sectors. Artificial neural networks as a sub-discipline of Artificial intelligence have recently emerged in the engineering world. Further, several researchers investigated the efficiency of using the ANN models … Read more
Abstract: The WWW like forums, S.N, blogs, and reviews site produce vast quantities of data in the form of user thoughts, feelings, viewpoints, and “arguments” about various ‘social events, goods, brands, and politics”. The sentiments of user which is shared on web have a significant impact on readers, politicians and product vendors. The unstructured type … Read more
This is 2021, and we are surrounded by technological things. Keypad phone to android, old mechanical car to self-driven car takes place. This automated car can analyze traffic and take the decision without human involvement. Is this transformation a boon or a bane? An autonomous car can be capable to sense traffic, environment and operates … Read more
Over the last few decades, many countries invested a significant portion of their budget to improve their Military. This comes as an aftermath of World War II, where countries thrived to show their dominance over other weak countries. The end of World War II increased the amount of research into weapons which improved the technological … Read more
Detecting Lung Disease using X-ray – Machine Learning INTRODUCTION Kaggle is an online community of data scientists, Machine learning engineers, and many other professionals. This online community is owned by Alphabet Inc with its parent as Google. The community provides a platform for hosting challenges, publishing datasets, providing an online workbench for data science and … Read more
In this essay, I will be outlining John Searle’s Chinese room thought experiment. Further, I will address the three major objections raised to his argument labeled the Systems Reply, Robot Reply, and Brain Simulator Reply. After addressing and carefully discussing these, I will discuss Searle’s replies to these objections and state whether or not I … Read more
AI has an increased use in the working environment as it is seen as a means of leveraging production. Smart machines and applications are steadily turning into a daily development, helping us to make faster, more accurate decisions and with more than 75 percent of businesses investing in Big Data, the role of AI and … Read more
John Searle’s famous “Chinese Room” argument that was discussed in Chapter 2 of How the Mind Works, was one of the most interesting arguments to display claims of artificial intelligence. Basically the claim as that computers can and will at least try to master the act of thinking. The argument was based upon how Searle … Read more
In this research survey, analysis of the applications of reinforcement learning is conducted to determine if reinforcement learning can be used to create an intelligent agent that is able to learn and play games like a human.
INTRODUCTION Covid -19 is an unprecedented global pandemic that has affected and changed human living since March of 2020. After a year of adjusting to the ‘new normal’, almost everything has shifted to the digital world. The physical interaction has been limited because of the possibility of spreading the virus. This paves the way for … Read more
Alan Mathison Turing, a 20th century mathematician is commonly known as the father of modern computing. Born June 23, 1912 in Maida Vale (a residential area in London), England. Before his death in 1957, Turing would make some of the greatest mathematical breakthroughs in the technological age. His discoveries would go beyond computing alone and … Read more
Artificial Intelligence is increasing in its ability to do complicated tasks reliably. I am going to discuss the potential it has to replace a doctor – specifically a surgeon, researcher or consultant. Some tasks in a doctor’s routine are already being automated, similar to some tasks in the lives of the public. However, there are … Read more
“Can machines think?”, the notion of Artificial Intelligence was first, seriously, contemplated by Alan Turing; considered by many as the ‘father of computer science’. At first glance, especially at the time this question was first asked, one might dismiss it quickly – how can it be possible for a machine to think, they simply do … Read more
ANN-embedded expert system : Expert systems (ES) are a branch of applied artificial intelligence (AI), and were developed by the AI community in the mid-1960s. The basic idea behind an expert system is simply that expertise, which is the vast body of task-specific knowledge and is transferred from a human to a computer. This knowledge … Read more
Once the computer was successfully developed in the 1950’s, it allowed cognitive psychology to become a dominant approach in the field of Psychology. Cognition needs to be modelled to aid cognitive scientists in understanding how the brain works, to predict human behaviour and to create machines that can perform human tasks (Gentner, D., & Forbus, … Read more
Shortest Path Algorithms: Shortest path algorithms are very fundamental in much of the work on routing. The number of shortest path algorithms which have been developed and published runs into the hundreds and there are new variants still appearing. The best know algorithms such as Dijkstra’s and Bellman-Ford algorithm, run in low order polynomial time. … Read more
Chapter 1 Introduction to Project 1.1 Project Vision Robotics is the part of technological advancement the human lifestyle. The real definition of robot is it always sense-think-process to get in action. Automation in robot controlling and processing is the key to progress in it. Semi or full artificial intelligence in robot is the pioneer area … Read more
Descartes creates two rules to distinguish machine thinking from human thinking. The first rule is that machines ‘could never use words, or put together signs, as we do in order to declare our thoughts’ (Study Guide:105). Although he states in Discourse on a Method that machines can ‘[utter] words’ (Study Guide:105), they would never be … Read more
Introduction In these days, Artificial intelligence (AI) techniques have become widely used in power system problems. AI techniques work in off line and have the ability to give better results. The increase in size and complexity of electric power systems along with increase in power demand makes it a great need to use AI techniques. … Read more
Artificial intelligence is something we have tried to manage for decades, and we are getting better and better every day. Overall you can describe artificial intelligence as we are trying to combine the human brain with a computer, we want our computers to be able to think by them self and think like humans. History … Read more
The continuing advancement of artificial intelligence (AI) provides many unique and troubling ethical issues concerning the boundaries that demarcate a robot from a human being, and whether the former is worthy of any moral considerations. Notably, the potential roboticisation of the sex trade, and the introduction of nascent AI poses the question of whether a … Read more
Human rights and the fight for human rights has occurred since the very existence of man. Nelson Mandela very famously quoted,” To deny people their human rights is a violation of being a human.”(Mandela 1994) Firstly what are human rights? Human rights is defined by (Hutchings 2010) as,” The rights that we as human beings … Read more
Why are we afraid of talking robots? The advent of artificial intelligence has become a highly misconstrued subject. The quick progression of technology has been negatively portrayed to even convey an apocalyptic sense of fear. Although these depictions may oftentimes be fictional, they uncover the very real concerns and relationships that many people seem to … Read more
Abstract – This paper studies the use of facial recognition technologies to prevent crime. The most common technologies that are being used for security and authentication purposes are analyzed. The Eigenface method is the most used facial recognition technology, it can be used for security and authentication purposes. This method focuses on the aspects of … Read more
Ever since the invention of the computer, mankind has always been determined to strive forward and innovate with gadgets, technology and lifestyle, including the creation of artificial intelligence (or colloquially, AI). Our renowned scientists all around the world specialising in software engineering have been improving AI and making it user friendly for the public or … Read more
The idea of new technologies such as AI, Deep and machine learning, sensing cities, artificial embryos, and more might sound scary to a lot of people. Many fears the rise of the machines like in “Terminator” and believe that this new wave of technology is the beginning of the end for the human-race, but that’s … Read more
The controversy over whether artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence will perpetually be a topic of debate that splits evenly down the middle. This feud led all the way back to the 1950’s when Alan Turing, an english computer scientist, coined the “Turing Test” which was a primitive way of determining if a computer could be … Read more
The human brain is a complex system, or network, in which mental states emerge from the interaction between multiple physical and functional levels. What happens when you try to integrate the complexity of the human thought process into technology? The result is artificial intelligence— a popular friend or foe in science fiction media. With the … Read more
In this fast paced world, new innovations to provide solutions to prevalent problems that people are faced with constantly are being released and used, especially in the medical world. Without the assistance of technology and interdisciplinary fields, healthcare would not be as efficient or effective. Over the past decade, many new areas of study have … Read more
Prisoner's Dilemma Artificial Intelligence Research Project 60-371 Ananth Adhikarla 103462848 Abstract Prisoner's Dilemma is a game Invented by Merrill Flood & Melvin Dresher during the 1950s with the main focus on, Iterated Prisoner's Dilemma experiments by Robert Axelrod's. Prisoner's Dilemma game is a classic prototype which is responsive to evolutionary behaviours. Iterated Prisoners Dilemma … Read more
Introduction Overview With the advancements in the field of Artificial Intelligence researchers are able to achieve many breakthroughs in various fields. Although most of the AI methodologies were invented in the previous century, they have never been properly utilised before. Now with the numerous ways to collect data and with the amount of data accessible … Read more
The Chinese Room is a response raised by John Searle in regard to functionalism and the Turing test for machine intelligence. Searle argues against the ability of purely computational processes creating some kind of mind (Searle, 1980). Searle centres his ideas of the mind around intentionality and understanding, something that he sees a solely syntactic … Read more
We’ve all heard it. Our earth is changing. The International Panel of Climate Change (2007, 2013) found in recent studies that “an increase of CO2 decreases the radiative cooling of the troposphere.” The use of fossil fuels worsen the natural greenhouse effect. This effect, also called global warming, warms the earth, makes ice glaciers melt, … Read more
Artificial Intelligence is the theory and development of computer systems able to perform tasks normally requiring human intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision-making, and translation between languages. For AI to achieve this goal they need to learn, the two main ways of learning is machine learning and deep learning. Machine learning vs Deep … Read more
Artifical Intelligence (also known as AI) has been around for a bit of time. What the development of the electronic computer in 1941 and the stored program computer in 1949 the condition for research in artificial intelligence were given. The link between human intelligence and machines was the observed much until the late 1950s. the … Read more
Abstract This paper contains an analysis of Artificial Intelligence in the skincare industry that reveals how start-ups and current industry giants are revolutionizing the market by incorporating AI into their technologies and products. Discussed will be the current AI Key Players in Skincare, AI Research in Skincare, and AI Ideas for Skincare. These represent the … Read more
Introduction Over the previous decade, the security look into area has seen huge development in regard to all parts of data access and sharing. Guaranteeing sheltered and secure correspondence and communication among clients and, decently, their on-line personalities presents remarkable difficulties to scholastics and in addition industry and people in general. Security breaks, charge card … Read more
In early March, a Goh game held in Korea attracted the whole world’s attention. Different from any of the previous Goh games, one of the player, Alpha Go, is an artificial intelligence (AI) robot manufactured by Google instead of a human. Before the game, most of the people, including some senior specialists, thought that Master … Read more
Introduction Over human history, technological innovation has consistently lessened the burden of work for all people. From the invention of the wheel that exponentially decreased the effort required to transport objects to modern-day supercomputers that compute 200 quadrillion calculations per second, human inventiveness results in less total work done by humans.1 Analyzing and predicting this … Read more
Machine, Platform, Crowd: Harnessing Our Digital Future, by Andrew McAffee and Erik Brynjolfsson, is a creative and captivating novel, identifying and explaining three trends that are changing the way business is completed. This book carefully walks you through examples of the business world and the changes that are shaping the industry. These three trends are … Read more
Necessity of the work Faults in software systems continue to be a major problems. A software bug is an error, failure, flaw, fault or mistake in a computer program that resist it from behaving as intended, like generating an incorrect result. A software fault is a defect that causes software failure in an executable product. … Read more
INTRODUCTION Technology is one of the most important things in human civilization. In this modern era, the development of technology is growing rapidly. In everyday life, people are increasingly in need of technology assistance in their activities. Therefore, in technological development, artificial intelligence required as a supporting component to realize the desired technology. According to … Read more
Introduction Statement of the Problem With the concern on increasing load demand that makes increasing in power losses, and the voltage profile of the system will not be improved to the required level, distributed generation (DG) units are used as an alternative energy solution to meet required load demand. DG units are integrated in distribution … Read more
In this day and age, the desire for innovation sits at the helm of making decisions within the vertical of technology. Innovation is known as making changes in something established, especially by introducing new methods, ideas, or products. However, in the twenty- first century this definition is tempered with the desire to create new technology … Read more
I. (Gain Attention and Interest) Here are some scenarios for you to think about: imagine you are travelling to EU. Before you enter, a detector system will automatically assess your official documents, social media activity and biometric data and analyze your' faces to see if you are lying; (a brief pause) How about this: … Read more
Abstract This paper contains an analysis of Artificial Intelligence in the skincare industry that reveals how start-ups and current industry giants are revolutionizing the market by incorporating AI into their technologies and products. Discussed will be the current AI Key Players in Skincare, AI Research in Skincare, and AI Ideas for Skincare. These represent … Read more
Inevitably, we would have built a computer that outsmarts us. As intelligent beings, this thought scares us, especially those who take pride in their intelligence. They think only their brains make them unique, and so they discount the idea of a computer that is smarter than them. However, that is wishful thinking because reality … Read more
Commercial Real Estate: A Study of the Effects of Technology Removing the Human Aspect Reid Frazier University of South Alabama Author Note: This paper was prepared for IST-350 taught by Frank Ard The commercial real estate industry has seen exponential change in the previous decade due to technology and this change will continue to … Read more
Technology is changing our lives, our way to live, to study, to communicate, to work is changed. There are important points to take in consideration when we discuss technology: “Is this fast increase and development of technology helping us and our future generation or not?” and “The importance of the AI in our society.” … Read more
In 1930, a scientist called Alan Turing introduced the idea of machines that could think. After that, in the 1950s, a couple of scientist from a variety of fields started discussing the idea of making a machine that could think. The field of Artificial intelligence Research was then established in 1956. What is Artificial … Read more
Software Engineering Research Report Introduction “Software Engineering” is, namely, the application of engineering to all the aspects of software production. The term was first officially used in an official conference report in 1968 for the world’s first conference on Software Engineering in Garmisch, Germany. The Conference, sponsored by the NATO Science Committee, was meant … Read more
INTRODUCTION A.L.I.C.E. (Artificial Linguistic Internet Computer Entity) is free natural language artificial intelligence chat robot. Intelligent Tutoring Systemsare programs that aim at providingpersonal instruction to students. In recent decades, conversational robots, also known aschatterbots, become very popular in the Internet and they are based on ALICE. TQ-Bot is a chatterbothelps the students during their learning … Read more
Currently, the rate of technological growth is exponential. Computer processing speeds double every 18 months, semi-autonomous cars are hitting roads, and most people have a built-in "intelligent assistant" whom responds to voice commands in order to operate their cell phones. But even with all of this progress, is a robot still capable of achieving … Read more
Currently, the rate of technological growth is exponential. Computer processing speeds double every 18 months, semi-autonomous cars are hitting roads, and most people have a built-in "intelligent assistant" whom responds to voice commands in order to operate their cell phones. But even with all of this progress, is a robot still capable of achieving … Read more
In the debate over whether Artificial Intelligence is beneficial for our society, how does AI influence our system of pedagogy? In Takamatsu, Japan at Kagawa University, special needs classrooms are using new-found technology to aid and provide the right support for students with varying disabilities and development levels. A special needs education specialist named … Read more
Chapter-1 Introduction 1. INTRODUCTION Security means protecting the information perfectly.Security primitives are based on hard mathematical problems.Since security primitives are used as building blocks,they must be very reliable.Since creating security routines are very hard.It involves security primitives are, 1. Designing a new security primitive is very time-consuming and very error prone,even … Read more
Organizational efficiency is required to be understood for the growth of a company. Artificial neural network is one of the methodologies that is widely used for this purpose. In this paper, this model has been utilized for finding organizational efficiency for construction companies. The basic requirement for the survival of the company are its … Read more
The field of study I have chosen is entrepreneurship, although my ultimate plan is to attend law school with plans to practice business law. I would like to work with corporate companies as a part of their general counsel and do things like draw up contracts, protect the company's physical and intellectual property, and … Read more
What are your contemplations about the advancement of Singapore’s MedTech industry? I think that in recent years MedTech has been playing important role in diagnosing and treating conditions or diseases which affects human health. I had read recently about the McKinsey report which says that the Asia Pacific MedTech sector is expected to grow … Read more
What Is Artificial Intelligence and Should We Be Fearful Of It? Kester Griffiths Kestergiffiths@gmail.com Thomas Hardye School, Queen's Ave, Dorchester, DT1 2ET The aim of this essay is to discuss what the often misinterpreted field of study of artificial intelligence (abbreviated to AI) actually is, and to evaluate its dangerous potential. As opposed to … Read more
Introduction In the past 10 years artificial intelligence has become more prominent in the technology industry, with sophisticated voice recognition being implemented in now common house hold products, like the amazon echo, or be it deep machine learning being used in a variety of tasks, as complex as self-driving cars. Fundamentally artificial intelligence … Read more
Introduction The first film was about quantity of life. How much do I have left? This film is about quality of life. How do I live my life? And how do I make it meaningful? – Michael Green, Screenwriter (Lapointe, 2017, pg. 213). By projecting our fears onto the screen, it acts as a … Read more
Paste your essay in here… «AI will be the best or worst thing ever for humanity, so let’s get it right» – Elon Musk Innledning I denne oppgaven skal jeg ta for meg spørsmålet om maskiner kan tenke, mens jeg skal forsøke å forklare, og med egne tanker resonnere rundt teorien, kanskje gi svar … Read more
ANALYTICAL REPORT DATE: Oct 15, 2018 PREPARED FOR: CEO and Board of Directors of Bank of America, Bank of America Customers, and people interesting in AI technology REPORT BY: Krystal Bui, customer service representative SUBJECT: Bank of America new virtual financial assistant – Erica Executive Summary Bank of America makes a huge investment in … Read more
Technology is changing rapidly day by day and this could change our everyday lives, not only for individuals but for businesses too. Information technology (IT) is one of the factors that could lead to innovation, which help businesses to succeed. Based on Business 2 Community (2015), businesses could run more efficiently due to innovation … Read more
Artificial Intelligence Abstract- Artificial intelligence-Artificial intelligence is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is the subfield of computer science. It involves two basic ideas. First it involves studying the thought processes of human beings. Second, it deals with representing those process via machines like computers, robots etc. The goal of AI research … Read more
About Artificial Intelligence
Artificial Intelligence (AI), despite being prevalent in the everyday life of most individuals and encompassing almost every variation of modern industry in some capacity, curiously lacks a precise universally accepted definition.
AI was first named in the 1950’s when Minsky, McCarthy, and colleagues, described artificial intelligence as “that of making a machine behave in ways that would be called intelligent if a human were so behaving” (source).
Artificial intelligence has been categorized as “algorithms enabled by constraints, exposed by representations that support models targeted at loops that tie thinking, perception and action together.” (Winston, n.d.) as “a science and a set of computational technologies that are inspired by—but typically operate quite differently from—the ways people use their nervous systems and bodies to sense, learn, reason and take action.” (Panel, 2016) , “the activity devoted to making machines intelligent, and intelligence is that quality that enables an entity to function appropriately and with foresight in its environment.” (Nilsson, 2010) and “AI can also be defined by what AI researchers do. AI is primarily as a branch of computer science that studies the properties of intelligence by synthesizing intelligence” (Simon, 1995)
At its core Artificial Intelligence is the ability for a machine to complete a task, that if it were done by a human would require intelligence.
Types of AI
The general definition of AI is broad, as its ability to be classified. AI can currently be classified according to two separate systems, one is the classification of AI in relation to their similarities to the human mind, another is a broader definition, more commonly used in the technology industry that puts AI into three separate categories.
AI classified based on its relation to the human mind falls into four separate categories:
Reactive: This is the original form of AI and operate in an extremely limited capability. They emulate the ability to respond to different stimuli, this type of AI does not have any memory-based functionality, they do not use previous experience to make decisions on their current actions. In basic terms, they do not have the ability to learn, they can simply respond to a limited variation of inputs.
Limited memory: Similar to reactive machines, this type of AI also has the ability to learn from historical data to make decisions. These machines are trained by using data stored in their memory as a reference model for solving problems. Almost all types of current AI fit into this category.
Theory of mind: This type of AI currently only exists in theory, “ is the ability to attribute mental states — beliefs, intents, desires, emotions, knowledge, etc. — to oneself and to others.” (Wikipedia, n.d.)
Self-awareness: This AI also exists only hypothetically and is self-explanatory. It is an AI that has developed self-awareness.
These four types of AI can also be more generally classified under the three more general classifications, Artificial Narrow Intelligence (ANI), Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) and Artificial Super Intelligence (ASI).
ANI: the form of AI that exists in our world today, often referred to as “weak AI”. It is intelligent systems that operate within a limited context – how to carry out specific tasks without being specifically programmed to do so – driven by sets of self-learning algorithms and is at best a basic simulation of human intelligence.
Narrow AI is generally focused on performing a single task extremely well, often at much faster speeds and with higher accuracy than humans. Whilst this form of AI seems intelligent it operates under a larger set of constraints and limitations than even the most basic human intelligence, namely they are only capable of performing specific tasks in which they are programmed to do, which is where the name ‘narrow AI’ comes from. Reactive and limited memory AI fits into this category.
AGI: this type of AI has the same ability as a human being, it can learn, perceive and understand independently and build connections and generalizations across multiple fields in the same manner that humans can. This form of AI currently exists only in theory.
ASI: a theoretical type of AI that surpasses human intelligence and ability in every facet. An example of this would be Skynet from the Terminator series.
How does AI work?
As stated, the field of AI is creating machines that are capable of executing tasks that would require human intelligence to otherwise perform. Machine learning is a subset of that field, one that allows machines to “learn” independently and deep learning is a further subset of that, with it being the area that is currently producing the furthest advancements in the field.
“Artificial intelligence is a set of algorithms and intelligence to try to mimic human intelligence. Machine learning is one of them, and deep learning is one of those machine learning techniques.” – Frank Chen (Source).
Machine learning is a subset of AI that allows a system to learn from data without the need to be specifically programmed to do so, it does this through sets of rules – or “algorithms” – that the system is able to follow.
This is achieved by training the system, by feeding it data, which using statistical techniques it will then finds patterns in said data, and from which it derives a rule or procedure that explains the data or can predict future data. Or more simply put, by the system learning.
“In essence, you could build an AI consisting of many different rules and it would also be able to be AI. But instead of programming all the rules, you feed the algorithm data and let the algorithm adjust itself to improve the accuracy of the algorithm. Traditional science algorithms mainly process, whereas machine learning is about applying an algorithm to fit a model to the data. Examples of machine-learning algorithms that are used a lot and that you might be familiar with are decision trees, random forest, Bayesian networks, K-mean clustering, neural networks, regression, artificial neural networks, deep learning and reinforcement learning. “ (IBM, 2018)
Machine learning methods are usually categorized broadly under two definitions: supervised and unsupervised.
Supervised learning is where algorithms trained using labelled examples. It is similar to learning by example, with the system being given a data set with labels that act as the “answers” and eventually the system learns to tell the difference between the labels by comparing its outputs with the correct outputs – the answers – to find errors and adjust itself accordingly.
For example, a system might be shown pictures of cats and dogs and given enough data will learn to differentiate by perhaps the structure of its ears, or shape of its face.
Once the system has been “trained” it is able to then be applied to new data and classify it using the rules it has learnt.
The problem with supervised learning is that it usually requires enormous amounts of labelled data to work effectively, with systems potentially needing to use millions of images to say, carry out the task of identifying pictures of cats and dogs accurately.
Unsupervised learning is where algorithms are trained using unlabelled data sets, it is not given the correct “answer” for the data and instead must figure out what it is being shown. The aim of unsupervised learning is for the system to explore the data and try and identify patterns that can used to classify and categorize the data.
For example, unsupervised learning might be clustering together data that can be grouped by similarities, such as news websites grouping together stories on similar topics.
Deep learning is a subset of machine learning that operates by employing a system inspired by the human brain – neural networks – it operates by using progressive layers that each subsequently extract and composite information. As data is passed through the layers:
“each unit combines a set of input values to produce an output value, which in turn is passed on to other neurons downstream. For example, in an image recognition application, a first layer of units might combine the raw data of the image to recognize simple patterns in the image; a second layer of units might combine the results of the first layer to recognize patterns-of-patterns; a third layer might combine the results of the second layer; and so on.”
This allows systems to process large amount of uncategorized and complex data efficiently by breaking it down into smaller, simpler parts and using those parts to recognize complex precise patterns in data that would not be possible using traditional machine learning techniques.
The larger the neural network and the more data it has access to, the better he performance of the system. Deep learning however requires enormous amounts of processing power and specific hardware – GPU’s have made recent advancements possible – long training times and large amounts of data to work effectively.
In addition, one of the problems facing deep learning is known as the “black box” problem, in which it is often next to impossible to determine how the system came to a particular conclusion, which in turn makes it difficult to gain insight required to refine and improve the system.
Development of AI
Despite AI having existed for more than half a century since the term was originally coined in 1950, developments in the field have only recently seen large breakthroughs and interest from modern industries, this is due to advancements in computing power – GPU’s – and the exponential growth in volume and variety of data, which in turn has increased the potential value – and advancement – for algorithms.
As the necessity for the implementation of AI systems becomes more prevalent, due to the rise of big data, and AI providing a greater return on investment, more research and development has been put into the field.
Challenges for development
The main challenge in the development of increasingly advanced AI is computing power, until recently there was a technical brick wall regarding development, with there being plenty of theoretical ideas but not enough computing power required to implement or develop them effectively.
Modern day cloud computing and parallel processing systems have helped currently, but they are nothing more than a stop gap as advances in complex deep learning algorithms and data volumes continue to grow, and more power is required.
Another problem in the development of AI is that current systems can only learn from given data, knowledge cannot be integrated in any other way, this means for example that any inaccuracies in the data will be reflected in results.
This is partly due to the fact that modern AI only operates on a one-track mind, it is only capable of performing a specific task, and thus unable to perform, and take into consideration learning and data from tasks other than the one it is performing.
Lack of professionals in the field, despite the increased demand for AI experts, machine and deep learning developers and data scientists, talent supply remains at a deficit – as of early 2019 there was estimated to be less than 40,000 AI specialists in the world (Source).
Writing an artificial intelligence essay
Artificial intelligence (AI) is a quickly growing field of computer science which has recently become a hot topic of discussion. AI has the potential to revolutionize the way we interact with the world and the way we do business. While the potential benefits of AI are vast, there are also many potential risks and drawbacks associated with it. Essays on this theme typically require a discussion on some of the main benefits and risks of artificial intelligence, and how AI can be used responsibly.
One of the main benefits of AI is the potential to increase efficiency and accuracy in many tasks. By using AI-powered systems and algorithms, businesses can automate many of their processes, freeing up more of their employees’ time to focus on more important tasks. AI systems are also capable of analyzing large amounts of data quickly and accurately, making it easier for businesses to make informed decisions. Additionally, AI can be used to create powerful tools that can help us better understand and interact with the world.
However, there are also some potential risks associated with AI. One of the most commonly cited risks is the potential for AI systems to be used maliciously. AI can be used to create powerful weapons or to manipulate and deceive people, so it is important to consider these potential uses of AI when developing AI-powered systems. Additionally, there is the potential for AI systems to be biased or to produce inaccurate results. As AI systems become more complex, it becomes increasingly difficult to ensure that the results are unbiased and accurate, so it is important to consider these issues when developing and deploying AI-powered systems.
Another important consideration is the ethical implications of AI. AI-powered systems can have a significant impact on our lives, and it is important to consider the ethical implications of using AI. For example, there are questions about the impact of AI on privacy, autonomy, and freedom of choice. Additionally, there are concerns about the potential for AI systems to be used to discriminate against certain groups of people. It is important to consider these ethical considerations when using AI-powered systems.
Finally, it is important to consider the potential impact of AI on employment. While AI-powered systems can help increase efficiency and accuracy in certain tasks, they also have the potential to replace human labor in some areas. This could lead to increased unemployment, which could have a major impact on the economy. As such, it is important to consider the potential impact of AI on employment when developing and deploying AI-powered systems.
Artificial Intelligence essay themes:
- The potential risks and benefits of AI
- The impact of AI on human employment opportunities
- The potential ethical implications of AI
- The ethical implications of creating sentient AI
- The implications of AI on data privacy and security
- The potential for AI to be used for nefarious purposes
- The potential for AI to be used for good
- The potential for AI to augment human capabilities
- The potential for AI to automate certain tedious tasks
- The potential for AI to lead to increased inequality in society