The Racialised discourse surrounding Brexit

Introduction The Racialised discourse surrounding Brexit is evident through the strong anti-immigration and nationalist narratives that drove much of both the Brexit campaign and the recent General Election of which Brexit dominated. Whilst there are certainly elements of ‘imperial nostalgia’ in this discourse, it is argued that the term simply fails to account for the … Read more

Investment managers’ considerations in light of Brexit

The assumption I have made for this coursework is that the Investment Manager (IM) has a globally diversified portfolio rather than just running a European or US fund. Introduction An investment manager is a person or organization that makes investments in portfolios of securities on behalf of clients, in accordance with the investment objectives and … Read more

What will happen to the fundamental rights of UK and EU citizens living in the UK?

22.02.2019 In 2013, recognizing a mistrust of the British people towards Europe, the British Prime Minister David Cameron committed to hold a referendum on a possible exit of the United Kingdom from the European Union, if his party won the parliamentary elections in 2015. However, the Tories won. Cameron campaigned for his country’s continued membership … Read more

What impact would Brexit have on the importance of EU law in the English legal system?

Evaluate the current or present importance of EU law within the sources of the English Legal System. What impact would Brexit have on this importance? [20 marks] 04.11.2018 One of the main sources within the United Kingdom’s (UK’s) legal system is EU law. EU law has sovereignty over other sources of the UK’s legal system. … Read more

UK’s negotiation of withdrawal from the EU

06.05.2019 INTRODUCTION On 1 January 1973, the United Kingdom became a member of the European Economic Community. On that date, EEC law took effect as part of the domestic law of the United Kingdom, in accordance with the European communities’ act 1972.In December 2015, the UK Parliament passed the European referendum act 2015 and on … Read more

Brexit impact on BMW

Introduction: Bayerische Motoren Werke Aktiengesellschaft (BMWAG), which is situated in Munich, Germany, is the parent organization of the BMW Group. The essential business objective of the BMW Group is the advancement, make and closeout of motors and of all vehicles outfitted with those motors. The BMW Group is subdivided into the Car, Motorcycles, Financial Services … Read more

About Brexit

The British decision to leave the European Union brought with it great uncertainty about the future of Britain as an actor on the world stage and the future of the European Union itself as a strong and stable institution. The result of the referendum shocked many around the world no less so the European Union itself. This essay shall argue the predominant factors that explain the outcome of the vote are the campaign approaches, European immigration, the expense of membership and the voting patterns/turnout of the referendum.

Once David Cameron called the referendum in 2015 2 main groups formed to campaign for the vote. ‘Britain stronger in Europe’ and ‘Vote Leave’ (Hobolt, S.B., 2016, pp.1262). It became clear the core debate within the Brexit referendum campaign and the rationale for the referendum in the first place was the question of sovereignty. British people were questioning the status quo of politics and had been tasked to make a decision between further global integration or new protectionist values. This fundamentally ideological question brought with it a campaign rife with polarisation.

It was clear the approaches taken by the two campaigning organisations varied immensely. The Remain side sourced statistics and arguments from economists and other experts to support their campaign. Their slogan stronger in Europe focused on the economic ramifications of a Brexit. Economists argued that by leaving the single market the UK would fall behind competitively and the economy would begin to contract. Furthermore, as leaving the union was an unprecedented proposition, no concrete cost of physically leaving the union could be estimated and was therefore not advertised to voters.

This was juxtaposed with the approach Leave campaigners took imploring the public to ‘take back control’. The language used was more accessible to the public while slogans on busses promising increased funding to the NHS proved attractive. The leave campaigners created a connection between increased sovereignty and autonomy with greater economic output through liberation from the single market. Furthermore, they operated as “challenger parties” to the political establishment, garnering support from the less educated and those negatively affected by the eurozone crisis of 2008 (Hobolt, S.B., 2016, pp.1272). The Remain campaigners expected a clear victory in the vote as all of the large parties in government were in favour of remaining and this impacted on the approach they took. (Hobolt, S.B., 2016, pp.1261)

The principle freedoms of the European Union uphold the right to free travel between member states without the need for a visa. This facilitates the free movement of labour within the union and the creation of a single market while also assisting ease of travel for citizens crossing borders. Though not in the Schengen Area the UK is subject to European immigration law which limits the domestic policy members states can place on those crossing their borders from other member states.

Political Analysts had witnessed a rise in Euroscepticism and a surge in populist rhetoric within British politics in the years leading up to the vote which may have prompted David Cameron to opt for a formal vote on the UK/EU status following the 2015 general election. As mentioned above having received an opt-out from the Schengen Area alongside Denmark and Ireland, the issue of mass immigration nonetheless for Britons became one of the core areas of contention.

Research has shown support for Brexit was stronger in areas which had higher levels of inward migration from other member states in the ten years before the referendum. (Goodwin and Milazzo, 2017, pp. 452) This highlights the core role the issue of immigration had in the referendum discussions and the result.

A YouGov poll stated the strong beliefs Remainer voters had as 84% associated Britain leaving the EU with ‘less immigration into Britain’, this is juxtaposed with only 27% of Remainer voters having the same opinion. (Hobolt, S.B., 2016, pp.1263)

The European Union functions on support funding it receives from member states which is calculated using population and Gross Domestic Product. The campaign to leave the European Union focused also on the large amount of British government funding which was being sent to the European Union.

The United Kingdom was a net contributor to the European Union in total coming only second in contribution size to Germany. Net contribution means the total monetary value the UK contributed to the workings of the European Union was greater than the monetary value of the supports it received in return through European projects. This statistic used by the Leave campaign resonated with the many disadvantaged and low income voters who ultimately decided to vote to leave the union.

Voter turnout on the day of the referendum is also a crucial metric in the result. The referendum had a relatively high level of turnout across the board at 72.2% however there was a disparity between the turn out between districts based on overall results either remain or leave.

The voter turnout was dramatically higher in constituencies which were leaning towards voting to leave the union. The use of leave campaigners “challenger” attitudes encouraged those who were voting leave to get out and vote, and disturb the political establishment and supposed wealthy elite who were supporting a remain vote. Furthermore, some argue the Brexit vote was a form of ‘second-order’ vote as a form of retaliation against David Cameron’s government. Leave voters felt disenfranchised and overlooked at the complacency and comfort of the Remain campaign and therefore voted for the antipathy of the status quo, particularly in cases where referendums are not legally binding as in this case. (Hobolt, S.B., 2016, pp.1264)

Through the lenses of the above factors it is clear why the Leave vote won the referendum, the use of powerful marketing and the polarisation of underlying populist views, alongside an apparent complacency on the Remain side, ensured an approval of Brexit.