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Essay: The utilitarian decision model

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  • The utilitarian decision model
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A health worker in West Africa had requested for aid to treat thousands of infected humans. Under certain circumstances, a trial of new treatment have not been permitted on human beings and is needed approximately a decade for the vaccine to be approved for human use. According to Waddell (2013) normal stakeholders are determined to be beneficial by having the intention of helping an organization and society under sensible choice in ethical decision. A health worker in Africa had requested for aid to treat thousands of infected patients. Joint efforts have been effectively tested on a cure upon fatal sickness on creatures primarily on Chimpanzees. According to Wilson (2001) Monkeys that similar to a human were used to determine the value of pathogenesis infection. Australian Pharmaceutical Corporation should acquire and concede to deliver newly established a completely new experimental vaccine that supposed capable to treat a deadly virus rapidly increasing in West Africa. Three ethical decision making models are utilitarian model, moral right model and justice model.
Utilitarian model is described to an ethical decision that focuses on human happiness rather than effects of morally rights. For example, uses of animals as test subject for experimental vaccines samples to treat a deadly virus which rapidly spreading in West Africa. Stakeholders should consider focusing on West Africans illness. According to William M. M. Levack (2009) idea of utilitarian frequently accustomed in health economic in decision making relating to an amount of money spend by government on health care. Utilitarian model can be applied in the case where Australian pharmaceutical corporation manager decides to increase West Africa population happiness by using experimental vaccine to treat tens of thousands of West Africans infected with the virus. According to Jonathan (2012) each and every subject discussed are more confusing and are different depending on tendency of a subject to make a judgement. Downfall of this experiment is the side effect towards humans is undefined whether insufficient antigens inside the vaccine cause failure of this experiment; cell behaviour was different than that of the live virus strain exacta or success of a vaccine is well received under the impression a human body is strong enough to adjust together with the antigens given to fight the disease. Adjacent to previous point, according to Richard (1986) bribery in utilitarianism is also a possibility as one of the downfall arising. Bribery is interesting kind of action to examine from a utilitarian point of view, because of frequent bribery will justify ones action on something similar to utilitarian grounds. Example, take into consideration manager working for Australian Pharmaceutical corporation declined West African health worker request, if bribery is engaged, that worker will try to sweet talk with the manager and bribe into doing something immoral. By this, if the manager is using utilitarian model to make decision, the manager will consider all consequences involved and try to avoid the activities trying to engage to.
Moral rights ethics model is described to be an ethical decision that makes powers of reasoning into consideration about moral principles, without concern of the outcome disclosed afterwards. For example, distributing experimental vaccine to treat tens of thousands of West Africans infected with the virus without the approval for human to use. According to Chang (2007) direct relationship on ethical performance is present in a person moral equate growth before research. Although a health worker wanted to use newly untested human trials vaccines, patients infected with the virus has the right not to use due to certain consideration in ones thought. Manager of Australian Pharmaceutical Corporation requested to provide any information related to the vaccine used such as side effects and list of ingredients to watch out any allergy contained. Two doctrines can be related into this case which is according to Anne (1999) the doctrine of acts and omissions, considers whether some controversial cases should be exception to the principle that killing is wrong where a decision is effectively made that a life should come to an end and in the third case the end life is not preventable as it is right to let the person die but it would not be right to kill them and according to Anne (1999) the doctrine of double effect, emphasise on cases of death which result from a particular, rather than an omission, but which are claimed not to be cases of intentional killing, even though the person performing the action knows that death will result. As mentioned above, stakeholder may hand out vaccines to a health worker Consequences of using moral rights model in deciding alternatives whether or not to share the experimental vaccine with the health worker in West Africa are government spending will be affected.
Justice model is described to be an ethical decision that distributes fair shares and follows the rules. There are three types of justice such as distributive justice where this concerns about the nature of a socially just allocation of goods in a society, compensatory justice mentioned about making amends of their lost by settling score with the person whom causes injures and procedural justice where it is known to be playing fair. Dealing with people fairly does not mean to handle them the same; goodness is not without variety. According to (Aristotle 2000; Natalia 2014) just and fair generally established by legal and authority act that assures the right of a person, ones condition is needed to be considered in decision-making. For example, Australian pharmaceutical corporation manager declined a request from a health worker in Africa is an action where the manager follows the rules given by Australian health authorities in order to fully utilize this vaccine safety and also cause benefits to both stakeholders and West African citizens. Limitation of justice model is that some rules may not be fair. As an illustration in the question, unfairness can be in any form of style namely a cure is given first serve basis as a cure are distributed only in a certain amount in addition to the effects still remain unknown to human status. According to Nancy J (2009) risk benefit analysis of the candidate vaccine safety profile, efficacy observed in clinical trials and public health need is needed to be revised before vaccines is given permission by a competent authority. Conflict related to justice model is the problem that clashes with two principles. By contrast, a decision currently facing with two types of principles such as justice and utilitarian; utilitarian focuses on benefits of everyone whilst justice focuses on fair and just and this matter is homogeneous towards each other. Having both principles enables ones in deep understanding in the vicinity of little information obtained to solve conflicts that give inconvenience.
Utilitarian decision model emphasise on maximizes utility and often used in health to make decisions. Moral rights model emphasise on maintaining and protecting rights and privileges and straight correlation on ethical enactment. Justice model emphasise based on fairness, equitable and objectively that often compare and contrast choices against an argument. Based on the three ethical decision making models, justice model is suitable upon deciding whether or not to share the experimental vaccine with the health worker in West Africa to treat tens of thousands of West Africans infected with the virus. Using justice model can minimize unfairness towards first serve basis since a cure is limited to a certain amount to be produced.

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