Essay: Multicast

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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW

Multicast is internetwork service that provides delivery of data from source multiple recipients. It communicated to the large groups, a bandwidth efficient technique for delivering group-oriented applications over the internet. These applications such as video conferencing, interactive group games, video on demand (VoD), and mobile TV services.

Multicast content distribution utilizes one-to-many and many-to-many transport communication mechanism. MBMS (Multimedia Broadcast/ Multiple Service) provide efficient delivery of broadcast and multicast services, both within a cell and within the core network.

Multicast is communication between a single sender and multiple receivers on a network. Typical uses include the updating of mobile personnel from a home office and the periodic issuance of online newsletters. Together with any cast and unicast, multicast is one of the packet types in the Internet Protocol Version (IPV6).

The existing GKM schemes for secure wired and wireless mobile multicast networks will suffer from rekeying performance for cumulative multicast services because there are only targeted for a single multicast service. Multicast is following as two secrecy:

1. Forward Secrecy

2. Backward Secrecy

FORWARD SECRECY

The user who left the group should not have access to any future key, the member cannot decrypt the data after only it leaves the group.

BACKWARD SECRECY

The new users join the session should not have access to any old key, the member cannot decrypt data sent before it joins the group.

MULTICAST

Multicast is the term used to describe communication where a piece of information is sent from one or more points to a set of other points. In this case there is may be one or more senders, and the information is distributed to a set of receivers (there may be no receivers or any other number of receivers).

Multicasting is the networking technique of delivering the same packet simultaneously to a group of clients. IP multicast provides dynamic many-to-many connectivity between a set of senders (at least 1) and a group of receivers.

UNICAST

Unicast is the term used to communicate where a piece of information is sent from one point to another point. In this case there is one sender, and one receiver. Unicast transmission, in which a packet is sent from a single source to a specified destination, is still the predominant form of transmission on LANs and within the Internet.

BROADCAST

Broadcast is the term used to communicate where a piece of information is sent from one point to all other points. In this case there is just one sender, but the information is sent to all connected receivers. Broadcast transmission is supported on most LANs (e.g. Ethernet), and may be used to send the same message to all computers on the LAN.

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE SURVEY

2.1. NOVEL REKEYING APPROACH FOR SECURE MULTIPLE MULTICAST GROUPS OVER WIRELESS MOBILE NETWORKS (REF.87), YEAR 2014.

AUTHOR NAME: Trust Tshepo Mapoka, Simon Shepherd, Raed Abd-Alhameed and Kelvin

Mobile multicast is the emergence of various multicast-based services, multiple multicast groups are possible to exist within a single network, and mobile subscribers could subscribe to multiple groups concurrently. The group key management (GKM) protocols are secure group communication for a single group service. SMGKM protocols are generating the single and multiple members across a homogeneous or heterogeneous wireless network. the DKD can generate Key Update slot (KUS) for N multicast services on initial group setup depending on the number of members from each MG. That protocol resources are economy in terms of communication bandwidth and storage overheads. The SMGKM algorithm was found to reduce rekeying transmissions at the core network for significant bandwidth savings. By integrating authentication with key management in SMGKM, better security with less storage overhead at the resource constraint mobile receiver was also attained.

2.2 SECURE GROUP COMMUNICATIONS USING KEY GRAPHS (REF NO: 5) YEAR: 2000

AUTHOR NAME: CHUNG KEI WONG, MOHAMED GOUDA, AND SIMON S. LAM

Many emerging network applications (e.g., teleconference, information services, distributed interactive simulation, and collaborative work) are based upon a group communications model. As a result, securing group communications, i.e., providing confidentiality, authenticity, and integrity of messages delivered between group members, will become a critical networking issue. The scalability problem is group/multicast key management. The notion of a secure group as a triple ( ) where denotes a set of users, a set of keys held by the users, and a user-key relation. We then introduce key graphs to specify secure groups. For a special class of key graphs, three strategies for securely distributing key messages after a join/leave and specify protocols for joining and leaving a secure group. The rekeying strategies adjoin/leave protocols are implemented in a prototype key server we have built. That measurement results from experiments and performance comparisons. That group key management service, using any of the three rekeying strategies, is scalable to large groups with frequent joins and leaves. In particular, the average measured processing time per join/leave increases linearly with the logarithm of group size. Protocol design, implementation, and performance analysis is designed algorithm.

2.3. AN EFFICIENT KEY MANAGEMENT SCHEME FOR SECUREWIRELESS MULTICAST (REF.7-10), YEAR: 2002.

AUTHOR NAME: Yan Sun, Wade Trappe, and K. J. Ray Liu

Many multicast services can successfully deploy, security infrastructures must be developed that manage the keys needed to provide access control to content. A designing multicast key management trees that are suitable for mobile wireless environments. By matching the key management tree to the cellular network topology, the total communication burden is reduced by 33%-45% compared to using the traditional key management trees that are independent of the topology. The advancements in wireless technologies promise to free users from the confines of static communication networks. Users will be able to work, shop, and be entertained from any-where at anytime. There has also been significant progress in both the technology underlying multicast networking as well as the deployment of applications utilizing multicast technologies. Already there are services using multicast which stream stock quotes, and provide video and audio on demand. It is reason-able to forecast that consumers will desire to have a similar suite of applications running on their portable devices, especially as technologies such as 3G are successfully installed. These applications will require mechanisms to provide access control to multicast content. Access control is typically provided through encryption, which requires the maintenance and distribution of keying information.

2.4. SECURE BROADCASTING USING THE SECURE LOCK (REF.8-13), YEAR 1989

AUTHOR NAME: GUANG-HUEI CHIOU, MEMBER, IEEE, AND WEN-TSUEN CHEN, MEMBER, IEEE

The concept of a secure broadcasting, effected by means of a secure lock, on broadcast channels, such as satellite, radio, etc. This lock is implemented by using the Chinese Remainder Theorem. With the secure lock, first, only one copy of the cipher text is sent. Second, the deciphering operation is efficient. Third, the number of secret keys held by each user is minimized. The main property of a broadcast channel is that a single transmission from a source station may be received simultaneously by many destination stations. Examples of broadcast channels include various forms of local area networks, satellite channels and packet radio networks. Send a secret message to many people at the same time. Applications of this type are called secure broadcasting applications. These applications, such as document distribution, teleconferencing, have considerably changed the nature of data traffic. The volume of secure broadcasting data traffic will increase significantly. The Chinese Remainder Theorem is used to implement the secure lock. However, it is efficient only when the number of users in a group is small, since the time to compute the lock and the length of the lock (hence the transmission time) is proportional to the number of users. A lock is sent while the lock for the next subgroup is constructed, so that construction and transmission time of these locks can be overlapped. This secure lock only a single deciphering operation is needed to obtain the session key. Two efficient protocols for secure broadcasting are presented. One is based on the public-key cryptosystem and the other on the private-key cryptosystem.

2.5. GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT PROTOCOLS FOR SECURE MOBILE MULTICAST COMMUNICATION: A COMPREHENSIVE SURVEY (REF: 7) YEAR: 2013

AUTHOR NAME: TRUST TSHEPO MAPOKA

Key management is equally important as compared to any other security measure such as encryption and authentication. With the growing usage of mobile devices and the advent of multicast communication, there has been a significant amount of work carried out in developing an optimum group key management protocol for mobile multicast systems. Key management is widely being adopted in securing group communication for both wired and wireless networks. Securing group communication over wired networks is fairly well established; however, wireless networks bring additional challenges due to member mobility and increase in the number of members. They are classified into network dependent and independent protocols and further categorized into tree-based and cluster-based key management protocols. The survey clearly outlines the characteristics of each protocol along with highlighting their advantages and limitations with respect to real-world systems.

2.6. EFFICIENT AUTHENTICATED MULTI-SERVICE GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT FOR SECURE WIRELESS MOBILE MULTICAST (REF: 8) YEAR: 2014

AUTHOR NAME: TRUST T. MAPOKA, SIMON J. SHEPHERD, RAED ABD-ALHAMEED AND KELVIN O.O. ANOH

Recently there is high demand for ubiquitously distributing multimedia services to mobile subscribers by Internet Service providers (ISPs). These services can be restricted to authorized subscribers via integration of authentication and group key management (GKM). It is expected that significant key management overhead will rise due to diverse subscription of multi-services co-existing in the same network concurrently. That work is scalable decentralized multi-service GKM scheme considering host mobility in wireless environment. Both authentication and key management delegated from the trusted domain key distributor (DKD) to the area key distributors (AKD). Therefore Key distribution and authentication are handled at the AKD level in a distributed fashion without involving the DKD. This alleviates unnecessary delays and possible bottlenecks at the DKD. Reduce the rekeying traffic between the AKDs and DKDs which is replaced by the traffic to the SP. The Resource economy is optimized rekeying communication overheads. The security is performance.

2.7. GROUP KEY MANAGEMENT PROTOCOLS: A NOVEL TAXONOMY (REF: 9) YEAR: 2005

AUTHOR NAME: YACINE CHALLAL, HAMIDA SEBA

Group key management is an important functional building block for any secure multicast architecture. In relevant group key management protocols are pertinent performance criteria. The phenomenal growth of the Internet in the last few years and the increase of bandwidth in today’s networks have provided both inspiration and motivation for the development of new services, combining voice, video and text ”over IP”. Although unicast communications have been predominant, the demand for multicast communications is increasing both from the Internet Service Providers (ISPs) and from content or media providers and distributors. Multicasting is increasingly used as an efficient communication mechanism for group-oriented applications in the Internet such as video conferencing, interactive group games. The lack of security in the multicast communication model obstructs the effective and large scale deployment of such strategic business multi-party applications. Group key management is how to assure re-keying using the minimum bandwidth overhead without increasing the storage overhead. That is designed Dual Encryption Protocol. This protocol has the drawback to require the transmission of the validation multicast message by the group leader, with a size in the order of O(n) (n being the number of current valid group members), after each time the source sends a message to the group.

2.8. A CONFERENCE KEY DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM (REF.933),YEAR 2000.

AUTHOR NAME: INGEMAR INGEMARSSON, MEMBER, IEEE, DONALD T. TANG,

Encryption is used in a communication system to safeguard information in the transmitted messages from anyone other than the intended receiver(s). To perform the encryption and decryption the transmitter and receiver(s) ought to have matching encryption and decryption keys. A clever way to generate these keys is to use the public key distribution system invented by Diffie and Hellman. That system, however, admits only one pair of communication stations to share a particular pair of encryption and decryption keys. The public key distribution system is generalized to a conference key distribution system (CKDS) which admits any group of stations to share the same encryption and decryption keys. The analysis reveals two important aspects of any conference key distribution system. One is the multi tap resistance, which is a measure of the information security in the communication system. The other is the separation of the problem into two parts: the choice of a suitable symmetric function of the private keys and the choice of a suitable one-way mapping thereof. An encryption algorithm takes a group message and performs some transformation on it using a key, that key is randomly generated a cipher text.

2.9. KEY MANAGEMENT WITH HOST MOBILITY IN DYNAMIC GROUPS (REF: 16) YEAR: 2010

AUTHOR NAME: SAÏD GHA-ROUT

Key management is an important building block of securing group communications. This is due to the economical relevance of group-based applications. The key management concerns the distribution and updates of the key material each time a member joins or leaves the group. The dynamic aspect of group applications due to free membership joins and leaves in addition to members’ mobility makes difficult the design of and scalable key management protocols. A new key management protocols to secure group communications are consider the mobility of nodes in a mobile environment with a null rekeying cost. Simulations show that our protocol achieves better, Performance in terms of rekeying. To ensure confidentiality in group communications, only the customers authorized for the service would have access to the content for only the duration corresponding to their authorization. A straightforward solution is to encrypt the group-intended data by the sender with a group key, called Traffic Encryption Key (TEK), common to all authorized recipients. The sender has to share the new TEK with all legitimate recipients except the leaving one. This phase is called rekeying, and should be performed each time a customer joins. The problem of developing efficient group key management protocols is difficult. The group key management domain is organized into multiple areas. Each area is a wireless LAN with an access router and many access points in Mobile IPv6 environment, and is managed by an AKD (Area Key Distributor).

2.10. COMPARISON OF INTER-AREA REKEYING ALGORITHMS FOR SECURE WIRELESS GROUP COMMUNICATIONS (REF: 18) YEAR: 2002

AUTHOR NAME: CHUN ZHANG, BRIAN DECLEENE

Many emerging mobile wireless applications depend upon secure group communications, in which data is encrypted and the group’s data encryption key is changed whenever a member joins or leaves the group’s session. Hierarchical approaches have recently been proposed to manage the distribution of the data encryption key in a scalable manner for fixed (non-mobile) networks. For secure wireless group communication is the impact of mobility on secure rekeying of group communication in a hierarchical key-distribution framework. The rekeying algorithms that preserve confidentiality as members move within the hierarchy. The algorithms differ in the locality of communication, the amount of messages needed to rekey the data key/key-encryption key, the key-encryption key rekey rate, and the number of key-encryption keys held by group members. Markov models to quantify the performance of the proposed algorithms The FEDRP and SR inter-area rekeying algorithms are superior under different circumstances. The number of group members becomes large, group key-management can become a significant overhead and a potential system bottleneck. Thus, scalable approaches towards group key-management, such as those proposed in the IETF group key-management. The partitioning of the group into areas may be done on either a physical or logical basis.

CHAPTER 3

EXISTING SYSTEM

The GKM protocols addressing rekeying over wired networks are Centralized and Decentralized and contributory schemes. Centralized schemes rely on centralized server known as Domain Key Distributor for generation and distribution of encryption keys.

Decentralized schemes are partition the groups into subgroups each managed by subgroup managers in order to equally distribute the key management tasks hence scalability. Contributory schemes are no explicit.

3.1 DEFINE IMMEDIATE REKEYING (IR)

Rekeying is changing a lock so that a different key may operate it. Rekeying is done when a lock owner may be concerned that unauthorized people have keys to the lock. The lock may be altered by a locksmith so that only new keys will work. Rekeying is the relatively simple process of changing the tumbler or wafer configuration of the lock so a new key will function while the old one will not. Rekeying is done without replacement of the entire lock.

3.2 DISADVANTAGES

Inefficient use of Keys and huge rekeying.

Lower Bandwidth efficiency

Requires More Storage

3.3 EXISTING SYSTEM ARCHITECURE

Figure: 3.3 system architecture

CHAPTER 4

PROPOSED SYSTEM

The multiple group services with minimized rekeying transmission overheads. Rekeying for multiple group services proposed to improve the key management performance in the presence of multi-moves participating in multi-group services.

In SMGKM the key management task is offloaded to the intermediate cluster managers called Area Key Distributors (AKD) which establish the necessary key management keys. SMGKM integrate our concept of session key distribution list (SKDL). The standard way to provide access control mechanism for secure multicast communication is by using a symmetric group key, known as Traffic Encryption Key (TEK), shared only by authorized group members.

Service Management is a customer-focused approach to delivering information technology. Service Management focuses on providing value to the customer and also on the customer relationship.

4.1 SESSION COMMUNICATION:

A session is a semi-permanent interactive information interchange, also known as a dialogue, a conversation or a meeting, between two or more communicating devices, or between a computer and user.

4.2 SESSION AUTHENTICATION:

User authentication authorizes human-to-machine interactions in operating systems and applications as well as both wired and wireless networks to enable access to networked and Internet-connected systems, applications and resources.

MESSAGE AUTHENTICATION CODE ALGORITHM

The message authentication code (often MAC) is a short piece of information used to authenticate a message and to provide integrity and authenticity assurances on the message, while authenticity assurances affirm the message’s origin.

A MAC algorithm, sometimes called a keyed (cryptographic) hash function (however, cryptographic hash function is only one of the possible ways to generate MACs), accepts as input a secret key and an arbitrary-length message to be authenticated, and outputs a MAC (sometimes known as a tag).

The MAC value protects both a message’s data integrity as well as its authenticity, by allowing verifiers (who also possess the secret key) to detect any changes to the message content.

ADVANTAGES

More Security

The key issue is to design a solution that has minimum impact on TCP/IP stacks.

Low-cost solutions that are easy to deploy and maintain and transparent in the TCP/IP stack.

4.1 PROPOSED SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE

MOBILE SUBSCRIBERS

Figure: 4.4 Architecture Design

CHAPTER 5

SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS

5.1 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS

• RAM : 2 GB

• Hard Disk : 40 GB

• Processor : i3

• Monitor : 15 VGA color

• Mouse : Logitech

5.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS

• Front End : JSP

• Back End : MySQL

• Operating System : Windows 7

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