In this chapter will review the terms of heritage shophouses in the study area. The theoretical study is to understand the aspects of conservation and interest to the public. In addition, this study will examine the efforts of the conservation of the old shop building to the identity of Klang and awareness to the community in dealing with the increasingly rapid development today. Exposure the observation in assessing the importance of the architectural heritage must be taken to prevent this from an old store building and wiped away from modernization.
Preservation and conservation of surfaces can create surroundings in harmony between the old and new buildings. In fact, it can create an approach that is very important in inheriting the history and civilization in the era of the building. According to the study, this goal can be achieved through and which should be examined, especially in the conservation and preservation of historic buildings in the study area.
2.2 Definitions of Urbanism
Urbanization is a process of transformation of rural areas into the city. The development of an urban population increase due to the change. Cities can be seen how people do their daily activities. In the Wikipedia Urbanism is the characteristic way of life of the city dwellers. According to Anthony (1990) in the form of Urbanism of the city and the process of forming the same all over the world and especially in the colonial period. When compared to how urbanization is the same as that exists today. Urbanism emphasizes the symbiotic relationship of material and space in urban, architectural, social, economic and cultural. All these aspects are part of the urbanization.
Urbanism existed in this country since before independence. Urbanization occurs when the area became a major point of running various activities. It is a way of life that can be seen in the context of the technology community, the interdependence between each other and fulfill the economic, social and general nature.
2.2.1 Effect of Urbanism In Colonial City.
Urbanism also affects society before the arrival of colonialism. According to Anthony D King (1990) publish in their article “The Urbanism, Colonial And The World Economy” of a city is also change in culture and aspects of physical the arrival of of the colonial city. The colonists brought a variety of patterns and culture to other countries to influence the conquered area. Thus the effect of the two categories kedatanagn colonial city that changed the life and culture of the local community and receive culture from the out.
i. Hetrogenatic city
Heterogenatic cities is a city that has affected communities in the city after the arrival of the colonists. They have mixed community affairs around offering to bring changes in culture and then to others. Hetrogenatic cities is a technical command of the local culture in abrasion and to shape the culture and society of the colonial mind developed this. Most of these occur in many areas such as in Asia, especially (Jakarta, Bangkok, Singapore, Manila, Saigon and Calcutta)
ii. Ortogenatic city
Meaning of ortogenatic is no change occurred in a city and society. Most people live in the area and engage in agricultural activities. Culture and environment remained unchanged and continue the heritage of its own.
A change in the an understanding of the relationship and change aspects of diversity exists in terms of administration, business, and technical facilities. According to Redfield And Malton Singer (1954) most of the world has changed the origins of the city inhabited by indigenous people. However, there are many cities that have changed from orthogenatic city to hetrogenatik city on this day. The change significantly in the transformation and reconstruction of the city.
2.2.2 The Aspect of Colonial City
According to Anthony D King (1990) there are 3 types the concept of colonial city that can be seen. Among them are the functions, organization and space.
The function is the first point to be concerned the motivacation for nature and colonization. The function of historical value affects the built environment, society and culture. Historical building awareness among the community either preserved or demolished.
Whether governmental organization and private parties play an important role in controlling the old building structure damages. The rapid development is also changing the structure of the building and affect the images of the building and the space environment. Those responsible must work together to deal this issue in order to avoid the historical building was abandoned.
Space form a new and unique area of historical buildings. The room gave a change in the landscape and demonstrate the quality of the scenery, and cultural functions.
2.2.3 Ideology of Urbanism
Urban design is closely related to the nature and activities performed by residents. Therefore, there is some ideology which emerged in one of the urban design. (Beckley R.M 1985):
i. Looking at the urban aesthetic rules.
ii. Review the ideal social environment.
iii. Review of the social aspects of the physical environment.
According to a principle of aesthetics can be seen at the time of renewal. Aesthetic environment gives meaning in a town with designs using adapted a painting discipline and creating a unique privilege of the building.
While aspects of the physical environment can have a positive impact on the social environment of a city. This can create a suitable physical environment. According to Rapoport, there are some three theories in identifying the theory of the physical environment which is:
A. Environmental determinism
The physical environment is a determining aspect of human behavior in the area.
B. Environmental possibilism
The physical environment affects human behavior, which is determined by other factors, especially cultural factors.
C. Environmental probabilism
Environmentally physical is to provide a variety of options and some options for the behavior, human who have a greater possibility happening than others.
Therefore the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior is very important. This can help identify design to be achieved in order to identify the impact on development patterns of human behavior.
2.3 The Aspect of the Urban Design on the City
The quality of the design is the main important to design and becoming the one of the criteria in the determining whether a project should be eligible for public. The guidance to form of the quality as work well.
A. Make a place
The building must give the criteria of the robustness aspect of the built heritage. to create an environment where everyone can access and benefits from the opportunity available to the society.
The connection of the road will give a good existing to the historical building. The connection between people and places by considering the needs of people to access.
C. Enrich the existing
New development should enrich the quality urban places. To encourage to response that arises from and complements. This applies every scale the region, the cities, the town, the neighborhood and the streets.
D. Mixed uses and form
The new convenient places, meet a variety of demands from the widest possible range of users, amenities and social group.
E. Make a connection
The place needs to be gotten and integrated physically and visually with the surrounding. The requirements to how to get around by walking, bicycle, transport and car.
2.3.1 Concept Urban Design of Conservation
There are a few of concept in study design.The concept of Urbanism in preserving the old building.
Building are the most pronounced elements of urban design, the shape and articulate space by forming the street walls of the city. The building design will create a sense of place.
B. Public space
A public space where people come together to enjoy the city and each other. It makes a high quality life in the city.
Streets is a connection between space and places. The defined their physical dimension and character. The pattern on the streets will define the city and the connection to the people.
The transport system is a connect parts of the cities the movement. They include the road, rail, bicycle and pedestrian networks, the balance of the various of transport that helps define the quality and character of the city.
Landscape is a green part of the city image. The landscape will define the character and beauty of the city and create the elements and space.
2.3.2 The Significant Characteristics of City Image
According to Kevin Lynch (1990) there are few characteristic influences to the city image. There are:
Prominent quality urban space that is easy to remember and understand. The visual strength of a city can give a sense of direction for the relationship. Urban areas can provide an image a convenient to read and provide insights as to the requirements of the route. The image must be affected by physical characteristics such as life activities and ways by local communities.
A lower course of the movement in the area and the variety of activities.
Involving diversity which involves the use of which can be noticed by people in the city. A wide of variety of facilities and activities that used in the provided space.
Determine the route to be used for a place. It involves an area which can be used, and cannot be used.
Involves the use of a place that aims to offer more selection and distinctive attraction.
F. Visual appropriateness
Visual suitability involving various forms of spaces in the city. Interpreting force placed on the environment.
Adjustments in function and design capabilities such as the development of new and old in urban areas.
The environment gives a good place to community. The function is mostly effected to pollution, communication and noise.
2.4 Definitions of Historical Building
According Micheal Ross (1996) any site comprising or comprising the remains of, any vehicle, vessel, vessel, aircraft, or other moveable structure or part thereof which neither constitutes nor forms part of any work which is a monument within any site comprising the remains of any such building, structure or work or of any cave or excavation.
According to Fielden (2003) historic building is a given us a sense of wonder and makes one to know more about their culture and people that produced it. It has architectural, historic, aesthetic, spiritual or symbolic value a part of our heritage. If it has survived the hazards about 100 years, it can called historic. The historic building has a remain in the local community to revealed by the study of its history. The structure and the material of the building must be studied the difference in aspect and quality building in all relevant matters.
According to Syed Zainol Abidin Idid (1995) defines that heritage is a symptom of of whether the effects of social, economic or abstract ideas alone. Through the past history of these symptoms will affect part given from the past as well. The old buildings have designs and architectural styles of various kinds. This makes the old shop building has its own aesthetic value, especially decorative and patterns found in old shophouses in the area.
According to the Department of National Heritage (2012) is defined as something worth being passed on to new generations. It covers the aspect of its customs, culture, buildings, archives and printed materials. United Nations Education In Particular, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines cultural heritage to include aspect.
The work of architecture, sculpture, monuments, elements or structures which include high historical value in terms of art and history. In Malaysia there is some old monument which is over a hundred years and is maintained until today they are Sultan Abdul Samad Building.
ii. A group of builders
A group of buildings in groups or alienated value architecture, homogeneity in the landscape.
The work of man or nature or both aspects of history, ethnology, anthropology.
(Resources: Jabatan Warisan Negara, Garis Panduan Pemuliharaan Bangunan Warisan, 2012 )
In addition, the unique shape also plays a role in the state and features that are around existing. Concentration of wider aspects such as the age of the building to preserve. Physical changing that can affect aspects of the impact of positive and creative in producing images that want to highlight.
Heritage has become a creating significant in term of preservation and conservation. It is a of selection places presented. It is a process of through mythology, ideology, and nationalism. Heritage are being increasing used in the marketing on aspect of products and the relevant context. Heritage has become an increasing significant in terms of preservation and conservation. It is a of selection places presented. It is a process of through mythology, ideology, and nationalism. Heritage are being increasingly used in the marketing on aspect of products and the relevant context. The heritage building must be selected to be little changing, in part of urban structure. The comodification of heritage is an impact of the capitalism system for building the unique environment.
2.4.1 Criteria of Historical Building
Aspect of the building is the main thing to know and describe the structure of the building. According Micheal Ross (1996) there are few types of criteria:
a) The building type
The original purpose for which the building was constructed, and the present use or it different.
b) The dated or aged
The building will include the aged that build. Besides that, to know the interaction with the other building. The criteria of the aged building, to provide the building are gazetted as a historical building.
c) The used of the building
The uses of the building and study the ability the building with the suitability of the building activities around. The type of activity that affect the local community to come to the shop houses. The placement of the building that give the impact to the surrounding area. Placement of the building is very important in producing an interesting sight. It can create an environment of harmony.
The detailed about the description of the exterior of the building.
e) The historic interest and attraction
Any respect with the exterior the building contributes the architectural or historical value. The physical environment that be an effect of the built heritage. The history of the building, especially the interested or its association with well known character or events.
In the order structure, cladding, decoration, and roof.This list description is important to describe the detail and the value of the historical building. It also describes the importance of the building to the local community.
2.4.2 Types the Architectural Characteristics
There have many types of architectural characteristics of a building in Malaysia, among of them is Art Deco, Sino Malay Palladian, Neo Classical, Romantik, Straits eclectic, and Palladian. The architectures that have a different among of them because there have their own specialty a part of the changing a long time ago. The following is the architectural characteristics that were introduced from previous ages
a) Sino Malay Palladian
The architectural style of the building sino Malay Palladin combines three types of ethnic Chinese, Malay and Palladin. It was built in the 19th century design environment is characterized by Chinese culture in terms of internal and sculptures. Ornately patterned cover buildings like Palladin in the architectural style of a traditional Malay house.
b) Neo classical
Starting in 1740 the style from architecture Barque and Barque. Architectural style shows a strong influence on the characteristic of a classic in terms of decoration, patterns, wall and so on.
Photo 2.1: Building Style Of Neo Classical
This architectural building style was first introduced in the 19th century. Most of the architecture is emulated by the pattern of a Gothic church, temples, Greek, and village of the British.
d) Dutch Style
Style Dutch is the earliest type of most commonly found in Melaka. The architecture of this building a commune in the 17th century. Many types of this building are built for the shop and town houses with the height one or two floors. The design of this building is not connected with the other building. This building structure using brick from Dutch and posture while the roof from wood.
Photo 2.2: Dutch style Old Chatered Bank in Ipoh
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