Essay: Aspects of conservation and Interest to the public

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  • Aspects of conservation and Interest to the public
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2.1 Introduction

In this chapter will review the terms of heritage shophouses in the study area. The theoretical study is to understand the aspects of conservation and interest to the public. In addition, this study will examine the efforts of the conservation of the old shop building to the identity of Klang and awareness to the community in dealing with the increasingly rapid development today. Exposure the observation in assessing the importance of the architectural heritage must be taken to prevent this from an old store building and wiped away from modernization.

Preservation and conservation of surfaces can create surroundings in harmony between the old and new buildings. In fact, it can create an approach that is very important in inheriting the history and civilization in the era of the building. According to the study, this goal can be achieved through and which should be examined, especially in the conservation and preservation of historic buildings in the study area.

2.2 Definitions of Urbanism

Urbanization is a process of transformation of rural areas into the city. The development of an urban population increase due to the change. Cities can be seen how people do their daily activities. In the Wikipedia Urbanism is the characteristic way of life of the city dwellers. According to Anthony (1990) in the form of Urbanism of the city and the process of forming the same all over the world and especially in the colonial period. When compared to how urbanization is the same as that exists today. Urbanism emphasizes the symbiotic relationship of material and space in urban, architectural, social, economic and cultural. All these aspects are part of the urbanization.

Urbanism existed in this country since before independence. Urbanization occurs when the area became a major point of running various activities. It is a way of life that can be seen in the context of the technology community, the interdependence between each other and fulfill the economic, social and general nature.

2.2.1 Effect of Urbanism In Colonial City.

Urbanism also affects society before the arrival of colonialism. According to Anthony D King (1990) publish in their article “The Urbanism, Colonial And The World Economy” of a city is also change in culture and aspects of physical the arrival of of the colonial city. The colonists brought a variety of patterns and culture to other countries to influence the conquered area. Thus the effect of the two categories kedatanagn colonial city that changed the life and culture of the local community and receive culture from the out.

i. Hetrogenatic city

Heterogenatic cities is a city that has affected communities in the city after the arrival of the colonists. They have mixed community affairs around offering to bring changes in culture and then to others. Hetrogenatic cities is a technical command of the local culture in abrasion and to shape the culture and society of the colonial mind developed this. Most of these occur in many areas such as in Asia, especially (Jakarta, Bangkok, Singapore, Manila, Saigon and Calcutta)

ii. Ortogenatic city

Meaning of ortogenatic is no change occurred in a city and society. Most people live in the area and engage in agricultural activities. Culture and environment remained unchanged and continue the heritage of its own.

A change in the an understanding of the relationship and change aspects of diversity exists in terms of administration, business, and technical facilities. According to Redfield And Malton Singer (1954) most of the world has changed the origins of the city inhabited by indigenous people. However, there are many cities that have changed from orthogenatic city to hetrogenatik city on this day. The change significantly in the transformation and reconstruction of the city.

2.2.2 The Aspect of Colonial City

According to Anthony D King (1990) there are 3 types the concept of colonial city that can be seen. Among them are the functions, organization and space.

i. Function

The function is the first point to be concerned the motivacation for nature and colonization. The function of historical value affects the built environment, society and culture. Historical building awareness among the community either preserved or demolished.

ii. Organization

Whether governmental organization and private parties play an important role in controlling the old building structure damages. The rapid development is also changing the structure of the building and affect the images of the building and the space environment. Those responsible must work together to deal this issue in order to avoid the historical building was abandoned.

iii. Space

Space form a new and unique area of historical buildings. The room gave a change in the landscape and demonstrate the quality of the scenery, and cultural functions.

2.2.3 Ideology of Urbanism

Urban design is closely related to the nature and activities performed by residents. Therefore, there is some ideology which emerged in one of the urban design. (Beckley R.M 1985):

i. Looking at the urban aesthetic rules.

ii. Review the ideal social environment.

iii. Review of the social aspects of the physical environment.

According to a principle of aesthetics can be seen at the time of renewal. Aesthetic environment gives meaning in a town with designs using adapted a painting discipline and creating a unique privilege of the building.

While aspects of the physical environment can have a positive impact on the social environment of a city. This can create a suitable physical environment. According to Rapoport, there are some three theories in identifying the theory of the physical environment which is:

A. Environmental determinism

The physical environment is a determining aspect of human behavior in the area.

B. Environmental possibilism

The physical environment affects human behavior, which is determined by other factors, especially cultural factors.

C. Environmental probabilism

Environmentally physical is to provide a variety of options and some options for the behavior, human who have a greater possibility happening than others.

Therefore the relationship between the physical environment and human behavior is very important. This can help identify design to be achieved in order to identify the impact on development patterns of human behavior.

2.3 The Aspect of the Urban Design on the City

The quality of the design is the main important to design and becoming the one of the criteria in the determining whether a project should be eligible for public. The guidance to form of the quality as work well.

A. Make a place

The building must give the criteria of the robustness aspect of the built heritage. to create an environment where everyone can access and benefits from the opportunity available to the society.

B. Legibility

The connection of the road will give a good existing to the historical building. The connection between people and places by considering the needs of people to access.

C. Enrich the existing

New development should enrich the quality urban places. To encourage to response that arises from and complements. This applies every scale the region, the cities, the town, the neighborhood and the streets.

D. Mixed uses and form

The new convenient places, meet a variety of demands from the widest possible range of users, amenities and social group.

E. Make a connection

The place needs to be gotten and integrated physically and visually with the surrounding. The requirements to how to get around by walking, bicycle, transport and car.

2.3.1 Concept Urban Design of Conservation

There are a few of concept in study design.The concept of Urbanism in preserving the old building.

A. Building

Building are the most pronounced elements of urban design, the shape and articulate space by forming the street walls of the city. The building design will create a sense of place.

B. Public space

A public space where people come together to enjoy the city and each other. It makes a high quality life in the city.

C. Street

Streets is a connection between space and places. The defined their physical dimension and character. The pattern on the streets will define the city and the connection to the people.

D. Transport

The transport system is a connect parts of the cities the movement. They include the road, rail, bicycle and pedestrian networks, the balance of the various of transport that helps define the quality and character of the city.

E. Landscape

Landscape is a green part of the city image. The landscape will define the character and beauty of the city and create the elements and space.

2.3.2 The Significant Characteristics of City Image

According to Kevin Lynch (1990) there are few characteristic influences to the city image. There are:

A. Legibility

Prominent quality urban space that is easy to remember and understand. The visual strength of a city can give a sense of direction for the relationship. Urban areas can provide an image a convenient to read and provide insights as to the requirements of the route. The image must be affected by physical characteristics such as life activities and ways by local communities.

B. Accessibility

A lower course of the movement in the area and the variety of activities.

C. Diversity

Involving diversity which involves the use of which can be noticed by people in the city. A wide of variety of facilities and activities that used in the provided space.

D. Permeability

Determine the route to be used for a place. It involves an area which can be used, and cannot be used.

E. Robustness

Involves the use of a place that aims to offer more selection and distinctive attraction.

F. Visual appropriateness

Visual suitability involving various forms of spaces in the city. Interpreting force placed on the environment.

G. Adaptability

Adjustments in function and design capabilities such as the development of new and old in urban areas.

H. Comfort

The environment gives a good place to community. The function is mostly effected to pollution, communication and noise.

2.4 Definitions of Historical Building

According Micheal Ross (1996) any site comprising or comprising the remains of, any vehicle, vessel, vessel, aircraft, or other moveable structure or part thereof which neither constitutes nor forms part of any work which is a monument within any site comprising the remains of any such building, structure or work or of any cave or excavation.

According to Fielden (2003) historic building is a given us a sense of wonder and makes one to know more about their culture and people that produced it. It has architectural, historic, aesthetic, spiritual or symbolic value a part of our heritage. If it has survived the hazards about 100 years, it can called historic. The historic building has a remain in the local community to revealed by the study of its history. The structure and the material of the building must be studied the difference in aspect and quality building in all relevant matters.

According to Syed Zainol Abidin Idid (1995) defines that heritage is a symptom of of whether the effects of social, economic or abstract ideas alone. Through the past history of these symptoms will affect part given from the past as well. The old buildings have designs and architectural styles of various kinds. This makes the old shop building has its own aesthetic value, especially decorative and patterns found in old shophouses in the area.

According to the Department of National Heritage (2012) is defined as something worth being passed on to new generations. It covers the aspect of its customs, culture, buildings, archives and printed materials. United Nations Education In Particular, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) defines cultural heritage to include aspect.

i. Monument

The work of architecture, sculpture, monuments, elements or structures which include high historical value in terms of art and history. In Malaysia there is some old monument which is over a hundred years and is maintained until today they are Sultan Abdul Samad Building.

ii. A group of builders

A group of buildings in groups or alienated value architecture, homogeneity in the landscape.

iii. Site

The work of man or nature or both aspects of history, ethnology, anthropology.

(Resources: Jabatan Warisan Negara, Garis Panduan Pemuliharaan Bangunan Warisan, 2012 )

In addition, the unique shape also plays a role in the state and features that are around existing. Concentration of wider aspects such as the age of the building to preserve. Physical changing that can affect aspects of the impact of positive and creative in producing images that want to highlight.

Heritage has become a creating significant in term of preservation and conservation. It is a of selection places presented. It is a process of through mythology, ideology, and nationalism. Heritage are being increasing used in the marketing on aspect of products and the relevant context. Heritage has become an increasing significant in terms of preservation and conservation. It is a of selection places presented. It is a process of through mythology, ideology, and nationalism. Heritage are being increasingly used in the marketing on aspect of products and the relevant context. The heritage building must be selected to be little changing, in part of urban structure. The comodification of heritage is an impact of the capitalism system for building the unique environment.

2.4.1 Criteria of Historical Building

Aspect of the building is the main thing to know and describe the structure of the building. According Micheal Ross (1996) there are few types of criteria:

a) The building type

The original purpose for which the building was constructed, and the present use or it different.

b) The dated or aged

The building will include the aged that build. Besides that, to know the interaction with the other building. The criteria of the aged building, to provide the building are gazetted as a historical building.

c) The used of the building

The uses of the building and study the ability the building with the suitability of the building activities around. The type of activity that affect the local community to come to the shop houses. The placement of the building that give the impact to the surrounding area. Placement of the building is very important in producing an interesting sight. It can create an environment of harmony.

d) Facade

The detailed about the description of the exterior of the building.

e) The historic interest and attraction

Any respect with the exterior the building contributes the architectural or historical value. The physical environment that be an effect of the built heritage. The history of the building, especially the interested or its association with well known character or events.

f) Materials

In the order structure, cladding, decoration, and roof.This list description is important to describe the detail and the value of the historical building. It also describes the importance of the building to the local community.

2.4.2 Types the Architectural Characteristics

There have many types of architectural characteristics of a building in Malaysia, among of them is Art Deco, Sino Malay Palladian, Neo Classical, Romantik, Straits eclectic, and Palladian. The architectures that have a different among of them because there have their own specialty a part of the changing a long time ago. The following is the architectural characteristics that were introduced from previous ages

a) Sino Malay Palladian

The architectural style of the building sino Malay Palladin combines three types of ethnic Chinese, Malay and Palladin. It was built in the 19th century design environment is characterized by Chinese culture in terms of internal and sculptures. Ornately patterned cover buildings like Palladin in the architectural style of a traditional Malay house.

b) Neo classical

Starting in 1740 the style from architecture Barque and Barque. Architectural style shows a strong influence on the characteristic of a classic in terms of decoration, patterns, wall and so on.

Photo 2.1: Building Style Of Neo Classical

c) Romantik

This architectural building style was first introduced in the 19th century. Most of the architecture is emulated by the pattern of a Gothic church, temples, Greek, and village of the British.

d) Dutch Style

Style Dutch is the earliest type of most commonly found in Melaka. The architecture of this building a commune in the 17th century. Many types of this building are built for the shop and town houses with the height one or two floors. The design of this building is not connected with the other building. This building structure using brick from Dutch and posture while the roof from wood.

Photo 2.2: Dutch style Old Chatered Bank in Ipoh

e) Straits Electic

An architectural style that shows the culture at the beginning of development in Malaysia in part of state in Pulau Pinang, Malcca and Selangor. The style of architecture is to feature a mix of Malay, Chinese and Europe. The main building is the façade structure of the using the wooden floors and the design is more to levels of the same height.

Photo 2.3: Straits eclectic style architecture

f) Art Deco

Architectural style arDecoco building that was classified to usmore decorativeve patterns and the building are found ithe erara of 1920 and 1930. More of the building are used more geometric shapes and the classic pattern.

Photo 2.4: Art Deco Style Architecture

g) Palladian

Architectural building introduces by Andrea Palladian 1518 until 1580. The style of the building widely build in England in the 18th century. The design is more to Renaissance style and the motifs that combine with romance Kuno architecture without creating of classic design

Photo 2.5: Palladian style

2.5 Definition Of Conservation And Preservation

Term conservation and sustainability, meant broad and diverse. According to Siti Nurlaiza Aaron (2010) care of a source of damage, altered without planning and destroyed. The word ‘source’ within the meaning of that paragraph includes aspects of nature and natural resources development. Meaning of natural resources, including water resources, soil, air, raw materials, flora and fauna. In the context of natural resource conservation activities include building architecture, history focused on the way the conservation of buildings and historical monuments. For the purposes of conservation, international bodies have been formulating and defining the more extensive and specific.

ICOMOS (International conservation of monuments and sites) is a conservation organization under UNESCO (United Nations Educational and Scientific organization) has been providing charters containing Standard Venice, Burra Charter, and the Charter of New Zealand. In the Burra Charter. (1981: article 1.4) conservation is defined as

“Any process in order to maintain control of an area of cultural significance. Among them is the conservation, repair, maintenance, and customization. These interests include aesthetic aspects, historical, or social for generations, now and going forward. An area that includes the site, an area, a building or group of buildings integrated with content relevant environment “.

In article 2, the charter also explains the purpose of maintenance

“The purpose of conservation is to be conserved and preserved the importance of culture, such as care the safety, building maintenance and future heritage.

Conservation purposes as described above is considered one policy in regard to all decisions will be made on building the country’s history. According to Ali Emran (1990) preservation and conservation of the architectural meaning process, maintain, refurbish and redevelop the existing historical building whether or missing.

According to Ali Emran (1990) preservation and conservation of the architectural meaning process, maintain, refurbish and redevelop the existing historical building whether or missing. According to Fielden (1982) defines conservation building:

“Action taken to prevent decay. It acts that embrace all prologue the life of cultural and natural heritage, the object being present to those who use and look at historic buildings with wonder the artistic and human messages that such building process ”

This definition makes it clear that conservation is more geared towards a more dynamic process and restored with a long and lean. It emphasizes the measures that need to be done to prevent the damage and decay. The process of conservation is to prolong the heritage buildings that can be experienced and enjoyed by future generations. The image changes again. As a community, we must care and preserved the building in the future, not necessarily as a landmark event. Maintenance building is a part in creating the image and identity of a building.

2.5.1 Concept of Building Conservation and Preservation

Conservation is an activity that repairs and re-building its of care. The concept of real conservation is historical evidence that can be documented as a reference nowadays. The originality the buildings are hard to find because there are significant changes over time. This can cause danger and damage the authenticity of the new material replacement element. According to the guidelines ICCROM (International Centre For Study On Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) there are four aspects to the preserve.

a) The originality in the history of the building materials.

The originality is an important aspect of building and main building structure to measure something. Construction materials are an important value for bringing an identity construction material on the history of the past. These include building material aspect of architectural composition and structure of the building. The originality such buildings include texture, color, appearance and properties of the materials used during construction of a building used recently.

b) The originality in the design of buildings.

The building has a history of its own in the current era of civilization ancient times. The structure still remains until today is the process of modernization and exchanges owner for the previous age. Thus the concept of authenticity is increasingly difficult to know the actual design and construction age. For conservation design aspects to be studied is the construction of the original structure, relationship building, and the environment in terms of architectural styles.

c) The originality in construction and craftsmanship work building history.

Each building has the authenticity of the construction work and craftsmanship. The arts should be preserved for conservation and repair to avoid damage. Pattern and art must be conserved to preserve the original shape of the building according to traditional techniques. This can create an atmosphere of creative and unique in the history of the original building.

Photos 2.6: The view before and after during maintenance works buildings oversea

d) The originality the layout of the historical building

The originality in the structure of its buildings must be preserved to see the heritage of the past. This can create an identity and the history of the area. Physical building researchers often studied by archaeologists in determining the building was built. If the building was known aspects of construction and reconstruction should be carried like a meeting with a specialist on historical research.

2.5.2 Criteria Either Identify Areas, Historical Buildings and Architecture to be Preserved

Building a long-building needs to be identified to determine the value and heritage.

A. The importance of history

Considerations of art history / where (sense of place). Whether building or group of buildings is related to a person or an organization. Also in terms of cultural, historic, economic, social or political.

B. The importance of architecture

• Consideration of the building in terms of architectural buildings or buildings not considered reflective of an architectural style or period is important in education.

• Maintaining the original design.

• The criteria of a delicate art in terms of design.

• Considerations a number of buildings in terms of architecture, old building can be maintained at its area.

• A number of old buildings that can be preserved in the city.

C. Important in the area

i. Consideration of placement.

• An important element in the local or city.

• Have contributed to the architecture of the road.

ii. Considered in term of culture.

The existence of economic activities and a strong traditional culture on the characteristics of a place.

2.5.3 Principles Of Conservation and Preservation

The context of the overall is to ensure that preservation efforts yield products that are in aspect of harmony with the surrounding area. By the definition conservation and conservation is the heart of the planning system. Principles of conservation of the features of ethical and aesthetic quality in carrying out conservation work. According by Siti Norhaliza Aaron (2010) between the ethical principles of conservation are:

i. Recording, documenting the situation, compile and historic buildings.

In a historic building research the main aspects to be studied is the background of the building. Thus the records that have been collected should be prepared to be documented. Through the process to obtain evidence documenting that history cannot be destroyed and replaced directly.

ii. Minimum interference in the structure again.

Conservation work to be carried out with minimal disruption minimized to prevent damage to the historic building structure.

iii. Honest and accurate approach in forming the building.

Conservation of old buildings is a method of careful and honest in structural repairs. Any changes should be made in trust to not ignore the structure of the destroyed or damaged. Therefore, physical changes should not cause any a mistaken.

iv. Corresponding to the adjacent building.

Conservation of buildings must be at the point of emphasis for avoiding the destruction of its structure corresponds between the original building. Corresponding of this principle may pose a harmonious landscape in terms of building materials, shapes, colors and structures of architectural styles.

v. Utilizing the knowledge and skills in the building’s original changes.

In research and restructuring of historical buildings reveal the technology in the field of building construction and engineering skills. This provides an opportunity for close of building materials used and the techniques used to repair the building structures.

vi. Collaboration between disciplines.

Collaboration with researchers can enhance their skills and efforts to improve the building. Expertise in the fields of archeology, history, science, biology, enginering and architecture can preserve certain aspects of the building, for the purposes of research.

2.5.4 Important of Conservation and Preservation

Conservation is the process of building an area maintenance to maintain the architectural, aesthetic value, and an original pattern. In addition, the work to ensure the maintenance of a place it is in its original condition and to prevent damage and obsolescence. Preservation of old buildings retains one of the area’s history as a resource for ensuring economic growth and physically as part of history in a place of its own. Therefore, conservation will have a positive impact on tourism development, but also produce a unique and historic atmosphere. According to A Ghafar Ahmad there are several historical development interests

i. Aspect of History

Each design of the building has its own value to create the aesthetically valuable and historic for future generations. Therefore the preservation, building will give a new effect for providing knowledge through its all the effect abandoned. The unique design provides extensive knowledge and create a harmonious ambience to the visitor.

Photos 2.7: The building that are preserved and conservation to create a historically and ambience and harmony.

ii. Aspect of Education

The existence ofthe remainss of old buildings give aesthetic value italso makese people feel the impact of colonialism and unique design. Other that that future generation can see and learn about construction techniques, structure and sources of influence. A little bit gives a new ideas in the design of building in the country. Among the examples that can provide lessons from history is that totally made horse fountain near the central park in 1897. The fountain was built to commemorate a Selangor state police inspector, Mr Steve Harper.

Photos 2.8: Horses fountain in the square to commemorate to the Inspector Steve Sir.

iii. Aspect Of Design

On this day development is more influenced by the pattern of modernization. Every feature and design made according the requirements. By the influence of cultures and religion create a difference of in terms the design of the buildings such as the culture and society of its own such as the Chinese, Malay, English, Indian, siamese and so on. The design techniques of different give a new approach and provide its own terms and identifiers it self.

Photos 2.9: Malay traditional building with a sculpture at the left and colonial buildings on the right that has the characteristics of creative design and responsiveness to local weather

In terms of architecture the colonial era, including Malay wooden houses is characterized by a unique design. Some of the buildings are still maintained and strong, even over 70 or 80 years. It can be found at Melaka, Terengganu, Selangor that have a great design based on the characteristic local architecture of Siam and Indonesia. Besides that, have a value of sculpture and high quality. Similarly, the British colonial buildings that have various characteristics foreign architectural designs that have been modified by the local weather condition are hot and humid. This colonial buildings can be categorized into four architectural designs.

i. Moorish (Bangunan Sultan Abdul Samad, the Railway Station and Masjid Jamek, Kuala Lumpur).

ii. Tudor (Building Club Of Royal Selangor, Kuala Lumpur and King Edward VII School, Taiping.

iii. Neo classical (St George Church, Georgetown and The Malay College Kuala Kangsar, Perak.

iv. Neo Gothic (Holy Rosary Catholic Church And St Mary Kuala Lumpur.

A. Aspect of Formation Of Mind

The building preservation and conservation are very important in the formation of young minds in the country, particularly to the appreciation of heritage and national treasure. The historic buildings are an asset that should be preserved and pass down to generation to generation. With various types of building, the young generation will know and appreciate and be sensitive to the historical development of the country. This will create a society that is sensitive to any demolition and destruction of historic buildings.

B. Aspect of Planner

The conservation buildings in Malaysia are being still new stage, but it is important to prioritized before vanishing heritage and national treasure brought modern development. Various steps can be done to rescue the buildings and monuments from demolition and destruction. The existing of the legal system such as Akta Bendapurba 1976, Akta Perancang Bandar Dan Desa 1976, Enakmen Johor No 7.1988 Dan Enakmen Melaka No 61988 should be tightened again so old building cannot be enacted or gazetted protected properly. To make any demolition and destruction without the consent of local authorities should be taken seriously. The local authorities must detail all the building that has the characteristic of the area to facilitate the works of preservation and conservation.

C. Psychological Aspect

The building can be identify of a country from the colonialism building. The building design symbolized the identify of the area. If the building is abandoned and damages will lose and no grandeur of nature to history. Even all the memories and nostalgia will evoke a sense of sadness, over the impact of existing in the area. Historical buildings give a special meaning to give and realize the aesthetic value of the memories that bring the spirit of nationalism.

D. Tourism Aspect

Regarding tourism, the interest of historical buildings to attract tourists either in the country and overseas. Historic buildings are mainly used in the construction and renovation of museums, galleries and tourist center.

2.5.5 Reason For Conservation And Preservation

It is important to know the reason for conservation. A necessary method must to consider in many aspects to compare the suitability to be conserved. According to Nahoum Cohen (2001) there are several type the reason for conservation. The conservation should be classified in the organized that have been determined. The only reasons, conservation in future has to be unique in terms of esthetic or historical value.

i. Definite The Physical Character Of The Urban Design

The region must be clearly in pyshically borders. The physical definition must be unique to the study area. So it can be identified and qualified to be subject to analysis.

ii. Locality and Sense of Place

The sense of the place is the important main aspect and the self evidence. The scenic view, historical associations, fusions with some define the issue, shade, comfort, falling to local importance and relation to the environment are the main factors.

iii. Internal Proportions and Relation

The sites to determine the relations aspect relations between structure and space, understanding of the environment, public and urban advantage. The analysis will be required to prove recognized and type of urban elements.

iv. Style And Design

The site must be a good level and reflect the historical architectural style and design of structures. The criteria that be looking is the common design factor that will apply to the site.

v. Construction Methods and Material

The materials are the main aspect in conservation. The originality aspect materials according to architectural specification apparently defines the historical building technology. All workmanship is authentic and undergone a valid process. It also has an overall quality which it related to the all sites.

2.6 Criteria For Listing Heritage Building

In carrying out conservation of the building there are some are related to architecture and the environment should be studied. According to Directorate Genenal Of Conservation Of Heritage Building there have three concepts need to be understood to determine the property listing as a heritage, there are;

i. Historically significant

Historic significance is the important of a person to the history, architecture, archeology, engineering or culture of a community, region or nation. In selecting building the following particular attention is.

a) Distinctive physical characteristic of design, construction of form, representing the work of a master.

b) Distinctive town planning features like squares, streets and avenue.

c) Potential to yield important such as an economic history such as railway station, and markets.

ii. Historic integrity

The historical integrity is a property historic identity, evidence of the physical characteristic that existed in the era of history. The history is also enabling a property to illustrate a significant aspect in the past period. Not only the historic of appearance, but it also retains physical materials, design features and aspect of construction from the period that was significant.

iii. Historical context

It is information about historic trends and properties grouped by an important theme in the history of a community, region, or nation, during the era of history. A knowledge of history content enables listers to understand a historic property as a product of its times.

According to the theory Micheal Ross (1996) found that theory in conserving buildings such as:

A. Archaeological

The archaeological is the preserved the historal motivate the building it has an available historic interest. Most people will look at and assess the impact of a history to serve as a guide and knowledge. The public who keep changing the historical building of the historical buildings until now. A legal should be tightened to prevent that from happening. At the best the occasion scholarly and even believe that the past can yield something for the present.

B. Artists

The important factor is similar. Uniqueness and arts can be seen in the structure of the building techniques and the way it is made. Art made make sense in terms of the preservation of architectural styles and influences that are mean to the community. There is a diversity of art forms such as building the design of Alladin, Victoria and so on.

C. Social

The environment as a meaningful part of the conservation process. It is very different part and takes influence in the conservation. The influence to development in an increasingly major factor conditions are not kept and maintained building. The influence of environmental change shape as weather and environmental factors that affect the care of the building.

2.7 Summary

Early exposure to the theoretical research to facilitate the efforts of preserving the old shop house. The preparedness in conducting this study that will not cause any problem in the future. This is to know the basic study to understand more deeply. This country needs more comprehensive to solve the issue of old Shophouses that are abandoned and dilapidated. The historic building is becoming one input and the product that can generate income countries in terms of the economy but also contribute to employment opportunities. Historical heritage must be preserved so that they can be identified and symbolic to the nation. The geographical condition is the position being a major problem in preserving area because they are many assumptions, such as the location, the people and many more. So the local authority should preserve the area that have the historic building to maintain the structure of the design from demolishing. Indirectly, this goal can be achieved and the results of the study can be used.

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