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Essay: Constructing school buildings

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  • Constructing school buildings
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The project is relocation of CAA elementary school which was reported to be the most populated elementary school in Metro Manila this years and previous year of 2014 to 2016. This situation resulted to overcrowding and lessen the opportunity of students to learn the proper way in terms of facilities. So, the project provided solution for classroom and other room shortage thru facilities sufficiency. It covers students form CAA’s SPED, kindergarten and first to sixth grade level students.

The new school provided the required spaces, ratio, area per place provided by the DepEd and other laws to design an effective, safety and comfortable building. The project is located at Barangay which is adjacent barangay of CAA since it is the nearest available and suitable lot for the project. The projects general objective is to improve the learning that students shall receive. The project also, helps to improve their health thru having areas for urban farming. It contributes on giving nutritious food for school base feeding program and canteen food as to lessen malnutrition rate among the students, improve their performance in school and to teach student the importance of growing their own foods.


4.2.1 General Site Context

Las Piñas City in located at southern part of the National Capital Region. It is bounded on the north by the Manila Bay, Northeast by the City of Parañaque, west by the City of Bacoor, Cavite, southeast by Muntinlupa City, and south by Imus, Cavite. The city is highly accessible to different city of Metro Manila, and areas form Southern Luzon. (CLUP Basic Profile, 2015 ). Las Piñas is compose of two districts that has total of 20 barangays and has total of approximately 3,298.60 hectares or 32.986square kilometers land area. It is characterized as flat lands having elevations 0 to 10 meters above mean sea level (amsl). It has river and marine ponds and groundwater that are characterized as saline (CLUP Basic Profile, 2015 ).

The Project is located in Barrio of Pamplona, Las Piñas City from CAA Elementary School which is located at the 8 Patola St, Las Piñas City. The lot is the nearest vacant space that is suitable to build school and highly accessible to students from CAA School. The area has a total of 22,697 square meters. It is reclassified as an institutional from its previous zoning category as open space.

Coordinates :

source: registry of deed, Las Piñas City


A. Geology and Soil

According to the Land Use Map of Las Piñas City the site belong to the area with Guadalupe Formation. is a horizontally bedded rock commonly referred to as ‘adobe’. Granular with tuffaceous materials and concretions. It is hard and compact when dry but sticky and plastic when wet. This type of soil is suited to planted rice with or without irrigation and It consists of well-laid rock formation of tuffaceous sandstone, tuffaceous siltstone and shale being the weakest member.(, 2018). In terms of its Physiography it belongs to Coastal Margin because the area is near the Manila Bay. The soil type is Guadalupe Clay.

B. Water:

The site and adjacent areas are getting its supply of water form Maynilad. Some waterway were also found near the site.

C. Topography:

The site and its adjacent lands belong to the group of areas that has 2- 10 meters of elevation and areas with 11-20 meters of elevation. The hilly portion is composed of sandstone, conglomerate, mudstone and stuff, and reaches a thickness of 2,000 meters. The Philippine Institute of Volcanology and Seismology (PHIVOLCS) found no Faultline to cross the area. The nearest fault is the creeping fault segment of the Valley Faultline in the Muntinlupa-San Pedro-Biñan Area

D. Climate

According to the Modified Coronas Classification by Philippine Atmospheric, Geophysical and Astronomical Services Administration (PAGASA), Las Piñas climate is Type 1 which has two seasons: : DRY from November to April and WET from May to October. From the World weather Online(, 2018) Following are averages fields displayed for Las Pinas Monthly Yearly averages:

• Max, Min and Average Temperature(°C/°F)

• Visibility (km or miles)

• Pressure (mb or inches)

• Cloud (%)

• Humidity (%)

• Max and Avg Wind Speed (km/h, mph, knots or m/s)

• Avg Wind Gust (km/h, mph, knots or m/s)

• Rain Days

• Thunder Days

• Sunny Days

• Sun hour

• Snow amount (cm)

• Rain amount (mm or inches)

• UV Index

E. Ecology

The site is covered vegetative areas or a waterway and barangay boundary. The adjacent areas are belonging to areas with waterway such as Naga Creek, and covered with structure.

F. Man Made structures:

Existing buildings

The site is an open space and has only trees, plants and has structure. The site in bounded on the North byon the South by Cittadella Executive Village, on the West by Casimiro Townhomes 3, and on the east by Cittadella Executive Village. The site is accessible through Avelino street and St Joseph Ave. which is connected to Naga Road. The area where the site is located has Meralco power supply and Maynilad for water distribution. The area has also telephone and cable lines such as, PLDT, SKY, Cable Link, globe , etc. The site has no fences or walls on its perimeter.

G. Sensory qualities:

The site is surrounded mostly by residential structures which usually has one to three floor level that makes area more expose to sun light. The area has low rate of noise because the area is almost surrounded by the residential areas.


A. Resident and using population: City of Las Piñas

growth rate 1.28

Population per Barangay

Barangay Land Area (hectares) Population per hectare Rank Population (2015) 2016 2017 2018

District 1

CAA-B.F. International 216.65 322 4 77264 78253 79255 81296

Daniel Fajardo (Poblacion) 30.77 374 2 10425 10558 10694 10969

Elias Aldana (Cutcut) 33.36 333 3 10402 10535 10670 10945

Ilaya 13.32 460 1 6055 6133 6211 6371

Manuyo Uno 74.85 183 8 15405 15602 15802 16209

Manuyo Dos 187.89 175 9 37007 37481 37960 38938

Pamplona Uno 72.64 246 7 18577 18815 19056 19547

Pamplona Tres 235.31 138 11 35612 36068 36529 37471

Pulanglupa Uno 143.56 248 6 31401 31803 32210 33040

Pulanglupa Dos 195.4 158 10 33171 33596 34026 34902

Zapote 69.68 298 5 20771 21037 21306 21855

District II

Almanza Uno 247.44 125 7 30405 30794 31188 31992

Almanza Dos 507.01 74 8 37595 38076 38564 39557

Pamplona Dos 112.16 82 9 10765 10903 11042 11327

Pilar Village 204.09 149 5 31459 31862 32269 33101

Talon Uno 209.62 150 4 34821 35267 35718 36638

Talon Dos 391.61 117 6 53091 53771 54459 55862

Talon Tres 115.22 225 3 27874 28231 28592 29329

Talon Cuatro 70.77 284 1 21420 21694 21972 22538

Talon Singko 137.25 281 2 45374 45955 46543 47742

Total 3,2
68.60 169 588894 596432 604066 619629

588894 596432 604066 619629

Population per age:

Target age: 4-14 year of age (elementary student )

Social structure, ties and institutions

Education: (CLUP Records, 2015)

According to the CLUP, there are low completion rate, participation rate, in elementary level and the city has poor student performance as indicated by low grade results of National Achievement Tests conducted in the last three consecutive years and one reason of it is insufficient number of public elementary school classrooms and facilities such as computer room and library room. Because of these problems, the goals and objective are made. For the goal, education in elementary school along with other levels has to be improved and the city has to meet the universal access to primary education by 2015 while with objectives, quality education and facilities in elementary along with other levels shall provide quality education and facilities. Also, public awareness and understanding of the Filipino cultural heritage shall be promoted.


Program/Project Description Objective Location Beneficiaries Offices Involved

Pre-School Development Program Enhance preschools such as kindergarten and preparatory school To help children from low-income families gain access to preschool facilities Elem. Schools

Children from 5 to 6 yrs. old residing in Las Piñas DepEd, Office of the City Engineer

Educational Services and Facilities Modernization Program Provision of computers in all elementary and high schools To improve students’ computer literacy All elementary and high schools students Office of the Mayor, City Budget Office, DepEd

Educational Services and Facilities Modernization Program Construction of additional classrooms To meet ideal classroom – student ratio to minimize overcrowding Schools, all levels where there is shortage Students and teachers Office of the City Engineer, Office of the Mayor, City Budget Office

Provision of computers in all elementary and high schools To improve students’ computer literacy All elementary and high schools students Office of the Mayor, City Budget Office, DepEd


Focal Group Strategy

Children and Youth Encourage out-of-school youths to pursue their education

Economic status

The city economic development has five sections: Trade and Industry, Philippines investment climate and Metro Manila business positively correlate with urban economics of Las Piñas City; Labor, Employment and Household Income, PESO the Public Employment Service Office assist the city manage the unemployed population to introduce them to employers. The following are the occupational groups: Professionals, Technicians and associate professionals, Clerks, Service workers and market sales workers, Operators and assemblers, Laborers and unskilled workers, and Special occupations. Next is Urban Agriculture, the city still endowed with farming, fishing, livestock and agro-industrial areas. The Department of Agriculture (DA) has deputized personnel to the City to introduce and maintain operations relative to people’s farm systems. (CLUP,2015). City Business Permit and Licensing System, Tourism Development, Las Piñas had a rich history, especially during the 1896 Revolution. One of those is Bamboo Organ. Tourist destinations include the reconstructed Catholic Church at Moonwalk Subdivision, the P. Diego Cera Bridge, the Las Piñas Bridge, the Old District Hospital and the salt beds along the coastal areas.

B. Site values, rights and restraints

The site is reclassified as institution by the municipality. The site is part of Pulang Lupa II which is under district 1 of Las Piñas City.

C. Site Character and Images

The site area is covered with plants and lawn. It is bounded my mostly residential areas. The area has no any structure on it. It not being used mostly because not develop. The has plain features. So for the project, the site was given a new identity as new school which provides the proper facilities and additional area to produce.


The data and information provided by different sources such as the CLUP and websites, provided answer and clarification with value of the site, its availability, ecological and geological data, hazards, climate, weather, its characteristics of the site. It gave the researcher the strength and weakness of the site, its potentials and the regulations of the areas.

The site allocated areas for buildings such as administration, canteen, classroom facilities and activity rooms and some of the area for open spaces for outdoor activities and maintain the vegetation areas.

The impact of the new school is the improvement of student’s performance and development of their cognitive ability and having high exam passing rate, because of sufficiency of facilities. Each student by that time is able to access different learning facilities and equally experience the activities with right amount of time as prescribe by the DepEd. The students also will have strong body and mind because of increasing the source of healthy yet economical way of producing nutritious food. The dropout rate will be lessened as the children become stronger and receive proper amount of nutrient. The project will also serve as a model of a school nurturing its students through well designed facilities with the combination of having an urban farm. For the negative impact, the student might find it difficult at first because or transferring and the rate of vehicles accessing the area will increase because the students would usually have service commonly by tricycle, bicycle, or van.



1 student- 1st to 6th grade level a perosn who attends educational institution. usually from 7-13 years of age. he/she studies, reads, particitpate on activites,

also he/she have time to eat and drink during recess. classroom, and clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room

2 sped. student who is special person with disability a person who need special educational learning process because of having severe difficluties on learning, having physical disabilities or has behavioral problems. also they have time to eat and drink during recess classroom, and clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room

3 kindergarten students a person who needs preschool approach, which includes, practical activities, dancing, singing, and drawing. also they have time to eat and drink during recess classroom, clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room

4 teacher for sped person who educates the sped students and has knowledge on dealing with their needs and ways to fully understand the activities and lessons. classroom, and clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room, office, faculty

5 teacher for kindergarten early chilhood educator instructing children usually 2 to 6 years old. classroom, and clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room, office, faculty

6 teacher for student- 1st to 6th grade level an educator for elementary students. he/she gives instruction and guide the children with academics, sports, home economics, basics of growing plant computer, values education, arts and music. classroom, and clinic, guidance, library, canteen, outdoor and indoor activity room, office, faculty

7 administrative and service

8 principal a person responsible for the superintendent school/s succe
ssful operation. this person is in charge for educational leadership and supervising the school principal office/conference room

9 guidance councilor a person that guides the students and parents to help the students academic, attitude, behavior and social growth. guidance office, conference room/meeting room

10 admin staff do administrative works such as distributing information, answering phone, checking files, book keeping, recording files ,etc. office

11 librarian who manage the library and maintening the organization of the books and othyer reading materials. library

12 secretary persn who assist the principals office

13 nurse usually attends to children health monitoring. clinic

14 doctor person who keeps the health care in the school to meet the needs of the students. clinic

15 canteen personnels person who manage the canteen and supervise the cooking supply, and preparation. canteen, school farm areas

16 canteen staff prepares food, do inventory, cook and manage the supply. canteen, school farm areas

17 maintenance and utility officer a person in charge for operational, maintening, and identifies need for repairs and report it for immediate action and reporting untowards occurences. utility area, office,janitor closet, storage areas

18 custodian engineer in charge of maintening the school facilities and supervising duties to accomplish different tasks efficiently. utility area, office,janitor closet, storage areas

19 security officer who maintains the safety and security of the school and calls for assistance whenever there are emergencies. gates, and different areas

20 driver assisting the school personnels and students when travelling to other place office

21 GARDENER takes care of vegetations and farm. monitors the equipments and supply, and the status of the areas garden,school ground, farm, canteen, maintenance and utility areas

22 PARENTS sends the students to school and fetch them after. also, they attend meetings such as pta, with principal or guidance coucilor and teacher. office, waiting area, school ground

The student commonly from families who belongs to poverty line and lower class of the society. The space will also provide for the user like other utilities, parking space, comfort rooms, and vestibule.


The building type is school. A school has a compose of educational facilities such as buildings, grounds, and the others. As mentioned in Dep Ed manual, Educational facilities provides space of educational activities and opening a new one must offer a safe, secured and satisfies the required spaces that also support the teaching and learning process and the improvement of quality education. The site’s vulnerability to various hazards must be assessed.

The following are basic principles of educational facilities:

• Maximizing of collaboration in school planning design by consultation, design and implementation of the project, including a wide spectrum of community’s representatives.

• anticipating facility problems during the planning phase such as maintenance and operations of facilities by building a proactive facility management program.

• Planning schools as a neighborhood-scaled community learning centers.

Source: DepEd Educational Facilities Manual

The planning considers the ergonomics such as thermal comfort, visual comfort, acoustical comfort, color, and safety such as and anthropometric such as types of Part-Body Measurements, the static measurements and Dynamic Measurements. It is for the designing and sizing up the facilities.

Historical Perspective of the Philippine Educational System

The educational system in the Philippines is developed through several stages from pre-spanish period up to the present. During the this era, the learning process was devoid, unstructured and informal. Vocational were more of the priority by the parents and in every tribe than the academe. When the time of Spanish, the system underwent to big changes. They had Spanish missionaries replacing the tribal tutors and become religion oriented. Decree of 1863 provided the establishment of one primary school for boys and girls every town regulated by the municipal government. The education is free but the Spanish teaching was compulsory. It was controlled and suppressed.

(, 2018).

When American defeated the Spain. the Malolos Constitution established a system of free and compulsory elementary education. There was free public-school system. As per the instruction of President McKinley, people were trained for the duties for citizenship and a vocation was being enforced through the Taft commission.

In 1901, the Philippine Commission by virtue of Act No. 74 made a highly centralized public-school system. 600 Thomasites from the U.S.A were sent to the Philippines because of a heavy shortage of teachers. In 1942, Japanese took over and educational policies were embodied in Military Order No. 2. Tagalog language, History, and Character Education was reserved for Filipinos, love for work and dignity of labor was emphasize.

The Congressional Commission on Education (EDCOM), Commission on Higher Education (CHED), and the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) known as DEC’s the trifocal education system, mandate elementary, secondary and nonformal education with culture and sports as basic education.

2001 of August the Republic Act 9155 changed (DECS) to the Department of Education (DepEd) and redefining the role of field offices (regional offices, division offices, district offices and schools). This RA 9155 covered the framework to strengthens the leadership roles of school head, and transparency and local accountability of school-based management. The basic education is providing for the school age population and young adults with skills, knowledge, and values to become caring, self-reliant, productive and patriotic citizens. (, 2018)



FROM TAX MAPPING of Las Piñas City.

Population of CAA students

Tabulation OF Current CAA classroom and the room needed to be added to follow the ratio:



SPED 42 21 63 8 1 5 8 4 3

KINDER 784 767 1551 48 24 25 51 26 2

I 744 726 1470 26 27 27 42 21 14

II 680 693 1373 25 27 39 20

III 780 792 1572 30 10 36 44 22 12

IV 842 786 1628 28 9 41 46 23 14

V 794 838 1632 25 26 41 40 20 14

VI 836 791 1627 25 42 40 20

TOTAL 5502 5414 10916 215 77 244 310 156 59

RATIO: class room, activity rooms, and administrative spaces



CAA SCHOOL Garden School ground

Façade Corridor

Classroom Administration





14 Glass Jalousie Blades on a Shutter Type window

holder (Jaloplus) w/ fixed clear glass transoms on 50x150mm concrete jambs


2 Panel Type Door

(swing-out) with lever type lockset and Fixed Glass Transom on 50x150mm concrete jambs/frames.A





Analysis and synthesis:

The data presented shows the number of students from the CAA school did not met the ratios required by the DepEd. Ii has 59 classroom shortages. The Clinic has small area to accommodate the number of students and so with the canteen. The waiting area for the parents are not enough to accommodate them. The school has small vegetation and garden areas while the waste handling area is not properly maintained. Also, the school has no recycling area to separate garbage from wastes that can still be process such as papers, can, and bottle. The entrance and exit are not connected to a large waiting area for parents/guardians making it crowded upon entering and leaving the school premises. It also affects the road because of people outside the gate. The large open space in the middle of the school is made of concrete that increases the heat gain within the school ground. With this analysis, the results and observation showed that the CAA Elementary School needs new educational facilities to accommodate the number of students

With the orientation, the school building follows the proper orientation and applies passive cooling. The canteen has enough space for kitchen an area to distribute tray but has no area for children who want to eat inside. The administration is located near the entrances that makes it easy to be found and accommodate visitors and other people. The building is in a corridor type which creates a large area in the middle that serves as evacuation and large school activities. The area serves large population of children from CAA and some from nearby barangay.

The survey showed that majority of the respondents were form NCR WITH 97%, greater number also do not have knowledge of the CAA school problem with overcrowding but has greater percentage of favoring that school have impacts on the students learning. Its graphs manifested that majority of the respondents wants a complete facilities with urban farming, and good air quality. The survey showed that urban farming will help to lessen the rate of malnourished children with 88% and that it will increase the attendance and improve the students’ performance. Lastly, the survey showed that the growing of food will influence the community to welcome the idea of planting even with a small space they have. Finally, the respondents with 96% agreed to the building of new school for to solve the shortage of facilities.

After analysis the data the researcher therefore conclude that CAA Elementary School shall be relocated to a new location in which facilities are complete so that quality of education will improve.






Design Concept


Well-designed structure leads to efficiency of circulation, accessibility, and effectivity of space programming and results to improvement of performance and maintaining productivity. The problem with shortage of facilities and malnutrition are the cause of the slow growth of learning. As education is a fuel of success, these problems must be solved. The design aims to improve the quality of education through providing the required spaces, such as the classrooms, activity outdoor and indoor, laboratory, clinic, library; and adding urban farming that will contribute to the food supply of the school for providing healthy meals. This solution is to support the students who experience shortage of facilities and children with malnourished body

The solution of providing new facilities will not only solve todays need for quality of education but also will greatly affects the lives of each individuals to grow and become a productive and helping citizen of the nation.

Architectural concept

The concept followed the standard design provided by the Depart of Education as reflecting the image of a public school. It used corridor type layout to provide connected buildings having central open space and easy to access facilities.



The School is a structure that serves large number of children and through proper planning of rooms and different areas it will provide efficient layout for the productivity of the users.


The facilities must accommodate all types of users especially the school offers a SPED program. Providing this to plan makes the areas safe and increase connectivity.


Aesthetics help to make the area for desirable for the users and helps them to be focused on what they do. Also, it reflects the culture and function of the building


Proper orientation results to lesser heat gain, maximize wind and light, economical and a factor to make the building to be well-maintained for a long run.


The areas must be easily be located for ease of movements, finding direction and especially in case of emergency. Signages must the understandable and corridors, hallways must be clear of obstruction.

Urban farming

Increasing the area and spaces for growing food requires lots of consideration to maintain the plants in good condition, proper monitoring of insects that might affect the plants’ growth and materials needed. It provided larger amount of food than a usually school garden produced.


“Architecture solves today’s problem and impact tomorrows success”

Solving current problems through architecture provides todays’ better living and eventually results to greater development and contributes to future’s achievement.

Definition of terms:

1.School mapping

It is tool for essential planning in terms of spatial and demographic dimensions according to educational planning process

2. Tuffaceous

a type of a fragmental rock that consist of smaller kinds of volcanic detritus, a ash or cinder, which is usually more or less stratified.


Public Employment Service Office. It is a non-fee charging multi-employment service facility to the pursuant of to Republic Act No. 8759. It is to carry out full employment and equality of employment opportunities.

4. Ergonomics

It is the study aims to have safe, comfortable and productive workspaces through bringing the abilities and limitations of human into a workspace such as someone’s strength, skill, speed, body, and sensory abilities.

5. Anthropometrics

It is the study of measurement of the human individual. It is to understand

physical variation. It involves systematical measurement of the human body, such as dimensional descriptors of body size and shape.

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