Essay: GLOBAL CULTURE KENYA

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  • GLOBAL CULTURE KENYA
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Hello, welcome to Kenya.
Haujambo! Nawakaribisha Kenya!
This entrepreneur’s guide that is created to help you understand Kenya and the Kenyan people better. Kenya is a big African country that has a lot of surprises which few people know about. Like any other country, Kenya has its ups and downs, although the bad outweighs the good. Through this guide, you and your family will learn a lot about this beautiful country. It will help you and your family settle in easier and give you a lot of knowledge to help you understand the culture and lifestyle of Kenya. What you will find in the guide:
‘ Information about Kenya, such as the history, geography, economy, the climate and the people themselves.
‘ Practical tips in the guide.
‘ Changing environment on a personal level, through housing, health, education and sports.
‘ Information about the traffic in Kenya and some important rules that govern the country.
‘ On the company level, you’ll see information about the client level and a profile of a successful salesperson.
We hope that you and your family will have a pleasant stay in Kenya and that this guide will support you to know and understand Kenya. We also wish you a successful business and social experience, in this new environment that has a lot to offer.
Yours sincerely,
Tom Kuiper,
1. The country, Kenya.
‘ Official languages: English and Swahili
‘ Capital city is Nairobi
‘ Total surface area is 580 367 km’?? Estimated population: 45,941,977,
‘ Currency: Kenyan shilling (KES)
‘ Time zone: +3
Kenya is located in East Africa, with a coastline that lies along on the Indian Ocean (Worldfactbook, 2015). The land is approximately 14 times larger than the Netherlands, and has a surface area of 580.000km2. It encompasses savannah, lake-lands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, mountain highlands and abundant wildlife such as lions, elephants and rhinos. Kenya has the second highest mountain in Africa, called Mt. Kenya. It is almost 5200 meters high. The high areas in Kenya are the best areas in Africa to farm, due to the ever ready fertile soil and favourable climate. The estimated population is 45,941,977, which would make this the 30th largest country in the world in terms of population numbers alone. (UN, 2015). It is interesting to consider the many varied groups that make up the population of Kenya, which includes: Kikuyu 22%, 14% Luhya, Luo 13%, Kalenjin 12%, Kamba 11%, Kisii 6%, Meru 6%, other African 15% non-African (Asian, European, and Arab) 1%. These people speak one of the two official languages in Kenya: Kiswahili and English (BBC, 2015). Kenya has several stunning nature and wildlife parks such as, Aberdare National Park, Amboseli National Park, Nairobi National Park, amongst others. Tourism is therefore of enormous importance for the economy of Kenya. But there is also another side of the tourism industry, as traditional nations come under pressure and the nature in the national parks has severely been impacted by the large numbers of visitors. 1.1 History of Kenya
The history of Kenya is rich and full of interesting events. Historical data and unique excavations show that there were inhabitants 20 million years ago. Pre-historic man (world, 2015). The people lived during the Pleistocene period in the fertile valleys of the country. Around 3000-1500 BC, Nilotes of the Nile and the Cushites from Northern Ethiopia migrated to Kenya, followed by the Bantu-speaking cattle herders. This population is ultimately responsible for the dissemination of the Swahili culture (Nathan, 2015).
Kenya also has a rich colonial history. The Portuguese were the first who travelled to this country. Vasco da Gama visited Kenya as early as the year 1498. The Portuguese had control over the eastern part of the country. They attacked Mombasa and created a fort here in the year 1593. Until the arrival of the Arabs, the Portuguese ruled here and had a flourishing trade colony. In 1730 the Omani Arabs took control of the Kenyan coast. The Arabs ruled only the coast and at this time the slave trade really got going and clove plantations were built.
By the end of the nineteenth century, the country was a colony of the British Empire. The Mau Mau uprising, which lasted from 1952 to 1960 was one of the greatest events in the history of Kenya. It was an uprising of the Kikuyu rebels against British occupation. During this period the state of emergency was declared and there were many people killed by violence. Eventually, many discussions that led to the end of the Mau Mau as military group. The country received its independence on December 12 in the year 1963. The first government of the country was formed by Jomo Kenyatta and his party, the Kenya African National Union. The present at this moment, President Mwai Kibaki and Prime Minister Raila Odinga (Ominde, 2015).
1.2 Geography and economy of Kenya
Kenya lies on the equator. It is bordered on the north by Sudan and Ethiopia and Uganda in the west. Somalia and the Indian Ocean forms the eastern border of Kenya and the southern border. The Kenyan coast is a low-lying area, which is extremely fertile. It has a coral reef and bordered by a dry coastal plain with thorny bushes and savannah. In general, one can say that the country stretching from sea level in the east to the deserts in the north. The landscape changes gradually starting in the low-lying coastal areas and ending in the Kenyan highlands (Ominde, 2015).
The highest point of the country is Mount Kenya with a height of 5199 meters. The greatest feature of Kenya is the Great Rift Valley, located in the western and central part of the country. The valley essentially shared the Kenyan highlands half. The highlands have a cool climate and are known for their fertile soil. It is one of the most important agricultural areas of the country. There are a large number of lakes and rivers in Kenya, which form an important part of the geography of Kenya. In the northern part of the country Lake Turkana is located. On the western part of the country Lake Victoria is located. Other large lakes of the country are Lake Naivasha and Lake Nakuru. The Tana and Athi rivers flow in the south-eastern part of the country, while Nzoia, Yala and Gori flow across the country and end up in Lake Victoria. Another major river of significance is the Ewaso Ngiro running through the north-eastern part of the country. In the west some of the rainforests, including Kakamega Forest and Mau Forest (Asaddi, 2015).
Economy
The economy of Kenya is more modern than that of the other East African countries. About 75% of the workforce in 2013 was employed in agriculture; the contribution of this sector to the gross national product, however was only 29.3%. The vast majority of the people of Kenya live in an area with moderate to good arable land (20% of the total surface). However, the rural population lives nearly half the subsistence level. Also, agriculture is the main source of foreign currency, as half of exports consist of agricultural products, especially coffee and tea, followed by the fast-growing tourism (Ominde, 2015).
1.3 The Kenya people and climate
Kenya is a country with many people and ethnic groups. The population is not exactly a unity. In total there are more than forty different peoples with their own culture, their own languages and their own society. They are divided into three language groups, the Cushites, Nilotes and the Bantu. Language within a language group are related to each other as Dutch is related to German and French as it is akin to the Spanish. Most nations also stay entitled to a certain piece of the Kenyan territory. By law, every Kenyan has the right to settle anywhere in the country. In practice, this is much more difficult. The Maasai people live in the south of the country and they are the most famous tribe of Kenya. It is still a pastoral community and are proud of their ancient traditions. Cattle are their most pride and joy, as they are considered valuable in their culture and traditions. The coastal residents have great difficulty, in that Kenyans from the inland areas settle on the coast to seek employment in tourism (Travel, 2014).
Kenya boasts one of the best climates on the continent. It is comfortable and pleasant during the day, with variations in temperature due to altitude and terrain. Temperature, precipitation and humidity vary greatly in different parts of Kenya. There are four zones with more or less the same climate.
The undulating plateau in Western Kenya is generally very warm and with enough humidity. Rain falls usually fall during some months in the year. There are short and long rains. In April the most rain falls, up to 200 mm; in January, the least rain falls, about 40 mm. The minimum temperatures are between 14 and 18??C and the maximum temperatures between 30 and 34??C. Further west near Lake Victoria, there is a tropical climate with
average temperatures of 18 till 30??C, in this environment are the probability of heavy tropical rains.
The Central Highlands and the Rift Valley have the most pleasant temperatures, although here there are great differences can be observed. In the lowest parts of the Rift Valley is quite barren and the on the Mount of Kenya you can see snow. Rainfall varies from 20 mm to 200 mm in July in April and falls mainly in the periods March till May (long rains) and October to December (short rains). In the coastal region the temperature remains stable, and will increase this to +/- 30C, it is always very humid. There falls in this area up to 1250 mm of rain per year.
1.4 Some fun facts about Kenya.
‘ Kenya is 17 times bigger than the Netherlands.
‘ After coffee, Kenya’s biggest income generator is tourism.
‘ Kenyans drive on the left-hand side of the road.
‘ Some Kenyans usually prefer drinking their beer warm.
‘ Nairobi, the capital city, has been nicknamed: Nairoberry.
‘ Some of the oldest known paleontological records of man’s history have been found in Kenya.
‘ Most Kenyans are either very poor or very rich. Very few can be classified as middle class.
‘ Before marriage, Kenyans still pay a dowry to the bride’s family, which starts at 10 cows or even an agreed-upon amount of money and gifts.
‘ The men of Kenya are allowed to have more than one wife.
‘ There are more than 40 tribes in Kenya.
‘ Because of very active missionaries, a large part of the population is now Christian.
‘ Kenyan environmentalist, Professor Maathai won the Nobel Peace Prize in 2004. She was the first African woman to do so.
‘ Finally, if you’re a vegetarian it will be get hard for you, Kenyans are real carnivores, there is meat in almost all dishes.
2. Life in Kenya
Life in Kenya is totally different than in the Netherlands (TANFORD, 2013). In Kenya the day being classified differently, you can do many different things than you can do in the Netherlands (Numbeo, 2015). In this chapter of the guide you find a lot of information for your family; housing, education and health. You will also find descriptions about the food in Kenya, the transport you can use to go to school, work or just to travel about the country. At least you will find a map with information about the sports that you can practice and for you wife and children, shopping malls and nature parks that you and your family can visit. (Specht E. u., 2015).
2.1 Housing
When you have found a place to settle in Kenya, you can make a choice to either rent or buy a house. There is a table with prices in it for renting/buying a house. This table is based on various options with suggestions of certain cities, starting with the most popular, as well as information about the costs. First of all I’ll give you the top 2 of cities of Kenya, and after that you will find the prices of housing. (Numbeo, 2015).
1. Nairobi
Nairobi is the capital city of Kenya, located in the south of the country. The city is 1,661 meters high above sea level. The city owes its name to Masai Ewaso Nyirobi, which means ‘cool waters’. The centre is modern with large international hotels, shopping malls, modern office buildings, government offices amongst others. The population now stands at about 2 million inhabitants.
2. Mombasa
Mombasa is the second largest city in Kenya. This port is located in the extreme south-eastern part of Kenya, along the Indian Ocean. The buildings, and given the city, have a unique multi-cultural character. Just outside the city are beautiful white sandy beaches and beautiful coral reefs off the coast. Mombasa has about 900.000 inhabitants.
Rent Per Month
Shillings
Euro’s
Apartment (1 bedroom) in City Centre
29,052.88 KSh
270,64′
Apartment (1 bedroom) Outside of Centre
16,111.29 KSh
149,04′
Apartment (3 bedrooms) in City Centre
75,265.47 KSh
696,25′
Apartment (3 bedrooms) Outside of Centre
54,167.60 KSh
501.80′
Prices of Buying An Apartment
Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment in City Centre
115,000.00 KSh
1063,83′
Price per Square Meter to Buy Apartment Outside of Centre
144,000.00 KSh
1332,10′
Basic (Electricity, Heating, Water, Garbage) for 85m2 Apartment
3,757.31 KSh
34.89′
10-05-2015 ‘ EXCHANGE RATE
10.000KSH=
93.32’
2.2 Food and drinks
The kitchen of Kenya is for the people who only love the best food (Kairi, 2014). There is no singular dish that represents all of Kenya. Different communities have their own native foods. Staple foods are maize and other cereals depending on the region, including millet and sorghum eaten with various meats and vegetables. The foods that are universally eaten in Kenya are ugali, sukuma wiki, and nyama choma (grilled chicken or cow or goat). Other traditional basic ingredients are, tomatoes, carrots and onions; pepper and salt. You can eat this with rice, cassava, plantains or ugali. On the coast and Lake Victoria areas, this range will be expanded with fresh fish. Of course you can find some expensive restaurants in the big cities, where you can get a meal that is more or less similar to what is available in Europe. Consuming fast food is also gaining popularity in this country and it is possible in almost every town to buy snacks like chips with lots of ketchup, burgers, sausages, eggs and fish. On the markets you can find a wide variety of fresh products, particularly the range of tropical fruits has been extended; mangoes, papayas, pineapples, guavas, bananas, coconuts and oranges. As long as the fruit is still unpeeled you can safely eat it. You have to drink a lot of water or others drinks in Kenya. Do not drink water directly from the tap. Bottled mineral water is available to buy everywhere, in all shops, restaurants and big super-markets. It is sold in plastic bottles. You can buy soft drinks like Pepsi, Coca Cola, Fanta and many more brands, as well as coffee and tea. In places where many tourists come you can order fresh fruit juices. In Kenya people enjoy social life, hence drink a lot of beer. Beer is not expensive; there are various types of beer with a different percentage of alcohol. Many grocery stores sell liquor (whiskey, gin, vodka and brandy). There are two local liquors in Kenya: Kenya Cane, strong stuff made from sugar cane, and Kenya Gold, a pleasant coffee liqueur (Numbeo, 2015).
A list with some prices in Restaurants
Meal, Inexpensive Restaurant
300.00 KSh
Meal for 2, Mid-range Restaurant, Three-course
2,500.00 KSh
McMeal at McDonalds (or Equivalent Combo Meal)
500.00 KSh
Domestic Beer (0.5 liter draught)
180.00 KSh
Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle)
250.00 KSh
Cappuccino (regular)
208.92 KSh
Coke/Pepsi (0.33 liter bottle)
60.34 KSh
Water (0.33 liter bottle)
49.13 KSh
Some market/ supermarket prices. Milk (regular), (1 liter) 91.57 KSh
Loaf of Fresh White Bread (500g) 57.22 KSh
Rice (white), (1kg) 140.56 KSh
Eggs (12) 160.55 KSh
Local Cheese (1kg) 871.38 KSh
Chicken Breasts 571.68 KSh
Apples (1kg) 256.50 KSh
Oranges (1kg) 232.44 KSh
Tomato (1kg) 112.38 KSh
Potato (1kg) 83.12 KSh
Lettuce (1 head) 62.09 KSh
Water (1.5 liter bottle) 83.00 KSh
Bottle of Wine (Mid-Range) 725.00 KSh
Domestic Beer (0.5 liter bottle) 130.75 KSh
Imported Beer (0.33 liter bottle) 183.18 KSh
Pack of Cigarettes (Marlboro) 150.00 KSh
2.3 Health
Ensure that you have a good insurance and that you always have an emergency phone number. Health care in Kenya is good. There are a lot of good hospitals in Nairobi and Mombasa (Muga, 2004). Kenya has state hospitals, provincial hospitals and private clinics. But the best care you can get is in a private clinic. When you use any medication it is good to know that you have to bring a pharmacist statement. Medications in Kenya are not so expensive as in the Netherlands. Nairobi and Mombasa has international hospitals where the quality of the medicine is the same as in Europe. Vaccinations are not mandatory for Kenya. Well a DTP vaccination and protection against hepatitis A is recommended. When you stay in the northwest of the country six weeks or longer, or in close contact with the local population in this area it is recommended to take a vaccination against meningitis. In the rest of Kenya vaccination is recommended for stays longer than six months, combined with contact with the locals. In this country there is an increased risk of measles.
Yellow fever: Information for you and your family from an expert about the vaccination is important as you’re going to get one. Malaria: Throughout the year malaria occurs. Outside Nairobi, are anti-malarial precautions are recommended. Ask for advice on the use of these resources. Protection against mosquito bites is always important. In case of fever or flu symptoms during or after a stay in a malaria inhabited area, you must always contact a doctor.
2.4 Education
The school year starts in January, April, August and December. Children start going to nursery or pre-school from 4 years. From 6 years old, children begin primary school, which includes a total of eight grades, which means that children are about 14 years old when they reach the Kenya Certificate of Primary Education. To obtain this certificate, they have to make a big exam, organized by the Ministry of education. The outcome of this test determines which high schools your child can go. The higher the score, the more chances to be admitted to a good high school. The schools determine which students they admit, based on the scores for the certification (Credits, 2015). Secondary education in Kenya consists of four years of study, here they speak of form 1 to form 4. The students can determine their large curriculum by themselves. At the end of high school follows for each selected subject an exam that the students can get the Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education. If they succeed, they may draw up a list of universities and disciplines they prefer. The higher the score, the more likely the students therefore have to be admitted to a good university or college. Top scoring and outstanding students get a scholarship from the government (Rimardi, 2014).
Costs Primary education in Kenya since 2003, is subsidized by the government. Tuition fees and books are free. Other costs such as uniforms, transportation, writing materials and testing for Kenya Certificate of Secondary Education are paid by the parents.
The secondary school in Kenya is not subsidized and the cost can vary from school to school. The main costs are the tuition fees per term and the purchase of uniforms and books.
2.5 Transport
Between the major cities there are bus services, public transport consists of minivans named matatus. They are reliable but the comfort of a personal car cannot be compared to a matatu. Kenya also has a fairly extensive rail network and traveling by train through the country is an experience. You can also rent a car, but keep in mind that you have to choose a good and credible rental company to get a car in a good condition. The roads, however, are pretty good, but they have almost no traffic rules.
The price of a big bus depends on the comfort level. It is recommended that before using a bus, you should buy a ticket one day before you travel, to secure a space. The Horizon company is advisable because of the luxury buses, tight schedules and safety. So for example, you get a ticket for your luggage and no one can come to take your luggage off the bus except the driver (Rimardi, 2014).
Train Currently, there is only one train route which is in regular use. This train ride is between Nairobi and Mombasa, interesting to tourists because of the madness of the environment during the trip.
Flights Because of the distances and traffic during rush-hour, taking a flight can be an option. Nairobi is the middle of the web for flights to various destinations around the country. But, above all flights also go to touristic destinations such as Mombasa and the national parks. The Nairobi-Mombasa route only takes an hour (from ‘ 55 one way), a very good alternative for the train and the bus. This flight ticket can be bought at the airport or purchased online because there are several daily flights daily.
Costs (Numbeo, 2015) One-way Ticket (Local Transport) 50.00 KSh Monthly Pass (Regular Price) 2,500.00 KSh Taxi Start (Normal Tariff) 300.00 KSh Taxi 1km (Normal Tariff) 200.00 KSh Taxi 1hour Waiting (Normal Tariff) 450.00 KSh Gasoline (1 liter) 102.31 KSh Matatu 50.00 KSh Plain local flights 2000 KSh
2.6 Sports
Water sports There are beautiful sandy beaches north and south of Mombasa there you can do lots of water sports, including windsurfing, water skiing, snorkelling and diving. As almost always there’s a strong wind, the conditions for windsurfers are considered good (Foundation, 2015). Golf In Kenya, it is considered a leisure sport. There are many golf courses amidst the wide nature all over the country. In total, there are 42 golf courses in Kenya. A selection of the 10 most practised sports (JLM, 2015).
1. Water sports
2. Fishing
3. Cricket
4. Football
5. Hiking/Mountain Climbing
6. Training
7. Athletics
8. Golf
9. Rugby
10. Motor Sports
2.7 Shopping
There are a lot of big shopping centres in Kenya with shops and markets. You can get all kinds of things, including clothing, media and food. Here is a map of Nairobi and Mombasa with shopping centres (Google, 2015).
Nairobi
Mombasa
2.8 Nature parks
Masai Mara is one of the most famous safari place in Kenya the northern brother of the Serengeti. It is the place to see the big five (Service, 2015). At Masai Mara you also have the opportunity to visit a Masai village. This is touristy, but definitely worth it.
Hell’s Gate Hell’s Gate is a fantastic park, known for its gorges, cracks and rocky mountains. The biggest gap is the gap Njorowa. It is so big that you can walk through it.
Central Island This island lies in the far north of Kenya, in Lake Turkana. It is rarely visited because it is difficult to reach and has dangerous areas. On the island are volcanic craters with beautiful turquoise lakes. On this island live hundreds of crocodiles and for this reason u should always go with an armed ranger. Saiwa Swamp This is also a park which has been little visited. It is one of the smallest nature reserves in Kenya. This wetland area is known for the antelopes that live here. You can reached Saiwa Swamp most easily from Kitale by taxi or local bus. Ogoria more The Bogoria lake is known for its alkaline water because there is growing much green algae in it. The algae are popular foods for the flamingo, and therefore it is always pink. In the vicinity of the lake Bogoria you can find rhinos and giraffes.
3. Business environment in Kenya
The Kenyan culture has many different compared to the Dutch culture (International, 2015). In this chapter of the guide you will find many things that are important in Kenya to know. For example greetings, communication styles and day interpretation (Kiplagat, 2015). 3.1 Cultural differences in organizational level Cultural differences are noted in this chapter with help of different models. It is important to know in business life how to interact with your colleagues and clients, because you have to do this a different way than in the Netherlands. To help, you will find some important aspects that you need to know in the Kenya business. 3.2 Hofstede
Power distance (Hofstede, 2015) In Kenya, the power gap between the people and the leaders is high. This means that it is
accepted that there is a difference in the equal distribution of resources as well as power. The people at the bottom of the society accept that power is not evenly distributed.
Individualism vs. collectivism In Kenya, it is important to do most things together. There is a culture of sharing amongst some people, especially in the remote areas, away from the main cities. This is to help each other. Some families often live together because they can help each other. In business Kenyans work always together, so as to try to achieve their goals. It is important to know that you have to search for the perfect team in your company.
Masculinity vs. femininity The difference between men and women in Kenya is big. Majority of men have dominated the top positions in the work are, compared to women. However, many women are rising to the occasion of being in top positions. In business, most men used to get better paid than women, but this is soon changing with time. I Uncertainty Avoidance In comparison with the Netherlands the difference is not big. It is not desired to be apart from others. Just work and stay humble. Kenyan people hated to be in the spots. They just want to work hard and get paid on time. Long vs. Short-term orientation In Kenya, people are less busy to plan in the long term. Often, they think in the short term. A majority of the population lives on one salary to another, therefore people get paid from week to week. This includes some people in the middle and most from the poor class.
3.3 Business culture
When you do business with Kenyan people and you have a long negotiation it is important to know how to act. Kenya people expect that you know a little about Kenya and the Kenyan people. This chapter support you when doing business with the Kenyan people, as you will learn about meeting and greeting, dressing and table manners and you will learn some non-verbal communication skills (Hayes, 2014). 3.3.1 Meeting and greeting Kenyans shake hands on first contact, and they expect that you do this when you greeting in business. After that you take enough time to get a better contact thereby both ask for each other’s health and family (Kwintessential, 2014).
When you introduce yourself for the first time, you give a short handshake. When get to you know your relation better the shake becomes longer. You show respect to someone how is older than you or has a higher status, to look down when shaking hands. When you meet a women, wait till she extend her hand first. You give your business cards at an normal way. But when you receive a card, take it with two hands.
3.3.2 Dressing – code and table manners Behave formally when you go for a business dinner. When you don’t know how to act, watch others and follow their lead. Do not start eating, until the one with the highest age or everyone else started eating. When you have a business meeting, it is more than welcome to wear a suit and black shoes. Do not wear striking colours for your tie or shirt. Lastly, you don’t have to finish everything on your plate, because the dishes are quite big and you’ll get quite full.
3.3.3 Communication
Making eye contact is not always considered a sign of respect with elders. When you communicate with a person who is of a higher status or older than you, don’t always make eye contact, because it can be considered a sign of disrespect. This is not however the same case with the Kenyan youth, as they are more open-minded. Kenyan people come close to you when you have a conversation with them. They do this also to complete strangers. Don’t get scared or nervous as this is normal in this culture.
3.4 Organisation strategies
As you shall see on the next table which I found in the book, ‘Managing across cultures’ on page 124, it inscribes the strategy issues in Kenya. The choice to control or adopt, based on Kenya (Schneider, 2014).
Strategy issues
Controlling or adapting Scanning Active search vs Monitoring
Focused and systematic vs Broad and sporadic Centralized vs Decentralized
Planning
Formalized vs Informal Centralized vs Decentralized
Types and sources of information
Quantitative vs Qualitative Objective vs Subjective
Impersonal vs Personal Interpreting information Formal models and methods vs Informal models and methods
Scenario planning vs Discussion and debate People involved Mostly at the top vs Across the ranks
Experts vs Employees Decisions Made primarily at the top vs Made on the front lines
Tending to be political vs Consensual Strategic goals and action plan Clearly defined and articulated vs Broad and implicit
Explicitly measured and rewarded vs Vaguely monitored Time horizon Short term vs Long term
Action plans
Sequential vs Simultaneous
3.5 HRM Human resource management
In the next table you’ll find the HRM issues based on the Kenyan people. In this scheme you find a lot of differences between the Netherlands and Kenya, like selection, socialization, training, performance appraisal, compensation and rewards, and career development (Schneider, 2014).
HRM issues
Subject
HRM in Kenya Selection Desired behaviours – Focus on skills/personality Focus on skills. For the senior positions they look at skills and education
Specialist or generalists?
Specialists Necessary qualifications? For the senior job you need education and you have to speak perfect English. For the lower jobs you have to work hard and in teams. They look for real team players and people how listen and do what the boss says.
What you know versus who you know
Who you know for the lower jobs and what you know for the senior jobs. Socialization What kind of initiation rites are acceptable? Team building? Relationship building and team buildings are the most important. Listen to your Bose and do your task.
What are the messages being sent comp vs coop/ indi vs team
Team and cooperation. The team stands above an individual. To what extent will people engage in/reject social events? Kenyan people love social events, and they like to be surrounded by others and they are real social people. They love parties and love to by invited.
To what extent should efforts be made to ensure corporate culture is shared?
Every Kenyan works to live. Without a job they have nothing. They are loyal and kind to colleagues and their bosses. Help others and get helped by others. To what extent should corporate culture be made explicit(pins.posters,slogans,ect) Together We Thrive” echoes Kenyan Odinga’s slogan: “Fairly we share, together we prosper” always in groups.
Training
For what purpose
Develop generalist versus skill specialist Specialist
Acquire company vs skill specific knowledge
Specific knowledge. From the beginning you have a level of knowledge and after that you get trained. Extent of job rotation? Less job rotations because Kenyans like steadiness. They don’t love surprises.
Competences versus networking?
Competences in the senior jobs. But networking in the lower jobs. Training needs
Company versus individual
Companies are above individuals. Who is sent for training? The manager decides ranking and file are chosen.
Training methods
What training methods are most effective? Group work, collective above.
Performance appraisal
To what extent evaluates individual versus team effort
Team achievements. To what extent is goal setting By the manager. The group fallows and try to archive the goals.
How do people expect feedback?
Respectfully and not harshly. Also point out what they have done correctly, don’t only focus on what they have done wrong. Most Kenyan people are emotional. They work hard and hate to get criticised. To what extent will criticism be accepted Direct but with respect and options of how the have to do it the next time. They want know what they have done right also.
Compensation and rewards
Who gets what?
Some Kenyan people get paid by the week and others monthly for the work they do. In the higher segment they get paid according to hierarchy. To what extent should pay be linked to performance? First they look at education, second, what kind of work you have done.
What degree of pay differential is acceptable
People who have a high positon get paid well. People how have a low position get in average or poorly. In general the payments for low position people are low. To what extent are bonuses effective Bonus payment are by numbers, and according to competitiveness. Extra above the normal salary.
To what extent should team versus individuals be rewarded
Teams are rewarded, as this works better for the team building, and they can help each other. How much of salary should be fixed versus variable? A normal fixed salary paid by week, above that a variable payment for extra work.
To what extent are Financial vs non-financial rewards preferred?
Kenyan people work for money, second they want appreciation and maybe an insurance from the company for the whole family Career development Who gets promoted? People get promotions for the hard work they display and the emotional intelligence they show. Also it depends on your level of education and if you want to learn more in the company. Training and collect certification
What determines career success?
The manager observes how you work and what you have done for the company. Also, he look at how you perform and how many days you have been sick or ill. What type of career paths are desirable? Kenyan people are very loyal in their work places, especially to their bosses. They switch often and are very happy to have a job. A lot of people in Kenya don’t have a job. A Kenyan with enough money, goes
back to school to collect a lot of qualifications, as the economy is full of competitive people.
To what extent are people mobile? Willing to move?
They want to do everything to collect money for the family, so they will move to another city or county for a job.
3.6 Client contacts b2c
When you come in contact with Kenyan clients, you have to know many thinks about Kenyans. Fist of al they are extremely proud of their country, the most of them are very social and cultural, furthermore they appreciate it when you know some important facts about Kenya (Hofstede, 1991).
Symbols The flag of Kenya is the most important for the people as it symbolizes their history and unity. The colours stand for;
‘ Black ‘ The indigenous Kenyan people
‘ Red ‘ The blood that was shed in the fight for independence
‘ Green ‘ Kenya’s rich agricultural land and natural resources
‘ Also, an important symbol is the shield with the two lions (a symbol of protection) supporting a traditional East African shield. Both the shield and spears crossed behind it are a representative of unity and defence of freedom, while the rooster at the centre of
the shield symbolizes the dawn of a new day. The national motto of Kenya Harambee, (“Let us all unite together”) is displayed on a ribbon below.
Heroes
‘ Mzee Jomo Kenyatta (1894 – August 22,1978): The founding father and first President of the nation.
‘ Jaramogi Oginga Odinga (1911 – January 20, 1994): The first Vice-President and a leader of the opposition movement in the nation.
‘ Dedan Kimathi (October 31, 1920 – February 18, 157): Leader of the Mau Mau movement.
‘ Harry Thuku (1895 – 1970): Pioneer of African nationalism.
‘ Daniel Toritich Arap Moi: Second President of the nation.
‘ Thomas Joseph Mboya ( August 15, 1930 ‘ July 5, 1969): Statesman whose assassination robbed the nation a nationalist.
Popular in culture:
‘ You can say, hakuna matata, which means no problems.
‘ Always say jambo or habari yako, which means, how are you.
‘ When you come across a group of Maasai people, who have an interesting tradition of jumping up high while dancing, you should jump along.
‘ Kenyans are religious, hence during a dinner occasion, you’ll be expected to bow your head for a prayer while someone prays.
Values
‘ Give a firm or strong handshake to those you know well.
‘ First talk about family and then health matters.
‘ You don’t need to ask for something to eat or drink when you go to someone’s house, as guests are highly welcome and treated with respect.
3.7 Buyer persona B2B client
A persona is based on the canvas model, and you can find the model in the appendix A (Zambito, 2015).
The buyer persona is based on the next person:
‘ Name: Clarkson Baynati
‘ Age: 44 years
‘ Gender: male
‘ Status: married
‘ Children: one boy one girl
‘ Hobbies: golf and painting
‘ Lives in Nairobi in an apparent and also works her
‘ Behaviour is a normal guy with a family and he is the manager of a big chrysanthemums company
‘ Interested in a new kinds of chrysanthemums
‘ Searching for new opportunities
‘ Busy with trends and developments
‘ Always want to try new products
‘ Busy with a better world
‘ Want to grow and sell products all over the world
‘ Want to see more about the world
‘ Immerses himself in different cultures
This manager is interested in the European market, and he is always looking for new products and new technologies. He is very busy with his own company and always searching for new solutions. His company wants to be the best and the biggest in Kenya, and he want to invest a lot. The company is busy with CSR and the company want always the best for the employees and the world. Technology and the best people are the most important for Clarkson.
The goals Owns the biggest chrysanthemums company in Kenya and wants to sell his products all over the world. Fore runner in technology and development and the best in CSR. Making the product range large with different colours and types of chrysanthemums. Buying process The process of buying is always long term, he makes decisions in advance and sometimes in months or even in years. Some Kenyan people are a lot slower than people from the
Netherlands in terms of planning and delivering, but this is not the case for Kenyans working big successful or small emerging companies. First he finds out that he wants something different, a new product or a new kind of chrysanthemums. He is oriented, learns from experience and previous trainings and instructs his employees on his vision. Then he sends an e-mail to collect some more information. After a good telephone conversation he takes a flight to negotiate about the price, how many and in what time. Buyer thinking Mr. Clarkson wants to have the best, and he also helps develop new products for the African market. He is thinking with you and helps to develop the best products and the best way to provide a suitable environment for a chrysanthemum grow.
Initiatives To think with us. To help selling more products to the Kenyan people. His strategies are good and well thought out for the Kenyan people. He knows the African market and the people as he has adapted well to this environment. He knows exactly what the African people want and how he has to reach them. Timing Always well thought out and he does not make choices directly. Moderate in communication and always wants to have more for less. Channels Internet, smart phones, telephones. Using of social media and linked in. Sources he uses are his own people, on how to collect and translate information for him. Influencers, stakeholders, buying team Does not have stake holders. Mr. Clarkson has a big role in the buying team. He makes a final decision at the end. So he makes the choices with regards to advice from the buying team. Content and Information In the case of the chrysanthemums, information and references from distributors by themselves. Information true meetings and true internet. Also they look at competitors. They are searching always and everywhere for new products, because they don’t want to miss new varieties. Why buy The company of Mr. Clarkson will buy products, when they are convinced about the products. Is it new, sell it easily and make a profit. The prices must be wright and the contacts must be good. The company wants a quick delivery time and smooth contact. Then Mr. Clarkson will buy more and you will have a long-term business relationship. 3.8 Consumer behaviour
There are several big differences between consumers in Kenya and consumers in the Netherlands (BBENKELE, sd) (Specht, 2015). The main reason for this, is the income second the culture and lastly, the needs of the Kenyan people. A lot of people in Kenya live under
the income limit. The culture in Kenya has a big difference in time, the way they live and how they look to the future. Because of the style how Kenyans live, they have others needs and wishes. Some Kenyan people do not have a lot of money, but always have for cigarettes and a mobile telephone. So the best way to contact Kenyan consumers is to call them, e-mail or sent them text massages. Also, media is a popular way of communication; radios, magazines, TVs and newspapers. Consumers that buy flowers and food, go most of the time to the market. Thus, you can go there with some promotional materials so as to get in contact with them (Nielsen, 2014). The costumer journey based on a Kenyan consumer that lives above the income limit.
When you contact a Kenyan be direct, but keep in mind that they are sometimes hesitant making choices, which can slow the progress. They always try to get the best price, and sometimes discuss with colleagues or family before making final choices. It is important that you always be friendly and always give a discount. Give them time to think and come back another day (Edu, 2013). 4. Profile of a successful salesperson To be a successful sales man, you have to know Kenya, the people and culture. Furthermore, read these 10 steps and it will help you to become a successful salesman (Smith, 2013).
1. Trust
Approach people with confidence so that they become more open and show their vulnerable sides. This helps with the improvement while approaching the employee. Confidence is moderate for a coaching manager.
2. Provide an open atmosphere
No hidden agendas. Be open and honest. Even say it if you do not know. Respect from the sales coach to the employees is very important.
3. Clear agreements about what you expect
Each man knows now simply and exactly where he or she stands. So do your employees. The clearer the agreements, the more people are willing to cooperate.
4. Personal responsibility on the work floor
Let your people discover themselves like the possibilities and limitations of their abilities. Give them as much space as possible when they are finding out.
5. Provide regular feedback
An employee is entitled to know how you feel about him or her. Schedule regular meetings and give feedback.
6. Ask for comments about your own role
Ask for feedback regularly about your sales coaching skills. This will keep you sharp, improve communication and create a trustful environment.
7. Help with personal learning goals
Your role as a coaching manager aims to get the maximum performance out of your people. They need your to help achieve their personal learning goals. You must always add knowledge to their learning curve.
8. Provide the correct information
In order to provide optimal sales performance, it is important for people to have the right information. Make sure they receive the good information.
9. Positivity: A compliment creates wonders
There is enough space to grow, and you believe that your employees are doing well. Don’t be afraid to keep them motivated by saying positive attributes about them and their performances where possible. To put it simply, give them reward and recognition (R&R).
10. Optimal coaching A sales coach sets goals, thus make yourself a personal Coaching Plan and keep looking and updating it by filling it this every week, so you can see the progress, by focusing on the individual needs. Try to do this also for your employees, with optimal coaching, so that he or she is performing better, works with more fun and with tangible results.
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Appendix
A
B
Interview Name: xxxxxx Function: Sales manager of Batavia International and resident of Kenya Date: 22-4-2015 Time: 20:00 Mode: semi-structured interview
1. Why did you move to Kenya Because a want my own company with an friend of mine, he lives already in Kenya, therefore I moved also to Kenya. We started our own company in solar heaters. Now we live here for 10 years and we really like it here.
2. What kind of thinks can you do in Kenya
Most of all people how come here want to do a safari, they want to see the big 5. But Kenya has also nice mountains to visit. The beach is nice and we have large shopping centres. The nature is great to see and the people are open and very friendly
3. What is the big difference between Dutch employees and Kenya employees
We have to pay Kenya 3′ for one day, and Dutch 20 times more. The Kenyans want to work, but only work when it is necessary. We have to look all the time, because else they stop working. We pay them every day, so they have to come back every day. The Kenyan don’t like it when you are playing the hard boss, and they hate it when you are to direct. But I always do. Because else the do less.
4. How is a Kenya client look like, how does I act. A lot of negotiations, never direct and always have to think some days or weeks. The best way the reach them is to call them on their sell phone. You have to be hard and always straight. The want always a better price and they can buy products always cheaper somewhere else.
5. When you have to deal with B2B how do you act.
Almost the same as when I want to sell products on B2C level. But B2B clients have are better informant than B2C clients. The B2B know more about Europa and more about the style of doing business. These people want to pay more for better quality. These people know that Dutch people want to do business with people how really wants to have quality. So go to them meet them have meetings with all the business people after 1 or 2 days you have an agreement.
6. If I want to be a sales manager, do you have some tips or tricks. Most of all be the boss and act like a boss. Kenyan people expect that from you therefore the respect you. They want to know what they have to do, how and in which time. Kenyan people wants to work in groups, in groups they perform better. Visit them sometimes and help them to achieve their goals. Keep push them and keep them positive, work with rewards, with rewards they keep working and you will keep them sharp. They know by themselves that when the get fired there is always a new person how is waiting for a job. So they have to perform well and work hard.

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