International business touches our daily experiences. International business refers to the performance of trade and investment activities by firms across national borders. The most conspicuous aspect of international business is the crossing of national boundaries; we also refer to international business as cross-border business. Firms organize, source, manufacture, market, and conduct other value-adding activities on an international scale. They seek foreign customers and engage in collaborative relationships with foreign business partners. While international business is primarily carried out by individual firms, governments and international agencies also engage in international business transactions.
Firms and nations exchange many physical and intellectual assets including products,
Services, capital, technology, know-how, and labor. In this book, we are concerned primarily with the international business activities of the individual firm. While international business has been around for centuries, it has gained much speed and complexity over the past two decades. Firms seek international market opportunities more today than ever before, touching the lives of billions of people around the world. Daily chores such as shopping and leisure activities such as listening to music, watching a movie, or surfing the Internet involve international business transactions that connect you to the global economy. International business gives you access to products and services from around the world and profoundly affect your quality of life and economic well-being
Today, business is acknowledged to be international and there is a general expectation that this will continue for the foreseeable future. International business may be defined simply as business transactions that take place across national borders. This broad definition includes the very small firm that exports a small quantity to only one country, as well as the very large global firm with integrated operations and strategic alliances around the world. Within this broad array, distinctions are often made among different types of international firms, and these distinctions are helpful in understanding a firm’s strategy, organization, and functional decisions. One distinction that can be helpful is the distinction between multi-domestic operations, with independent subsidiaries which act essentially as domestic firms, and global operations, with integrated subsidiaries which are closely related and interconnected. These may be thought of as the two ends of a continuum, with many possibilities in between. Firms are unlikely to be at one end of the continuum, though, as they often combining aspects of multi-domestic operations with aspects of global operations.
Domestic and international enterprises, in both the public and private sectors, share the business objectives of functioning successfully to continue operations. Private enterprises seek to function profitably as well. Nation-states generally have unique government systems, laws and regulations, currencies, taxes and duties, and so on, as well as different cultures and practices. An individual traveling from his home country to a foreign country needs to have the proper documents, to carry foreign currency, to be able to communicate in the foreign country, to be dressed appropriately, and so on. Doing business in a foreign country involves similar issues and is thus more complex than doing business at home. The following sections will explore some of these issues. Specifically, comparative advantage is introduced, the international business environment is explored, and forms of international entry are outlined.
I will develop a plan to investigations, whether domestic contain certain common elements. Before an investigation is launched, case managers will develop a plan that contains these steps outlined above. A thorough and well-designed plan can help investigation team members stay focused on the objectives of the investigation, measure progress along the way, and strategically incorporate supplemental steps as they become necessary. An investigation plan typically centers on a hypothesis that posits why and how the misconduct occurred. The plan should establish by the scope and objectives for the investigation, the documents and data to be collected, the individuals to be interviewed, the timeline and milestones, and the reporting processing a cross-border context, the investigative team also needs to take into account any jurisdictional differences that may impact the investigation, the information that can be collected, and the individuals who can be interviewed. For instance, in certain European countries, due to personal data protection laws, the scope of an investigation involving an anonymous whistle-blower may be restricted. In China, many businesses are state-owned or controlled which may trigger China’s states secrets laws and greatly impact the kind of data that can be collected and reviewed. A well thought out plan should predict the kinds of issues that may arise and lay out a strategy to address them. I will determine important step in the case management of cross border to alert key member of management that a potentially significant compliance allegation has been filed and that an investigation will be initiated. Depending on the nature of the matter, it may be appropriate to notify the country manager, the functional leader, the department head, or other members of local management. It is important to keep the circle of trust small and to remind members of management about confidentiality and the integrity of the process. I will look oversee investigations involving potential legal matters, human resources may oversee investigations related to employee-relations issues, theft, and physical security. Moreover, potentially significant compliance situations, including those that involve serious violations of domestic or foreign law, fraudulent financial reporting, senior management would require direct board and audit committee oversight. These oversight groups should help establish the scope of the investigation, review the investigation plan, and ensure that adequate resources are available. A conditionally open border is a border that allows movement of people across the border that meet a special set of conditions. This special set of conditions which limits the application of border controls that would normally otherwise apply could be defined by an international agreement or international law or the special conditions could be defined by a regulation of law of the jurisdiction that the people are claiming the right to enter. Conditionally open borders generally requires a claim to be submitted from the people who are proposing to enter the new jurisdiction stating the case why they meet the special conditions which allows entry into the new jurisdiction. The new jurisdiction may detain the people until their claim is approved for entry into the new jurisdiction or they may release them into the new jurisdiction while their claim is being processed. When ever a conditionally open border is allowed, considerable effort is often required to ensure that border controls do not break down to such an extent that it becomes an open border type situation. International law which allows people to cross a border to escape a situation where their life are directly threatened or in significant danger. A controlled border is a border that allows movement of people between different jurisdictions but places restrictions and sometimes significant restrictions on this movement. This type of border may require a person crossing this border to obtain a visa or in some cases may allow a short period of Visa free travel in the new jurisdiction. A controlled border always has some method of documenting and recording people movements across the border for later tracking and checking compliance with any conditions associated with the Visa or any other border crossing conditions. A controlled border places limitations on what a person crossing the border can do in the new jurisdiction, this is usually manifested in limitations on employment and also it limits the length of time the person can legally remain in the new jurisdiction. A controlled border often requires some type of barrier, such as a river, ocean or fence to ensure that the border controls are not bypassed so that any people wishing to cross the border are directed to authorize border crossing points where any border crossing conditions can be properly monitored. Given the large scale movement of people today for work, holidays, study and other reasons a controlled border also requires internal checks and internal enforcement within the jurisdiction to ensure that any people who have entered the jurisdiction are in fact complying with any border crossing conditions and that they are not overstaying to reside illegally or as an undocumented resident. Most international borders are by legislative intent of the controlled border type. However when there is a lack of adequate internal enforcement or if the borders are land borders, often the border is only controlled on part of the border and other parts of the border may remain open to such an extent that, it may be considered as an open border due to lack of supervision and enforcement.
A closed border is a border that prevents movement of people between different jurisdictions with limited or no exceptions associated with this movement. These borders normally have fences or walls in which any gates or border crossings are closed and if these border gates are opened they generally only allow movement of people in exceptional circumstances. The government is encouraging gradual internalization. Financial intuitions will settle more of the cross border transaction and expected to be used in growing range of crossing transaction border in next five year including limited capital account convertibility in next 5 year. Develop binding commitments with exceptions trade rules should establish cross border data flows as a mandatory legal norm while providing sufficient policy space for governments to restrict data flows where necessary to achieve other legitimate policy goals. Such restrictions should also be designed and applied in a non discriminatory, least trade restrictive and transparent manner. Intra Country Data Flows commitments on cross border data flows should include a commitment to also not restrict intracountry data flows. There is no commercially sound reason for rules on the cross border data flows to not also apply to their movement within a country. And once data is allowed across borders, many of the reasons for government restrictions on intra country data flows diminish if not entirely disappear. International standards global industry standards and interoperability criteria will underpin growth in cross border data flows, such as the ability of users to access and use digital content across devices. Governments should commit to developing international standards with the aim of underpinning technology development that is consistent with Internet operability. Location of Data Centers requiring data center to be located domestically undermines the cost effectiveness of cloud based computing services where so called location independence is important. Governments should commit to similar rules for all cloud based computing services. Rules on transparency Internet restrictions on cross border data flows are often implemented in an arbitrary and non transparent manner. Moreover, Internet restrictions on cross border data flows raise specific issues that require additional commitments in the following areas. A designated contact point in the government agency responsible for restrictions on cross border information flows. Provision of advanced notice of any proposed measures affecting cross border data flows, including the reasons for the proposed restriction. Opportunities for interested parties such as businesses or individuals to present their views on the proposed restriction and a requirement for written and reasoned responses. Cross Border Data Flow governments should also prioritize developing norms of conduct amongst governments with respect to the Internet. In addition to the role of binding trade rules here, governments should develop principles governing access to and use of the Internet. For example, the US and Japan have agreed to Internet principles that emphasize the preservation of an open and interoperable Internet and a balanced approach to issues such as privacy and intellectual property rights so as not to impede the cross border flow of information. For each important limitation that I will identify, specify the type. For example, is it no differential misclassification of exposure or outcome , or is it a more dangerous limitation that is, a differential bias such as selection bias, information bias, or confounding? Or, perhaps the limitation is not related to internal validity, but is instead a matter of external validity such as limited generalizability of study findings. As a starting point, consider limitations mentioned by the prior literature on my exposure and outcome of interest. Even if I didn’t face the same limitations, I will make sure to highlight this fact as study strength limitations are more likely to bias my findings toward the null value, while others are more likely to bias my findings away from the null. Other limitations may have an unpredictable impact on your findings. In general, limitations that lead to a bias toward the null are considered less dangerous than limitations that cause a bias away from the null. On the other hand, limitations that lead to a conclusion that my exposure impacts my outcome when it does not are often considered more dangerous. Discuss these alternative both advantage and disadvantage and clearly explain to the reviewer why i chose the approach .This can be persuasive evidence in support of the approach that ultimately chose to take, or it can lead me to reconsider this decision. At the least, it will help me to become adept at defending my decision. Minimize my study limitations, first consult prior studies of On my exposure and outcome of interest. Did these studies use design or analysis techniques to minimize limitations that would be prudent for me to adopt as well?
Examples of design techniques to minimize study limitations include:
‘ Choosing a prospective study design over a case’control study design to avoid such issues as recall bias and selection bias
‘ Blinding interviewers in a case control study to avoid inter-viewer bias
‘ Incorporating repeated administrations of questionnaires over the course of follow-up to minimize no differential misclassification of exposure due to changes in behaviors over time
‘ Use of life events calendars’to boost the accuracy of recall thereby reducing no differential misclassification of exposure
Example analysis techniques to minimize study limitations include:
‘ Comparing baseline characteristics of the experimental and standard care group in a clinical trial to ensure that the randomization was successful
‘ Performing subgroup analyses among participants with and without missing data on key variables of interest to address potential selection bias
‘ Conducting analyses among participants with asymptomatic disease to address concerns regarding temporality, that is, that whether preclinical symptoms of disease may have influenced exposure.
This fourfold approach of identifying the study limitation, describing its potential impact on study findings, discussing alternatives considered, and ending with methods to minimize limitations has a key strategic benefit. By ending with the steps that I’m a taking to minimize my limitations, my leave the reviewer with a positive impression. This leads us to the issue of where to place my study limitations in a grant proposal. My approach will be designing my study to collect information on potential confounders. By having this data in hand, i will be able to adjust for these potential confounders once i get the data analysis phase. This approach requires careful consideration of all the potential confounding factors when writing the proposal. It is also important to note that this approach does not remove the potential threat of residual confounding, but does minimize this concern. For example, if me concerned that sleep is a potential confounder of the relationship between depression and preterm birth, you may choose to administer a sleep questionnaire to collect information on sleep. However, if this questionnaire has some error associated with it adjusting for sleep in my analysis will only address a portion of the confounding by sleep and some residual confounding will remain. For me another approach to address confounding is matching participants on potential confounders. Matching is a design technique typically used in case’control studies whereby cases are matched to controls on several key confounding factors . In this way, the cases and controls will not different on these factors, and in turn, these factors cannot be responsible for the observed association between exposure and disease. However, it is typically not feasible to match on a multitude of factors because logistical concerns come into play. For example, it may become difficult to find a control that matches your case according to a long list of matching criteria. Beside matching approach I will do randomized approach design approach involves conducting a randomized trial. Randomized trials include clinical trials in which medical treatments are randomized. Randomized trials can also include behavioral interventions in which, for example, educational programs may be randomized. As long as the investigator is assigning the exposure in a random fashion, the study design qualifies as a randomized trial. Randomized trials are considered the gold standard design because the use of randomization results is not only random distribution of known confounders, but just as importantly, the randomization of unknown confounders as well.
The World’s economies are becoming increasingly interdependent, and countries around the globe are continuously looking outward to take advantage of new opportunities.
International partnerships and exchanges in the areas of social, educational and cultural development and democratic governance are also becoming more prominent as nations seek information and experiences from other jurisdictions.
In addition, global issues, such as trade, security, sustainable development, environmental stewardship, and human development are compelling us to look to each other for support and assistance.
Our province offers an enviable combination of strengths in our abundant resources, and our diverse and innovative economy. Our strengths are supported by well-developed transportation and communication systems, our skilled and stable workforce, and our well-developed social, health, education and governance systems that create opportunities and an exceptional quality of life.
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