Strategy is a set of procedure for direction of organization behavior. Alfred defined strategy as ‘the determination of the basic long-term goals and objectives of an enterprise, and the adoption of courses of action and the allocation of resources for carrying out these goals.'( Alfred D, 2003). Furthermore, Kenneth Andrews the strategy is ‘the pattern of decisions in a company that determines and reveals its objectives, purposes or goals, produces the principal policies and plans for achieving those goals, and defines the range of businesses the company is to pursue, the kind of economic and human organization it is or intends to be, and the nature of the economic and non-economic contribution it intends to make to its shareholders, employees, customers, and communities.'( Andrews,1980).
For the success of any organization, strategy formulation and method of implementation must play an important role in the beginning or during the setting up of the organization.
The founders or leaders of the organization must be able to have formulated a mission, vision and goal for the organization and then work out a strategic plan to meet them.
Strategy formulation include planning and decision making which lead to the organization’s goals and the improvement of an individual strategic plan.(Milton Leontiades, 1982). Strategy formulation may include evaluating the external environment and internal problems and integrating the results into goals and strategy. However in strategy implementation, Strategic will achieved by the use of organizational tools to direct resources (Lawrence G. Hrebiniak & William F. Joyce ,1982)
1. xxx xxxx’s methodology to strategic planning and implementing
Key to business achievement is implementing a strategy that matches the capability of resources and changes through the waves of transformations. Technology changes every day and an effective organization have to be able to adapt to changes. If an organization want to survive, it must react to the changes in its environment. xxx xxxx’s implemented change in strategy in tides center.
The communication was very important to xxx xxxx. She established contact with her Senior Management Team on the first day at work and discussed the fourth quarter’s goals of the organization. In addition, All-Hands meeting was a recent practice in Tides Center and xxx xxxx was looking forward to interact with her staff.
In establishment of the communication in the organization, she had worked on creating M Team. To facilitate a conversation about strategic direction and encourage the two-ways communication, where the middle management and senior management would meet monthly.
xxx xxxx and Human Resource Director have discussed to develop employ’s review, which not only evaluate performance against goals but also evaluate the behavior of the employee and provide for discussion of development goals. She noticed that the past few years review process had been very poorly executed and this is not a way to improve performance standards. xxx xxxx was convinced the 360-degree was the right thing to do because she believed it would improve employee performance; eventually, customer services, as Parker-Pennington explained.
One of the xxx xxxx’s strategies was to bring the staff along in the change process is to form a group of 5-10 employee of all levels and departments of an organization and work together to discuss and brainstorm solutions to a pressing problem. SATs were used in AirToch, where xxx xxxx used to work, but never involved in one. 5 members of SAT’s team were given Timeline, Decision Making Tools, and process to focus on how the Tides could become more customer-centric.
xxx xxxx used the customer satisfaction survey to express their needs and helps develop and serve the client’s requirements and the client of course has a voice and opinions within the organization to support and implement their suggestions.
In evaluation to xxx xxxx’s case, SWOT analysis tool is used:
The Strengths: tides center was the nations largest and most prominent fiscal sponsor; tides center had fully fiduciary responsibility for over 250 charitable organizations referred to as ‘project’
The Weaknesses lacking of recourses and technology, decrease the number of staff comparing to over load work, lay off of the staff
The Opportunities: Tides received $1 million seed grant from W. K. Kellogg Foundation, and could secure a subsequent grand to lead the development of best practices for the sector.
The Threats: The rocky financial status of the organization.
In recent years, improving the quality of health services has attracted the attention of many scientific investigations (Arah et al., 2003). The stages that healthcare organizations usually follow for improvement of services provision quality are setting priorities, establishing sustainable processes and determining an appropriate framework to implement the initiative programs (Glickman, Baggett, Krubert, Peterson, & Schulman, 2007). On the other hand, increasing global competition has led these organizations to re-engineering of business procedures as a means to ensure efficiency, effectiveness and ultimately their success (Jafari, Bastani, Ibrahimipour, & Dehnavieh, 2012). One of the most effective strategies for the success of organizations is running the strategic planning. It should be noted that according to the Iranian national accreditation system (effective from 2010); hospitals are
required to have a strategic plan that indicates future directions of the hospital (Jafari et al., 2010).
Strategic planning is a useful tool for managerial all types of establishments, including healthcare organizations. In which the strategic planning process is related on the unit’s size and the variation of the service provided. The leader of each unit is the person responsible for promoting the planning process. At the leading director in the healthcare organization, the chief executive officer (CEO) has the duty to support the Strategy Plan procedure and provides the organization with a plan for the future (Kotter J.P, 1990). The two common errors are not involving the right people and not concentrating the really related issues due to their being too complex (Rodr??guez Perera & Peir??, 2012). Another error is the failure to link Strategy plan to arranging the resources (financial) needed to carry it out. Perhaps the most common error is to put all the effort into the planning stage, but fail to put the plan into practice. (Rodr??guez Perera & Peir??, 2012). How ever the advantage of strategy plan the process can reveal previously hidden opportunities or threats (Zuckermann AM, 2005).
The Strategy plan process is divided in to successive phases (Rodr??guez Perera & Peir??, 2012)
First phase is describing the Mission, Vision and Values. Second phase is analyzing the external and internal environment. External Environment like: clients, competitors, Providers or suppliers and owners this term refers to the person, company or government body (public or private) that has ownership equity of the health organization. Internal Environment this analysis provides information on everything related that has occurred within the Health organization like resources (people, financial budgets, structural resources), the legal situation: an analysis is conducted of the current regulations affecting performance, particularly those limiting or Guiding. Other power groups within the health organization: trade unions, professional associations and internal decision-making bodies. Moreover, analyses of clinical care, training and research activity.
A third phase is SWOT analysis, an abbreviation formed from strengths (S), weaknesses (W), opportunities (O) and threats (T).
Strengths: focusing on healthcare improvement, investments in healthcare informatics, highly trained medical staff.
Weaknesses: insufficient management training, poor use of healthcare informatics, and lack of financial resources.
Opportunities: collaborations with different healthcare organizations, development of new healthcare programs.
Threats: economic insecurity, increased demand for expensive medical technology.
The Fourth phase is Strategic Alternatives; the planning team must be able to generate many alternative strategic actions throughout the process development. Depending on the current situation and future forecasted situation, an alternative strategy must be able to cover the areas of weakness that might hinder the progress. The fifth phase is Strategic Areas and Objectives The strategic plan leader and routing group now choose the areas on which to focus the strategic action of the Health organization during the coming years.
The improvement of a strategy can be a case for change, a new service, or a further development of an existing service and can involve major changes or relatively minor changes. But with any change, certain elements need to be in place. Even
Small changes can make a difference to the quality of care (Rowe 2008).
Willa’s strategy was to unify the staff and work together to achieve a common goal. On the first day of the work, she had meeting with senior staff, then followed with all employees, which had extended over two month. She also saw the importance of middle management in the role; therefore, an M team was introduced to the organization. The middle management and senior management had to meet twice a week to encourage two-way communication. Seldon wanted to make sure Tides Center had a mission and values to which every staff member felt dedicated. She wanted staff to define them for themselves; therefore, she devoted the late January 2004 All-Hands meeting.
A strategic Action Team (SAT) was presented to bring the staff along in the change process. Seldon appointed herself as sponsor since she was familiar with the process and there were 5 members of all levels of department. In order to make Trade Center more customer centric, the team had given tools and process which resulted in producing a 50-page report. After the success of SAT team, plans were made to start a second SAT focused on automating employee forms and connecting Human Resources and Payroll.
In order to improve staff review, she had developed with HR Director a new 360 review. However, with lay-offs and salary freeze, Seldon was unable to implement the 360 reviews. In addition, some felt the new review is too sophisticated to implement. One of the problems of the 360 review was, they can’t reward people who improved in their work, which can create anxiety, frustration and even animosity.
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