Transactional analysis (TA to its adherents), is an integrative approach to the theory of psychology and psychotherapy. It is described as integrative because it has elements of psychoanalytic, humanist and cognitive approaches
Many of the core TA models and concepts can be categorized into
Structural analysis – analysis of the individual psyche
Transactional analysis proper – analysis of interpersonal transactions based on structural analysis of the individual’s involved in the transaction
Game analysis – repeating sequences of transactions that lead to a predetermined outcome subconsciously agreed to by the parties involved in the game
Script analysis – a life plan that may involve long term involvement in particular games in order to reach the life pay-off of the individual
ANALYSIS OF DIFFERENT EGO STATE
According to Dusay (2007) the analysis relates how Berne had been treating a lawyer, an addictive gambler who used both logic combined with a superstitious approach to his gambling. Not only that but the more time Berne spent with the patient, the more it seemed that two personalities were present: A logical-rational personality (ego-state) that ran a successful law firm and a little boy (state) that was more apparent when he gambled and showed numbers of superstitious mannerisms. Berne devised the concept of ego states to help explain how we are made up, and how we relate to others. These are drawn as three stacked circles and they are one of the building blocks of Transactional Analysis. They categories the ways we think, feel and behave and are called Parent, Adult, and Child. Each ego state is given a capital letter to denote the difference between actual parents, adults and children.
Parent ego state
This is a set of feelings, thinking and behavior that we have copied from our parents and significant others.
As we grow up we take in ideas, beliefs, feelings and behaviors from our parents and caretakers. If we live in an extended family then there are more people to learn and take in from. When we do this, it is called introjecting and it is just as if we take in the whole of the care giver. For example, we may notice that we are saying things just as our father, mother, grandmother may have done, even though, consciously, we don’t want to. We do this as we have lived with this person so long that we automatically reproduce certain things that were said to us, or treat others as we might have been treated.
Adult ego state
The Adult ego state is about direct responses to the here and now. We deal with things that are going on today in ways that are not unhealthily influenced by our past. The Adult ego state is about being spontaneous and aware with the capacity for intimacy. When in our Adult we are able to see people as they are, rather than what we project onto them. We ask for information rather than stay scared and rather than make assumptions. Taking the best from the past and using it appropriately in the present is an integration of the positive aspects of both our Parent and Child ego states. So this can be called the Integrating Adult. Integrating means that we are constantly updating ourselves through our everyday experiences and using this to inform us.
Alternatively, the Integrating Adult ego state can just stop any negative dialogue and decide to develop another positive Parent ego state perhaps taken in from other people they have met over the years.
Child ego state
The Child ego state is a set of behaviors, thoughts and feelings which are replayed from our own childhood.
Perhaps the boss calls us into his or her office, we may immediately get a churning in our stomach and wonder what we have done wrong. If this were explored we might remember the time the head teacher called us in to tell us off. Of course, not everything in the Child ego state is negative. We might go into someone’s house and smell a lovely smell and remember our grandmother’s house when we were little, and all the same warm feelings we had at six years of age may come flooding back.
Alternatively, we might have had a traumatic experience yesterday which goes into the Child ego state as an archaic memory that hampers our growth.
Positive experiences will also go into the Child ego state as archaic memories. The positive experiences can then be drawn on to remind us that positive things do happen.
ANALYSIS OF STROKES
In Transactional Analysis we call compliments and general ways of giving recognition strokes. This name came from research which indicated that babies require touching in order to survive and grow. It apparently makes no difference whether the touching induces pain or pleasure – it is still important. On the whole we prefer to receive negative strokes than no strokes at all, at least that way we know we exist and others know we exist.
We all have particular strokes we will accept and those we will reject. For example, if we have always been told we are clever, and our brother is creative, then we are likely to accept strokes for being clever, but not for being creative. From this frame of reference only one person in the family can be the creative one and so on.
Stroking can be physical, verbal or nonverbal. It is likely that the great variety of stroke needs and styles present in the world results from differences in wealth, cultural mores, and methods of parenting.
THE STROKE ECONOMY
Claude Steiner suggests that, as children, we are all indoctrinated by our parents with five restrictive rules about stroking.
Don’t give strokes when we have them to give
Don’t ask for strokes when we need them
Don’t accept strokes if we want them
Don’t reject strokes when we don’t want them
Don’t give ourselves strokes
We therefore need to change the restrictive rules to unrestrictive ones:
Give strokes when we have them to give
Ask for strokes when we want them
Accept strokes if we want them
Reject manipulative strokes
Give ourselves positive strokes
ANALYSIS OF LIFE POSITION
Life positions are basic beliefs about self and others, which are used to justify decisions and behavior.
When we are conceived we are hopefully at peace, waiting to emerge into the world once we have grown sufficiently to be able to survive in the outside of the womb. If nothing untoward happens we will emerge contented and relaxed. In this case we are likely to perceive the world from the perspective of I am OK and You are OK.
However, perhaps our mother had some traumatic experiences, or the birth was difficult or even life threatening. This experience is likely to have an effect on the way we experience the world, even at the somatic level. In which case we might emerge sensing that life is scary and might, for example, go into “I am not OK and you are not OK either”.
There is also the way in which we view life itself. If we consider that there is something wrong with us, and that others are not to be trusted and are not OK either, then the world would be a scary place and we are likely to experience life as tough and believe we will only be all right if we keep alert and on the lookout for danger and difficulties.
10th APRIL 2012
Director of Marketing Department,
PETRONAS Filing Sdn. Bhd.
RE: PROPOSALS AND RECOMMENDATIONS ON THE CONCEPT OF TEAM AS WELL AS HOW AN EFFECTIVE TEAM IS BUILT AND MANAGED CONCEPT OF TEAM
As a team leader of which you were recently appointed as a new manager of the Marketing Department. He is required to make a report on how to manage an ineffective and unproductive team into an effective and productive team.
We need to the concept of team is a group of people with a full set of complementary skills required to complete a task, job, or project. A team becomes more than just a collection of people when a strong sense of mutual commitment creates synergy, thus generating performance greater than the sum of the performance of its individual members.
MANAGING AN EFFECTIVE TEAM
According to Frank LaFasto, when building an effective team, five dynamics are fundamental to team success.
1. The team member: Successful teams are made up of a collection of effective individuals. These are people who are experienced, have problem solving ability, are open to addressing the problem, and are action oriented.
2. Team relationships: For a team to be successful the members of the team must be able to give and receive feedback.
3. Team problem solving: An effective team depends on how focused and clear the goal of the team is. A relaxed, comfortable and accepting environment and finally, open and honest communication are required.
4. Team leadership: Effective team leadership depends on leadership competencies. A competent leader is: focused on the goal, ensures a collaborative climate, builds confidence of team members, sets priorities, demonstrates sufficient ‘know-how’ and manages performance through feedback.
5. Organizational environment: The climate and culture of the organization must be conducive to team behavior. Competitiveness should be discouraged and uniformity should be encouraged – this will eliminate conflict and discord among team members.
Base on the report, we understand the concept of team when others are unable to provide answers. So we are able identified the problems on how to building and managing an effective team. . I hope the management can take my recommendations into consideration.
Team Leader of Marketing Department
Petronas filing Sdn. Bhd.
CONCEPT OF CONFLICT
According to Stephen (1990:2010). Conflict management enhance creative problem solving, enabling people to turn conflict situations into constructive learning opportunities, developing creative and more appropriate solutions, preserving relationships, saving time and money, empowering people to resolve their own disputes and creations of more durable outcomes. In Pennsylvania (USA), for example, the concept of conflict management was employed by the Board of Central Rail Road to avert the negative impact of poor decisions of the company’s management.
PROCESS OF CONFLICT
1. Interpersonal processes can lead to self-fulfilling cycles of interaction, both positive and negative
2. Intrapersonal processes can lead to self-fulfilling cycles of thought and action, both positive and negative
3. Conflicts quickly escalate and become about the conflicts themselves, rather than the underlying issues
4. When pride has been damaged, people seek revenge and go beyond the optimal ‘tit for tat’
RESOLVING CONFLICT IN A TEAM
Here are some actions to taken in resolving conflict in a team in order to effectively deal with team conflict
1. Stop and cool off ‘ There is little point in trying to talk through the issues when both people are upset. Give it a little time and let tempers cool down. Come together when each party has achieved some sort of equilibrium.
2. Have everyone talk and listen to each other ‘ Make sure that nobody is hiding from the issue at hand. Keep everyone talking and expressing themselves honestly and openly.
3. Find out what everyone needs ‘ Sometimes these dialogues can focus on complaints rather than developing solutions. Determine what everyone needs from the situation and strive for a solution where everyone’s needs are met.
4. Brainstorm solutions ‘ Everyone will have their own vision of an ideal outcome for themselves. The challenge will be to avoid forcing our solutions on the conflict situation and allow solutions to emerge out of creative thinking on everyone’s part.
5. Choose the idea that everyone can live with ‘ One of the ways to break from a negative conflict cycle is to find solutions that you all feel are fair under the circumstances.
6. Create a plan and implement it ‘ To make sure that the conflict does not re-emerge, you must make a blueprint. Plan ways of working together that will keep emotional outbursts to a minimum.
A class of theories about why people do things seeks to reduce the number of factors down to one and explain all behavior through that one factor. For example, economics has been criticized for using self-interest as a mono-motivational theory. Mono-motivational theories are often criticized for being too reductive or too abstract.
A reward, tangible or intangible, is presented after the occurrence of an action (i.e. behavior) with the intention of causing the behavior to occur again. This is done by associating positive meaning to the behavior. Studies show that if the person receives the reward immediately, the effect is greater, and decreases as delay lengthens. Repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. Motivation comes from two sources: oneself, and other people. These two sources are called intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation, respectively. Conscious and unconscious motivations.
Conscious and unconscious motivations theory
A number of motivational theories emphasize the distinction between conscious and unconscious motivations. In evolutionary psychology, the “ultimate”, unconscious motivation may be a cold evolutionary calculation, the conscious motivation could be more benign or even positive emotions.
For example, while it may be in the best interest of a male’s genes to have multiple partners and thus break up with or divorce one before moving onto the next, the conscious rationalization could be, “I loved her at the time”.
Freud is associated with the idea that human beings have many unconscious motivations that cause them to make important decisions because of these unconscious forces, such as choosing a partner.
Since the early seventies Edward L. Deci and Richard M. Ryan have conducted research that eventually led to the proposition of the self-determination theory (SDT). This theory focuses on the degree to which an individual’s behavior is self-motivated and self-determined. SDT identifies three innate needs that, if satisfied, allow optimal function and growth: competence, relatedness and autonomy. These three psychological needs motivate the self to initiate specific behavior and mental nutriments that are essential for psychological health and well-being. When these needs are satisfied, there are positive consequences, such as well-being and growth, leading people to be motivated, productive and happy. When they are thwarted, people’s motivation, productivity and happiness plummet.
There are three essential elements to the theory:
1. Humans are inherently proactive with their potential and mastering their inner forces (such as drive and emotions).
2. Humans have an inherent tendency towards growth, development and integrated functioning.
3. Optimal development and actions are inherent in humans but they do not happen automatically.
Achievement motivation theory.
Achievement motivation is an integrative perspective based on the premise that performance motivation results from the way broad components of personality are directed towards performance. As a result, it includes a range of dimensions that are relevant to success at work but which are not conventionally regarded as being part of performance motivation. The emphasis on performance seeks to integrate formerly separate approaches as need for achievement with, for example, social motives like dominance. Personality is intimately tied to performance and achievement motivation, including such characteristics as tolerance for risk, fear of failure, and others.
Achievement motivation was studied intensively by David C. McClelland, John W. Atkinson and their colleagues since the early 1950s.Their research showed that business managers who were successful demonstrated a high need to achieve no matter the culture. There are three major characteristics of people who have a great need to achieve according to McClelland’s research.
1. They would prefer a work environment in which they are able to assume responsibility for solving problems.
2. They would take calculated risk and establish moderate, attainable goals.
3. They want to hear continuous recognition, as well as feedback, in order for them to know how well they are doing.
DIFFERENT WAYS AN EMPLOYEE MAY BE MOTIVATED
1. Support new ideas. When employees come to you with an idea or a solution to a problem they believe is for the betterment of the company, it’s a sign that they care. Supporting new ideas and giving an individual the chance to ‘run with it’ is motivating, whether or not it works out in the end.
2. Empower each individual. Every single individual contributes to the bottom line. Empowering them to excel in their role, no matter how large or small, creates a sense of ownership that will lead to meeting and exceeding expectations.
3. Don’t let them become bored. I get bored easily, so I assume my employees also have a short attention span. Host a cupcake bake-off, plan a happy hour, start a push-up contest in the middle of the office on a Wednesday, or allow a different person to run the weekly meetings to break up the monotony.
4. Acknowledge professional achievement. Everyone wants to be recognized. The acknowledgement of a job well done coming from upper management or the owner of the company will mean more to an employee than you think.
5. Listen. This is probably the easiest thing you can do for an employee; yet, it can also be the most difficult. Carving out some time each day to listen to anything from concerns to ideas will not only make your employees happy, it will also provide you with much-needed insight on your business from the people who help keep it running.
6. Encourage friendly competition. A competitive environment is a productive environment. Encouraging employees to participate in competitions or challenges is healthy and may actually lead to increased camaraderie.
7. Allow pets at work. My two dogs come to the office every day, and all of my employees are welcome to bring their pets to work. Pets make people happy and bring a sense of companionship to the office.
8. Reward accomplishments. When a pat on the back or a high five just won’t do, monetary incentives always seem to hit the spot.
9. Create attainable goals. Setting goals are important, but ensuring they aren’t set too loftily by the employer or employee will help determine whether or not the goal is achieved come year-end evaluations.
10. Encourage individuality. Everyone is different. Encouraging individual personalities to shine through will not only help create a diverse and dynamic culture, it will also foster an open and accepting work environment. We have a lot of characters here at JBC ‘ the more the merrier.
Base on the study the portfolio has me gain more experience and has helped me to develop a better understanding of all the tasks and how to apply it the organization. The last task is a presentation of report on multifaceted impact of the concept of motivation upon efficient organizational objectives
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